2003 | Call # 98253
Instructor: R. Chris Fraley | email@example.com
Location & Time: 1075 BSB | Tuesdays 12 – 2 p.m.
and Course Objectives
the last decade, attachment theory has emerged as one of the leading frameworks
for the study of close relationships, personality processes, and emotional
dynamics. The theory has gained in popularity largely because it addresses
a wide range of issues of interest to psychologists, including the evolution
and development of intimate relationships; the defensive regulation of
thought, feeling, and action; the role of mental representations in interpersonal
behavior; and the processes promoting mental health. Moreover, the theory
is intellectually compelling because it draws upon data and insights from
a range of perspectives, including developmental, social, personality,
cybernetic, evolutionary, and psychoanalytic. The objective of this seminar
is to review the developments in adult attachment theory and research
over the last two decades and to discuss important contemporary controversies
and debates in the field.
Each week we will read and discuss two to three articles. Two members
of the class will be asked to facilitate the discussion and those members
will also be asked to select one or two unique papers from the "supplemental"
section of the reading list below. Early in the semester I will spend
approximately 30 to 60 minutes providing introductory overviews and lectures.
Once you have learned the basics of the theory, I will allow the class
to take on more of a discussion-oriented structure.
Grading and Assignments
Each week you will need to submit a written summary of your reactions
to that week's readings. You should submit your reactions on-line by clicking
this link: On-Line
Reaction Papers. Reactions are due by 1:00 p.m. on Mondays. (The
clock on the server that hosts our on-line reaction papers is five hours
ahead of Chicago time. Thus, your reactions should be submitted by 6:00
on the server's clock and 1:00 on our clock.)
Your reactions should focus on insights, criticisms, and questions regarding
the readings. Although I encourage you to raise any questions you may
have, I'd prefer that you write less about questions of the "What
does the author mean by X?" variety and more of the "What are
the implications of Idea X for Y?" and "Doesn't this seem incompatible
with Z?" variety. Your reactions will be graded with respect to three
factors: (a) whether your reaction was submitted on time, (b) the quality
of your writing (i.e., clarity, grammar, coherence), and (c) the quality
of your ideas (i.e., do they reflect a careful reading and consideration
of the issues? do they have the potential to generate productive discussion?).
Because you will be posting your reactions on-line where other class members
can see them, I encourage you to read the reactions of other students
before coming to class. This will help you get a feel for the ideas that
others have and will give you the opportunity to consider answers, solutions,
and counter-arguments before class. I will post the grade corresponding
to each reaction paper on-line on Tuesday mornings.
Bowlby's ethological attachment theory
Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E. & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns
of attachment. A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale,
NJ: Erlbaum. [Chapter 1].
Bowlby, J. (1969/1982). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. New York:
Basic Books. [chapters 1 - 3]
Waters, E., Kondo-Ikemura, K., Posada, G. & Richters, J. E. (1990). Learning
to love: Mechanisms and milestones. In M. R. Gunnar and L. A. Sroufe (Eds.)
Self Processes and Development. The Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology.
Vol. 23, (pp. 217-255). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bretherton, I. (1992). The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and
Mary Ainsworth. Developmental Psychology, 28, 759-775
in infancy and early childhood
Colin, V. L. (1996). Human attachment. New York: McGraw Hill. [Chapters
3 & 5]
Weinfield, N. S., Sroufe, L. A., Egeland, B., Carlson, E. A. (1999). The
nature of individual differences in infant-caregiver attachment. In P.
R. Shaver and J. Cassidy (Eds.), Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research,
and Clinical Applications (pp. 68-88). New York: Guilford.
The Theory of Adult Attachment
Shaver, P. R., Hazan, C., & Bradshaw, D. (1988). Love as attachment: The
integration of three behavioral systems. In R. J. Sternberg & M. Barnes
(Eds.), The psychology of love (pp. 68-99). New Haven, CT: Yale University
Hazan, C., and Shaver, P.R. (1994). Attachment as an organizational framework
for research on close relationships. Psychological Inquiry, 5, 1-22.
Simpson, J. A., & Rholes, W. S. (1998). Attachment in adulthood. In J.
A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships
(pp. 3-21). New York: Guilford. [pages 3 - 12]
Shaver, P. R., & Hazan, C. (1988). A biased overview of the study of love.
Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 5, 473-501.
Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. R. (1987). Romantic love conceptualized as an
attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52,
Models of individual differences in attachment organization
Bartholomew, K., & Howrowitz, L. (1991). Attachment styles among young
adults: A test of the four-category model. Journal of Personality and
Social Psychology, 61, 226-245.
Brennan, K. A., Clark, C. L., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Self-report measurement
of adult romantic attachment: An integrative overview. In J. A. Simpson
& W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp.
46-76). New York: Guilford Press.
Fraley, R. C., & Shaver, P. R. (2000). Adult romantic attachment: Theoretical
developments, emerging controversies, and unanswered questions. Review
of General Psychology, 4, 132-154. [read pp. 142-146]
Duck, S. (1994). Attaching meaning to attachment. Psychological Inquiry,
Griffin, D. W., & Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other:
Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal
of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445.
Hendrick, C., & Hendrick, S. S. (1994). Attachment theory and close
relationships. Psychological Inquiry, 5, 38-41.
Peterson, D. R. (1994). Fewer bricks, better buildings. Psychological
Inquiry, 5, 56-58.
Basic Processes and Empirical Advances
Internal working models and affect regulation
Collins, N., & Read, S. (1994). Cognitive representations of attachment:
The structure and function of working models. In K. Bartholomew & D. Perlman
(Eds.), Attachment processes in adulthood: Advances in personal relationships
(Vol. 5, pp. 53-90). London: Kingsley.
Shaver, P. R., & Mikulincer, M. (2002). Attachment-related psychodynamics.
Attachment and Human Development, 4, 133-161.
Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss: Vol. 3: Loss. New York: Basic
Books. [pp. 44-74]
Bretherton, I., & Munholland, K. (1999). Internal working models in
attachment relationships: A construct revisted. In P. R. Shaver and J.
Cassidy (Eds.), Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research, and Clinical
Applications (pp. 89-114). New York: Guilford.
Main, M., Kaplan, N., & Cassidy, J. (1985). Security in infancy, childhood,
and adulthood: A move to the level of representation. In I. Bretherton
& E. Waters (Eds.), Growing points in attachment theory and research,
Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50, (1-2,
Serial No. 209), 66-104.
Attachment and interpersonal processes
Collins, N., & Read, S. (1990). Adult attachment, working models and relationship
quality in dating couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Fuller, T.L., & Fincham, F.D. (1995). Attachment style in married couples:
Relation to current marital functioning, stability over time, and method
of assessment. Personal Relationships, 2, 17-34.
Wieselquist, J., Rusbult, C.E., Foster, C. A., & Agnew, C. (1999).
Commitment, pro-relationship behavior, and trust in close relationships.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 942–966.
Frazier, P. A, Byer, A. L., Fischer, A. R., Wright, D. M., & DeBord, K.
A. (1996). Adult attachment style and partner choice: Correlational and
experimental findings. Personal Relationships, 3, 117-136.
Murray, S. L., Holmes, J. G., & Griffin, D. W. (2000). Self-esteem and
the quest for felt security: How perceived regard regulates attachment
processes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 478-498.
Separation, threat, and loss
Simpson, J. A., Rholes, W. S., & Nelligan, J. S. (1992). Support seeking
and support giving within couples in an anxiety-provoking situation. Journal
of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 434-446.
Mikulincer, M., Gillath, O., & Shaver, P. R. (2002). Activation of the
attachment system in adulthood: Threat-related primes increase the accessibility
of mental representations of attachment figures. Journal of Personality
and Social Psychology, 83, 881-895.
Fraley, R. C., & Bonanno, G. A. (2003). Attachment and Loss: A Test of
Three Competing Models on the Association between Attachment-Related Avoidance
and Adaptation to Bereavement. Manuscript under review.
Fraley, R. C., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Airport separations: A naturalistic
study of adult attachment dynamics in separating couples. Journal of Personality
and Social Psychology, 75, 1198-1212.
Rholes, W. S., Simpson, J. A., & Oriña, M. M. (1999). Attachment and anger
in an anxiety-provoking situation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Debates, Controversies, and Extensions
The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) tradition and its relation
to the social-psychological traidtion
Hesse, E. (1999). The Adult Attachment Interview: Historical and current
perspectives. In J. A. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment:
Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 395-433). New York: Guilford
Shaver, P. R., Belsky, J., & Brennan, K. A. (2000). The Adult Attachment
Interview and self-reports of romantic attachment: Associations across
domains and methods. Personal Relationships, 7, 25-43.
