The basic circulatory patterns of blood flow in a mammal.
Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from heart.
Structure of an artery.
Arterioles are small arteries that connect larger arteries with capillaries. Small arterioles branch into collections of capillaries known as capillary beds.
Capillaries are thin-walled blood vessels in which gas exchange occurs.
The circulatory system functions in the delivery of oxygen, nutrient molecules, and hormones and the removal of carbon dioxide, ammonia and other metabolic wastes.
Blood leaving the capillary beds flows into a progressively larger series of venules that in turn join to form veins
Venules are smaller veins that gather blood from capillary beds into veins. Pressure in veins is low, so veins depend on nearby muscular contractions to move blood along.
Veins carry blood from capillaries to the heart.
Structure of a vein (top) and the actions of muscles to propel blood through the veins.
As blood gets farther from the heart, the pressure likewise decreases. Each contraction of the ventricles sends pressure through the arteries. Elasticity of lungs helps keep pulmonary pressures low.
The human heart is a two-sided, 4 chambered structure with muscular walls.
The heart beats or contracts 70 times per minute. The human heart will undergo over 3 billion contraction cycles during a normal lifetime.
The cardiac cycle consists of two parts: systole (contraction of the heart muscle) and diastole (relaxation of the heart muscle).
The cardiac cycle.
Diastole is the filling of the ventricles with blood. Ventricular systole opens the SL valves, forcing blood out of the ventricles through the pulmonary artery or aorta. The sound of the heart contracting and the valves opening and closing produces a characteristic "lub-dub" sound. Lub is associated with closure of the AV valves, dub is the closing of the SL valves.
An electrocardiogram (EKG) measures changes in electrical potential
across the heart, and can detect the contraction pulses that pass over the
surface of the heart. There are three slow, negative changes, known as P, R, and
T. Positive deflections are the Q and S waves. The P wave represents the
contraction impulse of the atria, the T wave the ventricular contraction. EKGs
are useful in diagnosing heart abnormalities.
Blockage of coronary arteries is usually the result of gradual buildup of lipids and cholesterol in the inner wall of the coronary artery. Occasional chest pain, angina pectoralis, can result during periods of stress or physical exertion. Angina indicates oxygen demands are greater than capacity to deliver it and that a heart attack may occur in the future. Heart muscle cells that die are not replaced: heart muscle cells do not divide. Heart disease and coronary artery disease are the leading causes of death in the US.
Development of arterial plaque.
Hypertension, high blood pressure (the silent killer), occurs when blood pressure is consistently above 140/90. Causes in most cases are unknown, although stress, obesity, high salt intake, and smoking can add to a genetic predisposition.
Red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, are flattened, doubly concave cells about 7 Ám in diameter that carry oxygen associated in the cell's hemoglobin. Mature erythrocytes lack a nucleus. They are small, 4 to 6 million cells per cubic millimeter of blood, and have 200 million hemoglobin molecules per cell. Humans have a total of 25 trillion (about 1/3 of all the cells in the body). Red blood cells are continuously manufactured in red marrow of long bones, ribs, skull, and vertebrae. Life span of an erythrocyte is only 120 days, after which they are destroyed in liver and spleen. Iron from hemoglobin is recovered and reused by red marrow. The liver degrades the heme units and secretes them as pigment in the bile, responsible for the color of feces. Each second 2 million red blood cells are produced to replace those taken out of circulation.
White blood cells, also known as leukocytes, are larger than erythrocytes, have a nucleus, and lack hemoglobin. They function in the cellular immune response. White blood cells (leukocytes) are less than 1% of the blood's volume. They are made from stem cells in bone marrow. There are five types of leukocytes, important components of the immune system.
Cellular respiration involves the breakdown of organic molecules to produce ATP. A sufficient supply of oxygen is required for the aerobic respiratory machinery of Krebs Cycle and the Electron Transport System to efficiently convert stored organic energy into energy trapped in ATP. Carbon dioxide is also generated by cellular metabolism and must be removed from the cell. There must be an exchange of gases: carbon dioxide leaving the cell, oxygen entering. Animals have organ systems involved in facilitating this exchange as well as the transport of gases to and from exchange areas.
Respiratory System Principles
This system includes the lungs, pathways connecting them to the outside environment, and structures in the chest involved with moving air in and out of the lungs.
The human respiratory system.
