Matching: Use the key below to answer questions 1 - 8. Answers may be used more than once.

A. Bryophyta (mosses) 
B. Angiosperms (Flowering Plants)
C. Coniferophyta (pines) 
D. Pteridophyta (ferns)
E. None of the above

A  1. Which of the following groups of plants has the gametophyte as the dominant stage in the life cycle?
B  2. Which of the following produces seeds and has two sperm in the pollen grain that engage in double fertilization?
C  3. Which of the following is a seed plant that produces food for the seed before fertilization?
E  4. Which group of plants has seeds and a free-living female gametophyte?
D  5. Which of the following has both free-living gametophytes and sporophytes?
B  6. Which of the following possesses fruits and vessels in the xylem?
A  7. Which group of plants lacks vascular tissue?
B  8. Which of the following has its pollen carried primarily by insects?

9. Which of the following statements about sporophytes is FALSE?
A. Sporophytes are diploid
B. Meiosis occurs in the sporophyte
C. Gametes are produced by the sporophyte and released in spores
D. Sporophytes are the dominant stage of the life cycle in angiosperms
E. All of the above statements about sporophytes are TRUE

Gametes are produced by the gametophytes - spores are produced, via meiosis, in the sporangia of the sporophyte

10. Which of the following statements about the fern life-cycle is FALSE?
A. When you go out in the woods and see a fern, you are looking at the sporophyte
B. The gametophyte is small and depends upon the sporophyte for food
C. Numerous spores are produced in the sporangia, usually located under the leaves
D. Ferns gametophytes are small, heart-shaped plants that contain antherida and/or archegonia
E. All of the above statements about the fern life-cycle are TRUE

The gametophyte is free-living, so it makes its own food

11. Which of the following statements about Bryophytes is FALSE?
A. The archengonia produces the sperm and the antheridia produce the eggs
B. Water must be present for the sperm to swim to the egg
C. Byrophytes are known as the “amphibians of the plant world” 
D. Bryophytes do not possess xylem vessels
E. All of the above statements about Bryophytes are TRUE

Sperm are produced in the antheridia, eggs are produced in the archegonia

12. Which of the following characteristics would you NOT expect to find on a dicot?
A. A taproot with the xylem centrally located and in the shape of an “X”
B. Leaves with pinnate venation
C. Scattered vascular bundles
D. Flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5
E. Vascular cambium

Scattered vascular bundles is a characteristic of monocots

13. Which of the following characteristics is not unique to angiosperms?
A. Double Fertilization 
B. Seeds 
C. Fruits 
D. Flowers 
E. All of the above characteristics are unique to angiosperms

Seeds are produced by Pines, Cycads, Ginkgo, and Angiosperms

14. Place the following groups of plants in evolutionary order starting with the most primitive:
A. Ferns, Mosses, Flowering Plants, Pines
B. Flowering Plants, Pines, Ferns, Mosses
C. Mosses, Pines, Flowering Plants, Ferns
D. Mosses, Ferns, Pines, Flowering Plants

Matching - Match the floral organ on the right with the appropriate function on the left. Answers may be used once, more than once, or not at all

A. Sepal
B. Petal
C. Anther
D. Ovary
E. Ovule

C  15. Produces the pollen 
A  16. Protects the flower in the bud 
17. Becomes the fruit 
18. Contains only one egg sac 

19. A flower is very small, colorless, lacks sepals and petals, and has long, droopy stigmas and anthers. This flower is most likely:
A. Dead 
B. Beetle Pollinated
C. Fly Pollinated 
D. Bird Pollinated
E. Wind Pollinated

I discussed this in lecture and made reference to the lab material that you observed

20. Where is the male gametophyte in a Gymnosperm (Pine tree)?
A. A small, heart-shaped, free-living plant
B. The anther
C. The pollen
D. The cone scale
E. None of the above

21. Which of the following is NOT a function of the roots?
A. Support 
B. Water Absorption
C. Food Storage 
D. Sexual Reproduction
E. All of the above are functions of the roots