Crowell, J. A., & Treboux, D. (1995). A review of adult attachment
measures: Implications for theory and research. Social Development, 4,
Simpson, J. S., Rholes, W. S., Oriña, M. M., & Grich, J. (2002). Working
models of attachment, support giving, and support seeking in a stressful
situation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 598-608.
Waters, E, Crowell, J., Elliott, M., Corcoran, D., & Treboux, D. (2002).
Bowlby's secure base theory and the social/personality psychology of attachment
styles: Work(s) in progress. 4, 230-242.
Are attachment patterns trait-like? Within-person variation and global
vs. specific models
W., Keelan, J. P. R., Fehr, B., Enns, V., & Koh- Rangarajoo, E. (1996).
Social cognitive conceptualization of attachment working models: Availability
and accessibility effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
La Guardia, J. G., Ryan, R. M., Couchman, C. E., & Deci, E. L. (2000).
Within-person variation in security of attachment: A Self-Determination
Theory perspective on attachment, need fulfillment, and well-being. Journal
of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 367-384.
Pierce, T. & Lydon, J. (2001). Global and specific relational models in
the experience of social interactions. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 80, 613-631.
Davila, J., Burge, D., & Hammen, C. (1997). Why does attachment style
change? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 826-838.
Kobak, R. (1994). Adult attachment: A personality or relationship construct?
Psychological Inquiry, 5, 42-44.
Lewis, M. (1994). Does attachment imply a relationship or multiple relationships?
Psychological Inquiry, 5, 47-51.
Do secure children grow up to become secure adults? Stability and change
in attachment patterns
Baldwin, M. W., & Fehr, B. (1995). On the instability of attachment style
ratings. Personal Relationships, 2, 247-261.
C. (2002). Attachment stability from infancy to adulthood: Meta-analysis
and dynamic modeling of developmental mechanisms. Personality and Social
Psychology Review, 6, 123-151.
Klohnen, E. C., & Bera, S. J. (1998). Behavioral and experiential patterns
of avoidantly and securely attached women across adulthood: A 30-year
longitudinal perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Fraley, R. C., & Brumbaugh, C. C. (in press). A dynamical systems approach
to understanding stability and change in attachment security. In W. S.
Rholes & J. A. Simpson (Eds.), Adult attachment: New directions and emerging
issues. New York: Guilford Press.
Lewis, M., Feiring, C., & Rosenthal, S. (2000). Attachment over time.
Child Development, 71, 707-720.
Waters, E., Weinfield, N. S., & Hamilton, C. E. (2000) The stability of
attachment security from infancy to adolescence and early adulthood: General
discussion. Child Development, 71, 703-706.
Are individual differences in attachment categorical or continuous?
The types vs. dimensions debate [skip this week's readings]
Griffin, D., & Bartholomew, K. (1994). Metaphysics of measurement: The
case of adult attachment. In K. Bartholomew & D. Perlman (Eds.), Advances
in personal relationships, Vol. 5: Attachment processes in adulthood (pp.17-52).
London: Jessica Kingsley.
Fraley, R. C., & Waller, N. G. (1998). Adult attachment patterns: A test
of the typological model. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment
theory and close relationships (pp. 77-114). New York: Guilford Press.
Fraley, R. C., & Spieker, S. J. (2003). What are the differences between
dimensional and categorical models of individual differences in attachment?
Reply to Cassidy (2003), Cummings (2003), Sroufe (2003), and Waters and
Beauchaine (2003). Developmental Psychology, 39, 423-429.
R. C., & Spieker, S. J. (2003). Are infant attachment patterns continuously
or categorically distributed? A taxometric analysis of strange situation
behavior. Developmental Psychology, 39, 387-404.
Cummings, E. M. (2003). Toward Assessing Attachment on an Emotional Security
Continuum: Comment on Fraley and Spieker (2003). Developmental Psychology,
Cassidy, J. (2003). Continuity and Change in the Measurement of Infant
Attachment: Comment on Fraley and Spieker (2003). Developmental Psychology,
Sroufe, L. A. (2003). Attachment Categories as Reflections of Multiple
Dimensions: Comment on Fraley and Spieker (2003). Developmental Psychology,
Waters, E., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2003). Are There Really Patterns
of Attachment? Comment on Fraley and Spieker (2003). Developmental Psychology,
What is the relationship between attachment and general personality
processes and structures?
