Final Review Sheet Reasoning, Decision Making, Problem Solving Reasoning Deductive vs. Inductive Syllogisms Content vs. Form Abstract vs. Concrete Validity vs Truth Confirmation Bias 1. Belief bias 2. Positive test strategy Atmosphere bias Conditional reasoning Modus Ponens/Modus Tollens Undermodeling/Confirmation Bias Pragmatic reasoning schemas Decision Making Algorithms vs. Heuristics Framing Effects Anchoring & Adjustment Heuristic Availability Heuristic Confirmation Bias Gambler's Fallacy Hot streak Illusory Correlations Representativeness Heuristic Base Rate Neglect Conjunction Fallacy Lack of use of Sample size Stereotypes Simulation Heuristic counterfactuals (the undoing heuristic) hindsight bias Problem Solving Newell & Simon's Approach to Problem Solving Initial State Goal State Operators Constraints Problem Space Problem Solving Strategies Algorithms Heuristics Hill climbing Means-Ends Analysis Subgoals Analogy Working Backwards Expertise Routine, incremental problems vs. Insight problem Functional Fixedness Einstellung (Set Effects) Suddenness of Insight (Metcalfe Verbal Overshadowing (Schooler & Melcher, 1993) Creativity Divergent thinking Remote Associates Expertise and Creativity, Wiley 1998 Themes: 1. Limited Resources What effects seem due to Working Memory Limitations? 2. Automatic vs. Conscious What process are automatic? 3. Data-driven vs. Conceptually-driven (Same a bottom-up and top-down) 4. Representation How is information stored in memory? Is there a separate verbal and visual code? 5. Implicit vs. Explicit memory How are we influenced my implicit memory? 6. Metacognition To what extent are we aware of our own cognition? 7. Brain What areas for what processes?