Piaget
cognitive equilibrium - balance between one's thought processes and the environment

schemas - an organized pattern of thought or action that one constructs to interpret some aspect of one's experience

operations - schema based on internal meantl activities

Organization - combine existing schemes into new more complex intellectual structures
    adaption - tendency to adjust demands of the environment
    assimilation - incorporate new experiences into existing schemes
    accommodation - modifying existing schemes to incorporate/adapt to new experiences
 
Stages of Development
- 4 stages - sensorimotor
                - preoperational
                - concrete operational,
                - formal operational
- invariant sequence
- qualitative changes in cognitive functioning
- large amount of individual differences in terms of age a child enters and exits stages
- age ranges listed are simply rough approximations of the norm

Transitions -
sensorimotor - start with reflexes
                    - develop imitative behaviors
                    - development of object permanence
                    - development of symbolic knowledge
preoperational - starts with symbolic knowledge
                      - language increases
                      - pretend play
                      - egocentric
                      - class inclusion (hierarchies)
                      - failure to conserve
                      - failure to understand reversibility
concrete operational - learn conservation tasks
                    - cause-effect relationships with concrete object
                    - decrease in egocentrism
                    - understand reversibility
                    - failure to understand abstractions
formal operational - learn to think abstractly
                    - hypothetico-deductive reasoning
 
Sensorimotor Stage
- Learning occurs through motor activity and sensory experiences
- Substages show a general progression from use of reflexes to repetition of reflexes that produce pleasure incorporation of behavior with the environment that become more complex (exact repetition, similar repetition, symbolic thought)
    - reflexes (0-1 month)
        - innate, behaviors that babies are born with
    - primary circular reactions (1-4 months)
        - centered on own body
        - bring reflexes under control and repeat behaviors that bring pleasure (sucking thumb, making noises)
    - secondary circular reactions (4-8 months)
        - outside ones body
        - hitting or kick things to get them to make noise
    - coordination of secondary schemes (8-12 months)
        - coordinate 2 or more actions to achieve simple objective
    - tertiary circular reactions (12-18 months)
        - devises new methods of acting on objects to reproduce interesting results
    - inventing new means by mental combination (18-24 months)
        - inner experimentation - solve simple problems on mental or symbolic level without having to rely on trial and error
 
Imitation
- 8-12 months child begins to imitate novel responses
Shows evidence of intentionality
(Patty-Cake, Peek-A-Boo)
- 18-24 months child will reproduce behavior in the absence of a model
(Deferred Imitation)
Can construct mental symbols

Object Permanence
- concept that objects exist even when out of sight
- emerge late in 1st yr of life
- fully developed until 2nd yr of life
- Tested through the A not B task
    - 1-4 months
        will not look for covered object
    - 4-8 months
        will uncover partially covered object
    - 8-12 months
        will uncover completely covered object in a single position
        will uncover initial placement even when object was moved to location B in sight of the child
- 12-18 months
    will look in position B when displacement is done in the sight of the child
- 18-24 months
    will find the object even when displacement is done when child is not looking
 
Transition from Sensorimotor stage to Preoperational Stage is the development of Symbolic Thought which is demonstrated by the use of language and the development of the object concept

Preoperational Stage - 2-7 years of age
Symbolic functioning is demonstrated by the use of language/pretend play

Deloache - Scale Model Experiment
- Child is shown in a model where a toy Snoopy doll is hidden in that actual room.
- Child is asked to find the doll in the real room (retrieval 1)
- Child is asked to find the doll in the model (retrieval 2)
    - 2½ - child lacks dual representation
    - can find the doll in the model but not in the real room
    - 3 - child can use the model to represent the real room and can find the doll in both the model and the real room

    - If task is changed so that a picture is shown to the child of where the doll is in the real room (instead of the model),
        - 2½ - Child will find doll in model
        - 2 - Child will not find doll in model

Preconceptual Reasoning
- Animism - attributing lifelike properties to inanimate objects
- Precausal/transductive reasoning - if 2 events occur at the same time, the child will assume that one event causes the other
- Egocentrism - view world from own perspective and assumes everyone shares their
perspective
    - difficulty taking other's perspective
    - 3 mountain task
        3-4 year olds report that others see what they see
        6-9 year olds begin to realize doll's perspective is different but difficulty determining what the doll would see
        9-10 year olds can determine doll's perspective accurately