Thankfully, over 99% of the class got this question correct

22. The fibers that surround the vascular bundles in a monocot are an example of what type of plant cell?
A. Parenchyma 
B. Collenchyma
C. Schlerenchyma 
D. Xylem
E. Phloem

23. Which of the following cell types has a support function?
A. Collenchyma 
B. Schlerenchyma
C. Xylem 
D. A & B
E. A, B, & C 

When xylem no longer functions in water transport, it functions to support the plant

24. Which of the following cells are living at functional maturity (choose the best answer)?
A. Parenchyma 
B. Collenchyma & Parenchyma
C. Xylem & Phloem 
D. Parenchyma, Collenchyma, & Phloem
E. Parenchyma, Collenchyma, Xylem & Phloem

25. Which of the following would you NOT expect to find in a monocot?
A. Flowers 
B. Secondary Xylem
C. Vascular Bundles 
D. Apical Meristem
E. Pericycle

Monocots lack a vascular cambium, so they do not produce secondary xylem

26. When water enters the root on its way to the xylem, we can be sure that it will cross through the plasma membrane of which plant tissue(s)? 
A. Epidermis 
B. Cortex
C. Endodermis 
D. Epidermis & Endodermis
E. Epidermis, Endodermis & Xylem

The endodermis contains the Casparian Strip, so this forces water to pass through the plasma membrane of the endodermis

27. The bark of a tree contains the phloem
A. True 
B. False

28. In which portion of a growing root would you find the most rapid cell cycle?
A. Zone of Mitosis 
B. Zone of Cell Division
C. Zone of Elongation 
D. Zone of Maturation
E. None of the above

29. What is the function of the pericycle?
A. Storage 
B. Production of the Casparian Strip
C. Formation of the Phloem 
D. Root Branch Origin
E. None of the above

30. From where do branches originate in dicot stems?
A. Axillary (bud) meristems 
B. The pericycle
C. The vascular cambium 
D. Under the leaves
E. None of the above

31. A root has an epidermal layer, cortex, endodermis, pericycle, xylem and phloem. This root is a:
A. Dicot 
B. Monocot 
C. Not enough information to tell 

Both dicots and monocots have all of these tissues, so you cannot make a distinction based on this information

32. Which of the following has the highest s?
A. Pure water 
B. A 10% sucrose solution
C. Sea water 
D. Phloem sap
E. Xylem sap

Pure water has a s of zero, everything else has a  s less than zero.

33. Which of the following statements about apoplastic movement of water is FALSE?
A. Apoplastic movement of water has more resistance to flow than symplastic movement of water
B. Apoplastic movement of water is faster than symplastic movement
C. Apoplastic movement of water is between the cell walls, not through the plasma membrane 
D. The Casparian Strip prevents apoplastic movement of water 
E. All of the above statements about the apoplastic movement of water are TRUE

Apoplastic  movement of water has less resistance than symplastic movement of water

34. Which of the following is NOT an adaptation for living in a xeric (dry) habitat?
A. Thin cuticles 
B. Sunken stomates
C. Leaves reduced to needles 
D. Hairy leaves
E. All of the above are adaptations for living in a xeric (dry) habitat 

Desert plants have thick cuticles (scrape your fingernail along the stem of a cactus, it is quite waxy)

35. Which of the following plant would you expect to have the greatest transpiration to photosynthesis ratio?
A. A C4 grass 
B. A water lily 
C. A cactus 

I talked about this in class - among the C3 plants, water plants have a high transpiration to photosynthetic ratio because they live in water, so losing water to evaporation is not a problem

36. A plant placed in total darkness will open and close its stomates in the morning, just like a plant in the sun.
A. True 
B. False

This is because of the circadian rhythm - see 37D below

37. Which of the following statements about stomates is FALSE? 
A. Stomatal opening and closing is the function of the guard cells
B. When the stomates are open, the internal concentration of K+ is high
C. Stomatal opening is triggered by light
D. Stomatal opening is also tied to a 24 hour cycle (a circadian rhythm)
E. All of the above statements about stomates are TRUE 

