Three basic memory processes:
     Encoding   putting info into memory
     Storage   maintaining info in memory
     Retrieval   getting info out of memory

What is forgetting?
     Failure to remember

The Forgetting Curve (Ebbinghaus)
Why does forgetting happen?
     Failure to encode
                    "We must never underestimate one of the most
          obvious reasons for forgetting, namely, that the
          information was never stored in the first place" Loftus

     Failure during storage
          memory loss
               Memories fade like newspaper ink
                              Older memories should always be less
               memorable than new memories

     Failures during retrieval
          loss of access to information that is there
          availability vs. accessibility
          interference (failure to make effective retrieval cue)
          encoding specificity
          Tip of the tongue effects
               Access to partial information
               Feeling of knowing

	"The signs of it are unmistakable.  He appeared to be in mild
	torment, something like on the brink of a sneeze..."

	"Suppose we try to recall a forgotten name... sometimes we tingle
with a sense of its closeness.  If wrong names are proposed we can reject
them.  They do not fit into the mold.  The rhythm might be there without
the sound to cloathe it; or the sense of the initial consonant or vowel
may mock us fitfully."

How to minimize forgetting   How to study
     no fancy tricks   need to concentrate on certain basic points

1. Pay attention
     what is not stored cannot be remembered
2.  Be sure to encode information DEEPLY
          just taking notes or letting your eyeballs pass over the text
     does not mean that you understand what you are hearing or

          especially compulsive note takers need to review their
     notes after class and THINK about what they have written 

          do this while the lecture is still fresh in your mind (while
     some things that you did not write down are still in

          Develop ORGANIZATION.  Relate the discrete points
     mentioned in class to each other.  
          Relate the topic of today's lecture to the previous lecture. 
     Use headings in the text. Be sure you understand how the
     subtopics are related.

          ELABORATE.  Relate information to facts and ideas you
     already know, whether from previous chapters or from your
     general knowledge.  Try to say things in your own words. 
     Think about how things relate to you and your own thought

          DISTINCTIVENESS.  Think of concrete examples.  Be
     sure to compare and contrast concepts so that you see how
     they differ.


     Good encoding should provide good retrieval cues

     Be sure to pay attention to retrieval cues in test questions

          Pause after each point or paragraph and ask what is the
     main point or why this point is important.  Use review
     questions at end of chapters.  Practicing information lets
     you know that you have encoded it, and the act of
     retrieving it makes it easier to recall in the future.

          The best learning occurs in a DISTRIBUTED manner. 
     More varied retrievals give you more cues to remember by.