Scales, distributions, variance, the normal distribution
- Using numbers to represent “reality”:
- Key role in science
- Problems and potential political biases.
- Types of numbers:
- Scales: ratio, interval, ordinal, categorical
- Frequencies, frequency distributions
- Characterizing trends in data:
- measures of central tendency; mean (M), mode, median.
- measures of variance: range and standard deviation
- The Normal distribution & statistical decisions
- The critical ratio and hypothesis testing.
Understand all the italicized terms: they will be crucial to the entire statistics section.
The properties of the normal distribution in particular are central to this section.
The lecture notes are here.
Suggested background reading: Your basic statistics chapter(s).
Introduction to statistics.
Z and the Normal Distribution.
Testing hypotheses; the critical ratio.
For lecture & Discussion Group:
Chapter 4 (or the basic statistics chapter) of your text.
These are the data you will be using for your paper. You can make up data if you like - or use real data - but keep it as simple as this.
Get a jump on the t-test you have due for next week (and to complete your paper) by going to the assignment for next week and begin working on it now.
Take these data and follow the instructions for this week.
Basic frequency distributions.