Zayas, V., Shoda, Y., & Ayduk, O. N. (2002). Personality in context:
An interpersonal systems perspective. Journal of Personality, 70, 851-900.
Ainsworth, M. D. S., & Bowlby, J. (1991). An ethological approach to personality
development. American Psychologist, 46, 333-341.
Carver, C. S. (1997). Adult attachment and personality: Converging evidence
and a new measure. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 865-883.
Vaughn B.E., & Bost K.K. (1999). Attachment and temperament: Redundant,
independent, or interacting influences on interpersonal adaptation and
personality development? In P. R. Shaver and J. Cassidy (Eds.), Handbook
of Attachment: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications (pp. 198-225).
New York: Guilford.
Costa P.T. Jr., & McCrae R.R. (1994). Set like plaster? Evidence for
the stability of adult personality. In T. Heatherton & J. Weinberger
(Eds), Can personality change? (pp. 21-40). Washington, DC: American Psychological
Downey, G.; Feldman, S.I. (1996). Implications of rejection sensitivity
for intimate relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
McAdams, D. P. (1992). The five-factor model in personality: A critical
appraisal. Journal of Personality, 60, 329-361.
Myers, L.B., & Vetere, A. (2002) Repressive coping and romantic adult
attachment. Personality and Individual Differences, 28,111-121.
Weinberger, D., Schwartz, G., & Davidson, R. (1979). Low anxious, high
anxious, and repressive coping styles: Psychometric patterns and behavioral
and physiological responses to stress. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,
Are dismissing individuals psychologically resilient or fragile?
Fraley, R. C., Davis, K. E., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Dismissing-avoidance
and the defensive organization of emotion, cognition, and behavior. In
J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships
(pp. 249-279). New York: Guilford Press.
Fraley, R. C., & Shaver, P. R. (1999). Loss and bereavement: Attachment
theory and recent controversies concerning "grief work" and the nature
of detachment. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment:
Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 735-759). New York: Guilford
Press. [pp. 735-748]
Onishi, M., Gjerde, P. F., and Block, J. (2001). Personality implications
of romantic attachment patterns in young adults: A multi-method, multi-informant
study. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 1097-1110.
Dozier, M. & Kobak, R. (1992). Psychophysiology in adolescent attachment
interviews: Convergent evidence for deactivating strategies. Child Development,
Fraley, R. C., & Shaver, P. R. (1997). Adult attachment and the suppression
of unwanted thoughts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73,
Evolution and mating: How do attachment and reproductive motives influence,
complement, and complete with one another?
Diamond, L. M. (2003). What does sexual orientation orient? A biobehavioral
model distinguishing romantic love and sexual desire. Psychological Review,
Kirkpatrick, L. A. (1998). Evolution, pair-bonding, and reproductive strategies:
A reconceptualization of adult attachment. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes
(Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. 353-393). New York:
Belsky, J. (1999). Modern evolutionary theory and patterns of attachment.
In J. Cassidy & P. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment theory and research
(pp. 151-173). New York: Guilford.
Chisholm, J. (1996). The evolutionary ecology of attachment organization.
Human Nature, 7, 1-37.
Hazan, C., & Diamond, L. M. (2000). The place of attachment in human mating.
Review of General Psychology, 4, 186-204.
Hill, E.M., Young, J.P., & Nord, J.L. (1994). Childhood adversity, attachment
security, and adult relationships: A preliminary study. Ethology and Sociobiology,
Implications for clinical theory and treatment
Nakash-Eisikovits, O., Dutra, L., & Westen, D. (2003). The relationship
between attachment patterns and personality pathology in adolescents.
Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(9),
Sroufe, L. A., Carlson, E. A., Levy, A. K., & Egeland, B. (1999).
Implications of attachment theory for developmental psychopathology. Development
and Psychopathology, 11, 1-13. [pdf]
Bowlby, J. (1973).
Attachment and loss: Vol. 2: Separation. New York: Basic Books.
Allen, J. P.,
Hauser, S. T., & Borman-Spurrell, E. (1996). Attachment theory as
a framework for understanding sequelae of severe adolescent psychopathology:
An 11-year follow-up study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
Carnelley, K. B., Pietromonaco, P.R., & Jaffe, K. (1994). Depression,
working models of others, and relationship functioning. Journal of Personality
and Social Psychology, 66, 127-140.