Air enters the body through the nose, is warmed, filtered, and passed through the nasal cavity. Air passes the pharynx (which has the epiglottis that prevents food from entering the trachea. The upper part of the trachea contains the larynx. The vocal cords are two bands of tissue that extend across the opening of the larynx. After passing the larynx, the air moves into the bronchi that carry air in and out of the lungs.
Bronchi are reinforced to prevent their collapse and are lined with ciliated epithelium and mucus-producing cells. Bronchi branch into smaller and smaller tubes known as bronchioles. Bronchioles terminate in grape-like sac clusters known as alveoli. Alveoli are surrounded by a network of thin-walled capillaries. Only about 0.2 Ám separate the alveoli from the capillaries due to the extremely thin walls of both structures.
Gas exchange across capillary and alveolus walls.
The lungs are large, lobed, paired organs in the chest (also known as the thoracic cavity). Thin sheets of epithelium (pleura) separate the inside of the chest cavity from the outer surface of the lungs. The bottom of the thoracic cavity is formed by the diaphragm.
Ventilation is the mechanics of breathing in and out. When you inhale, muscles in the chest wall contract, lifting the ribs and pulling them, outward. The diaphragm at this time moves downward enlarging the chest cavity. Reduced air pressure in the lungs causes air to enter the lungs. Exhaling reverses theses steps.
Inhalation and exhalation
Respiratory pigments increase the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Humans have the red-colored pigment hemoglobin as their respiratory pigment. Hemoglobin increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood between 65 and 70 times. Each red blood cell has about 250 million hemoglobin molecules, and each milliliter of blood contains 1.25 X 1015 hemoglobin molecules. Oxygen concentration in cells is low (when leaving the lungs blood is 97% saturated with oxygen), so oxygen diffuses from the blood to the cells when it reaches the capillaries.
Effectiveness of various oxygen carrying molecules.
Carbon dioxide concentration in metabolically active cells is much greater than in capillaries, so carbon dioxide diffuses from the cells into the capillaries. About 7% of the CO2 directly dissolves in the plasma. Another 23% binds to the amino groups in hemoglobin. The remaining 70% is transported in the blood as bicarbonate ion. Water in the blood combines with carbon dioxide to form bicarbonate ions. Red blood cells possess and enzyme called carbonic anhydrase which catalyzes this reaction. This removes the carbon dioxide from the blood so diffusion of even more carbon dioxide from the cells into the capillaries continues yet still manages to "package" the carbon dioxide for eventual passage out of the body.
In the alveoli capillaries, bicarbonate combines with a hydrogen ion (proton) to form carbonic acid, which breaks down into carbon dioxide and water. The carbon dioxide then diffuses into the alveoli and out of the body with the next exhalation.
Details of Gas Exchange
Animals are heterotrophs, they must absorb nutrients or ingest food sources.
There are two types of plans and two locations of digestion.
The human digestive system
In the mouth, teeth, jaws and the tongue begin the mechanical breakdown of food into smaller particles. Most vertebrates, except birds (who have lost their teeth to a hardened bill), have teeth for tearing, grinding and chewing food. The tongue manipulates food during chewing and swallowing; mammals have taste buds clustered on their tongues.
Salivary glands secrete salivary amylase, an enzyme that begins the breakdown of starch into glucose. Mucus moistens food and lubricates the esophagus. Bicarbonate ions in saliva neutralize the acids in foods.
Swallowing moves food from the mouth through the pharynx into the esophagus and then to the stomach.
Epithelial cells line inner surface of the stomach, and secrete about 2 liters of gastric juices per day. Gastric juice contains hydrochloric acid, pepsinogen, and mucus; ingredients important in digestion. The stomach secretes hydrochloric acid and pepsin.
Alcohol and aspirin are absorbed through the stomach lining into the blood.
Epithelial cells secrete mucus that forms a protective barrier between the cells and the stomach acids. Pepsin is inactivated when it comes into contact with the mucus. Bicarbonate ions reduce acidity near the cells lining the stomach. Tight junctions link the epithelial stomach-lining cells together, further reducing or preventing stomach acids from passing.
Peptic ulcers result when these protective mechanisms fail. Bleeding ulcers result when tissue damage is so severe that bleeding occurs into the stomach. Perforated ulcers are life-threatening situations where a hole has formed in the stomach wall. At least 90% of all peptic ulcers are caused by Helicobacter pylori. Other factors, including stress and aspirin, can also produce ulcers.