Classification: the way and the ability of a child to group objects
- Perceptual based grouping
    - grouped together because they look alike (color)
- Thematic Relation
    -grouped together because they often function together or complement each other (Doctor-Nurse, Cereal-Spoon)
- Taxonomic grouping
    - grouped together because they share a common higher order grouping
     - requires grouping based on an abstract principle (fruits - apple, pear, orange)

Early Classification - end of 1st year group on a Perceptual level
- 14 months can identify items of a common context Thematic
- 2 yrs of age match on both Thematic and Taxonomic
- Preschoolers (4 years)- tendency to use horizontal relations in Taxonomic classification
- School-aged (7 years) - tendency to use vertical relations in Taxonomic classification

Class Inclusion -
- A child is shown 10 wooden beads (7 painted red and 3 painted blue)
- child is asked if all are wooden beads - child correctly report yes
- child is asked if there are more red beads or white beads- child correctly reports red
- child is asked if there are more red beads or wooden beads- incorrectly reports red
- not until the end of this stage that child learns to use subordinate and superordinate classifications to solve problem correctly 

Conservation - lack of ability to conserve
- Centration - focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others
- Irreversibility
- State vs Transformation
- Appearance vs Reality
    - young children (3 year olds) will report what the object appears to be
    - have difficult understanding how object can be something other than what it appears to be
    - older children (6 year olds) will report what the object really is and that it only appears to be something different
 
Transition from Preoperational Stage to Concrete Operational Stage is the development of Logical Thought which is demonstrated by the ability to conserve - understanding of concepts of reversibility, ...

Concrete Operational Stage - ages 7-11
Children in this stage demonstrate logical thought evidenced by their ability to perform the conservation tasks however, they lack the use of abstract thought.

Conservation Tasks - can decenter and focus on 2 aspects of the problem
- can display reversibility

Horizontal Decalage- idea that there is a progression through which children are able to successfully complete the conservation tasks (different ages for different tasks)

Relational Logic -
Seriation
Classification - subordinate and superordinate levels
Transitive Inferences A>B and B>C then A>C
 
Transition from Concrete Operational to the Formal Operational Stage is the development of Abstract Thought which is demonstrated by the use of deductive reasoning and abstract concepts
 
Formal Operational Stage (11+)

Children begin to think abstractly, can imagine how things would work in a hypothetical world.

Mental activities are performed on ideas and propositions (no longer need concrete objects)
- Hypothetical reasoning
- Deductive reasoning
- Generation of hypotheses
- Scientific Thinking
    - Pendulum problem - vary 1 factor at a time to solve problem
2 types of egocentrism still seen
- imaginary audience
- personal fable
Counters to Piaget
Object Permanence
     - Rene Baillargeon
     - Adele Diamond
Conservation tasks -
    - language
 

Contributions of Piaget
    - founded cognitive development
    - children are active explorer of their environment
    - explained the process of development
    - provide a broad sequence of development

Challenges
    - underestimate developing minds
    - competence vs performance
    - too little atention to social and cultural influences

Vygotsky

Children are born with elementary functions
- attention
- sensation
- perception
- memory

Elementary functions get transformed into higher mental functions through experience and interactions with people (adults and children) who are more advanced.
 
Zone of Proximal Development
- the difference between what a child learner can accomplish independently and what s/he can accomplish with guidance and encouragement of a more skilled partner
 
Scaffolding
Guided Participation

Comparisons between Piaget and Vygotsky

Piaget
- Cognitive Development is mostly universal
- children pass through stages
- Cognitive development stems from independent exploration
- Child is active participant in learning process

Vygotsky -
- Cognitive Development varies across cultures
- Cognitive growth stems from social interactions
- Child is active participant in learning process

Piaget on Education
- Tailor education to child's readiness to learn
- Be sensitive to individual differences
- Promote discovery-based education

Vygotsky on Education
- Cooperative Learning tasks
- peer tutoring

Piaget on Language
- words are symbols used to represent objects
- language displays what the child knows
- language follows cognitive development
- through pretend play and egocentric speech, children learn effective communication

Vygotsky on Language
- language is a social process
- children will talk to themselves more as they try to solve problems
    - this tends to lead to clues from more advanced learners
    - as child learns the skills, speech becomes more private
    - eventually becoming inner speech