Conversation Pragmatics -- the social context affects meaning
Tone of voice gestures facial expressions violations of conventions
Conventions: proximics Turn-taking
Grice's maxims of conversation Quantity say only what is needed Quality say only what is true Relevance say only what is relevant Manner try to be clear When people violate these conventions they may be seen as rude or sarcastic. Finally, use of conventions and how they are interpreted can vary for different speakers. Tannen, 1990 Most of the meaning in conversation is not in the words themselves, but in who says them, to whom, how they are being spoken, and why we think they are being said. Are there Gender Differences in Conversational Style? 1. Who talks more? 2. Who jokes more? 3. Who interrupts more? 4. Who smiles more? 5. Who nods more? 6. Who uses more listening responses like uh-huh? 7. Who gives orders? 8. Who makes more suggestions? 9. Who uses more inclusive pronouns like Let's? 10. Who is more likely to invite a response with names or tags? 11. Who is more likely to ask questions? 12. Who is more likely to mention details? 13. Who is more likely to face you/establish eye contact? 14. Who is more likely to change the topic? 15. Who is more likely to speak at the same time? 16. Who is more likely to hedge? "It seems" 17. Who is more likely to hesitate? 18. Who is more likely to use polite forms? 19. Who is more likely to use absolutes? 20. Who is more likely to make indirect requests? Do women and men speak different languages? Do I look fat in this? Do you want Thai for dinner? Genderlects (Tannen, 1990) Within a culture, men and women have different experiences starting in infanthood reactions to crying babies (Condry & Condry, 1976) playgroups (Maltz & Borker, 1982) Different practice with language --> different understanding of language use Dichotomies Men's Women's Power connection oneupsmanship equality aggression inclusion problem solver listener report rapport decision discussion powerful powerless (Lakoff) informing intimacy (Tannen) Cultural expectations also influence language. Women cannot adopt a "powerful" style completely, Man cannot adopt a "connecting" style completely and still be acceptable to others.