Midterm Review Sheet (Important Ideas Ashcraft Chapters 4-7)

Short Term Memory
Duration & Role of Rehearsal (Peterson & Peterson's Trigrams)
Capacity & code          Miller, chunks
                         Baddeley, country names
Search                   Sternberg, Scanning Task
Transfer to LTM          Rundus (Serial Position Curve)
     What is the Serial Position Curve? Primacy Effect? Recency Effect?

Working Memory
     What are the three basic components of working memory suggested by Baddeley?
     What is the evidence for visual coding?
     What is the evidence for multiple stores?
What are the differences between the Short-Term memory concept and the Working memory concept?
What is interference?
     What is the difference between interference and decay?
     What is the difference between proactive and retroactive interference?

Long Term Memory
     What are the two main stores of LTM as described by Tulving?

     What is the difference between maintenance and elaborative rehearsal?
     What is the levels of processing (depth of processing) effect?
     What is the self-reference effect?
     What is transfer appropriate processing? 
     What are context-dependent learning, encoding specificity and 
     state-dependent learning?
     What is the von Restorff effect?
     What is the dual coding hypothesis?
     Why does organization help list recall?
     What are mnemonics?  Why do they help memory?

     What are the three basic processes we use in memory?
     What is forgetting? Why does it happen (give three ways)?
     What is the difference between availability and accessibility of memories?
     What is the Tip of the Tongue phenomenon?
     What are the differences between the Hierarchical Network Model, the
     Feature Comparison Model, the Revised Network Model, and a basic
     connectionist model.
     Which can account for: hierarchy effects, similarity effects,
     typicality effects, set-size effects, priming effects

     What is the difference between reproductive and reconstructive memory?
     What are schemas and scripts how do they affect memory?     
     What is semantic integration and how does it affect memory?
     What are the two routes we use to know if we "remember" things?
     What are common causes of mis-remembering items that you have never seen before?
     What was Jacoby's Famous Names Experiment?
     What is the misinformation effect? How can people's memories be distorted?
     What are flashbulb memories? Are they immune from distortion?
     What are distributed practice and over-learning? How do they relate to long term memory?