The small intestine is the major site for digestion and absorption of nutrients. The upper part, the duodenum, is the most active in digestion. Secretions from the liver and pancreas are used for digestion in the duodenum. Epithelial cells of the duodenum secrete a watery mucus. The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes and stomach acid neutralizing bicarbonate. The liver produces bile, which is stored in the gall bladder before entering the bile duct into the duodenum.
Digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats continues in the small intestine. Starch and glycogen are broken down into maltose. Proteases (enzymes secreted from the pancreas) continue the breakdown of protein into small peptide fragments and some amino acids.
Bile emulsifies fats, facilitating their breakdown into progressively smaller fat globules until they can be acted upon by lipases. Bile contains cholesterol, phospholipids, bilirubin, and a mix of salts. Fats are completely digested in the small intestine, unlike carbohydrates and proteins.
Most absorption occurs in the duodenum and jejeunum (second third of the small intestine). The inner surface of the intestine has circular folds that more than triple the surface area for absorption. Villi covered with epithelial cells increase the surface area by another factor of 10. The epithelial cells are lined with microvilli that further increase the surface area; a 6 meter long tube has a surface area of 300 square meters.
Each villus has a surface that is adjacent to the inside of the small intestinal opening covered in microvilli that form on top of an epithelial cell known as a brush border. Each villus has a capillary network supplied by a small arteriole. Absorbed substances pass through the brush border into the capillary, usually by passive transport.
Maltose, sucrose, and lactose are the main carbohydrates present in the small intestine; they are absorbed by the microvilli. Starch is broken down into two-glucose units (maltose) elsewhere. Enzymes in the cells convert these disaccharides into monosaccharides that then leave the cell and enter the capillary. Lactose intolerance results from the genetic lack of the enzyme lactase produced by the intestinal cells.
Digested fats are not very soluble. Bile salts surround fats to form micelles that can pass into the epithelial cells. The bile salts return to the lumen to repeat the process. Fat digestion is usually completed by the time the food reaches the ileum (lower third) of the small intestine. Bile salts are in turn absorbed in the ileum and are recycled by the liver and gall bladder. Fats pass from the epithelial cells to the small lymph vessel that also runs through the villus.
Secretions in the large intestine are an alkaline mucus that protects epithelial tissues and neutralizes acids produced by bacterial metabolism. Water, salts, and vitamins are absorbed, the remaining contents in the lumen form feces (mostly cellulose, bacteria, bilirubin). Bacteria in the large intestine, such as E. coli, produce vitamins (including vitamin K) that are absorbed.
Macronutrients are foods required on a large scale each day. These include carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. Water is essential, correct water balance is a must for proper functioning of the body.
About 60% of the diet should be carbohydrates, such as are in milk, meat, vegetables, grains and grain products. The diet should contain at least 100 grams of carbohydrate every day.
Proteins are polymers composed of amino acids. Proteins are found in meat, milk, poultry, fish, cereal grains and beans. They are needed for cellular growth and repair. Twenty amino acids are found in proteins, of which humans can make eleven. The remaining nine are the essential amino acids which must be supplied in the diet. Normally proteins are not used for energy, however during starvation muscle proteins are broken down for energy. Excess protein can be used for energy or converted to fats.
Lipids and fats generate the greatest energy yield, so many plants and animals store energy as fats. Lipids and fats are present in oils, meats, butter, and plants (such as avocado and peanuts). Some fatty acids, such as linoleic acid, are essential and must be included in the diet. When present in the intestine, lipids promote the uptake of vitamins A, D, E, and K.
Vitamins are organic molecules required for metabolic reactions. They usually cannot be made by the body and are needed in trace amounts. Vitamins may act as enzyme cofactors or coenzymes. Some vitamins are soluble in fats, some in water.
Minerals are trace elements required for normal metabolism, as components of cells and tissues, and for nerve conduction and muscle contraction. They can only be obtained from the diet. Iron (for hemoglobin), iodine (for thyroxin), calcium (for bones), and sodium (nerve message transmission) are examples of minerals.
There is a quantitative relationship between nutrients and health. Imbalances can cause disease. Many studies have concluded nutrition is a major factor in cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and cancer.