Final Review Sheet 
Reasoning, Decision Making, Problem Solving

Reasoning 
Deductive vs. Inductive

Syllogisms
	Content vs. Form
	Abstract vs. Concrete
	Validity vs Truth
          	Confirmation Bias
               1. Belief bias
               2. Positive test strategy
         	Atmosphere bias

Conditional reasoning
	Modus Ponens/Modus Tollens
      	Undermodeling/Confirmation Bias
       	Pragmatic reasoning schemas
    
Decision Making
 	Algorithms vs. Heuristics   
          	Framing Effects
 	Anchoring & Adjustment Heuristic
            Availability Heuristic
	Confirmation Bias
         	Gambler's Fallacy
            Hot streak          
            Illusory Correlations

Representativeness Heuristic
     Base Rate Neglect
     Conjunction Fallacy
     Lack of use of Sample size
     Stereotypes

Simulation Heuristic
          counterfactuals (the undoing heuristic)
          hindsight bias
 
Problem Solving

Newell & Simon's Approach to Problem Solving
          Initial State
          Goal State
          Operators
          Constraints
          Problem Space
     
     Problem Solving Strategies
          Algorithms
          Heuristics
               Hill climbing
               Means-Ends Analysis
                    Subgoals
               Analogy
               Working Backwards

Expertise

Routine, incremental problems vs. Insight problem
	Functional Fixedness
	Einstellung (Set Effects)
	Suddenness of Insight (Metcalfe
	Verbal Overshadowing (Schooler & Melcher, 1993)

Creativity
	Divergent thinking
	Remote Associates

Expertise and Creativity, Wiley 1998
		
Themes:
1. Limited Resources
	What effects seem due to Working Memory Limitations?
2. Automatic vs. Conscious
	What process are automatic?
3. Data-driven vs. Conceptually-driven
	(Same a bottom-up and top-down)
4. Representation
	How is information stored in memory?
	Is there a separate verbal and visual code?
5. Implicit vs. Explicit memory
	How are we influenced my implicit memory?
6. Metacognition
	To what extent are we aware of our own cognition?
7. Brain
	What areas for what processes?