38. Which of the following statements about sucrose loading and transport is FALSE? 
A. Sucrose is produced in the mesophyll cells and travels via the symplast to the sieve-tube member
B. Sucrose is loaded into the phloem via an ATP- powered H+/sucrose symport
C. The water potential in the sieve-tube element is higher than in the surrounding cells
D. All of the above statements about sucrose loading and transport are TRUE 

Water potential in the sieve-tube element is lower than in the surrounding cells

39. Which of the following statements of the Transpiration-Cohesion-Tension model of xylem sap transport it FALSE?
A. Water molecules are polar and adhere to the walls of the xylem
B. Evaporation of water in the air space of the spongy mesophyll provides a “pull force” on the water
C. The polar nature of water actually transfers the evaporative pull force down the xylem 
D. The flow of xylem is upwards as well as downwards
E. All of the above statements of the Transpiration-Cohesion-Tension model of xylem sap transport are TRUE

Water flow of the xylem is only upwards

40. Translocation is from sink to source
A. True 
B. False 

Source to Sink

41. During translocation from a leaf to the roots, the sucrose is actively pumped from sieve-tube element to sieve-tube element. This causes the water potential to change and water will also move down to the root.
A. True 
B. False

Sucrose is NOT actively pumped from sieve-tube element to sieve-tube element - it is passively carried by the water moving in the phloem

42. What is the purpose of a long style in angiosperms?
A. It prevents insects from feeding on the ovules
B. It makes the sperm compete in a race to reach the egg
C. It is evolutionary baggage - plants with shorter styles are actually more adaptive
D. It places the anthers at a specific height to better allow pollen release.

43. Regarding levels of O2, which set of numbers is most realistic?
        Air : Lung : Veins
A. 100 : 45 : 40
B. 150 : 40 : 45
C. 150 : 100 : 40
D.  0 : 40 : 45

44. What amount of blood goes to the lungs every minute?
A. 2.5 Liters/min 
B. 500 milliliters/min
C. 5 Liters/min 
D. 1.5 Liters/min

45. What amount of air is ventilated every minute?
A. 2.5 Liters/min 
B. 500 milliliters/min
C. 5 Liters/min 
D. 1.5 Liters/min

46. Which blood vessels have the thickest walls and most elastin protein?
A. arteries 
B. veins
C. capillaries 
D. glomeruli

47. What is the prime method for carrying CO2 in the blood from the active cells to the lung?
A. dissolved in plasma
B. combined with the Hemoglobin molecule
C. converted to bicarbonate by carbonic anhydrase enzyme
D. attached to oxygen molecules

48. Which circulation has blood pressures ranging from 80 mmHg to 120 mmHg?
A. left side of heart (systemic circulation) 
B. right side of heart (pulmonary circulation)
C. capillary beds
D. gut (portal circulation from G.I. to liver)

49. How many oxygen molecules are carried by a Hemoglobin molecule, if PO2 is about 90 to 100 mmHg?
A. 1 
B. 2 
C. 3 
D. 4

50. If hemoglobin is surrounded by higher levels of carbon dioxide (than it was previously), it will:
A. pick up extra oxygen 
B. unload some of the oxygen it is carrying
C. not change its oxygen carrying capacity

This is the Bohr effect (a.k.a. the Bohr shift)

EXTRACREDIT EXTRACREDIT EXTRACREDIT EXTRACREDIT EXTRACREDIT EXTRA

51. Which of the following foods is most similar in appearance to the body plan of a fungi?
A. Beef (a solid block of tissue) 
B. Lettuce (a thin, leaf-like sheet of tissue)
C. Jello (a gelatinous mass) 
D. Spaghetti (lots of little tubes)
E. Cereal (hard crunchy bits floating in a mass of liquid)

On top of spaghetti, all covered with cheese, I lost my poor meatball, when somebody sneezed...

52. Plants with mycorrhizal fungi infecting their roots grow more slowly than those plants without mycorrhizal associations.
A. True 
B. False

Mycorrhizal fungi are a plant's friend, really