Formulating research questions
Lecture notesThis week we go to the basic features of a scientific question. We will spend most of the time discussing where research questions come from, and some key terms:
- The Phenomenon -- the larger topic of study, the empirical question that underlies the research.
- Theory: a proposition about what causes the phenomenon. A theory links two hypothetical constructs or abstract psychological processes.
- The Hypothesis: a
testable prediction that describes of relation between two variables derived
from the theory,
each of which can be operationally
- Hypothetical construct
- Operational definition
- Internal & external validity
- Independent v. Dependent variables
- Measurement v. experimental studies
Text: Developing the Hypothesis (creating hypotheses, begining research) and Testing the Hypothesis: A Conceptual Introduction.Readings:
- First, two interesting readings from paleontology showing how even very skimpy data can dramatically change our theories of human evolution.
- The third describes die-hard attempts to produce "fusion energy", and shows how hard it can be to discard bad theories when there is a lot of wishful thinking in support of the theory.
Analyze a journal article
For this week you will describe the core parts of a journal article using the “research flow” from lecture. I have provided two for you to choose from, but you can use any article that reports an experiment. Both are from the same French research group, investigating alcohol use and aggression.
- The first examines whether drinking leads to assumptions that themselves may lead to agression.
- The second investigates whether subliminal alcohol cues can induce aggression, even in people who are not drinking.
Read the guide to research articles first – it will show you how to efficiently find the key parts of an article, and will help a lot with this assignment and your paper.
You may also find any other published article in a psychology journal. Find instructions on how to use the web to find your own article (which you will have to to for your paper eventually) below and in the guide to research articles.
You will find that these and other journal articles test several hypotheses, and may analyze multiple variables. For this assignment pick one hypothesis from one article to analyze: keep it simple!!
Read the paper, and answer the following, using no more than one typed page:
- What is the Phenomenon being addressed?
- Very briefly, what is the Theory?
- What was the hypothesis tested by the study?
- Was the hypothesis supported by the data?
- What conclusions can we reach about larger phenomenon from this study?
- What other research might be useful to clarify the phenomenon?
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