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List of Defined Words
Academic Computing and Communications Center
Academic Data Network or ADN
Batch Jobs or Batch Processing
Bulletin board systems
CIC and CICNET
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The IEEE 802.3 LAN protocol specification which is used on the ADN-ii ethernet
network, running at 10Mbps over unshielded twisted pair wiring.
- A "smiley" -- turn your head ninety degrees counter-clockwise and you will
see why it is called that. You type this in electronic messages to indicate
that what you've just said is meant to be funny. For example: "... Oh, I'm
telling your mother on you!!" sounds harsh, but: "... Oh, I'm telling your
mother on you!! :-)" would be taken lightly. There are many other recognized
smileys which express different emotions, for example, :-(, or which draw
the smiley face differently, for example, 8-), a smiley face with glasses.
Also called emoticons.
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- Abnormal ending. Various things may cause your program to abend, for example,
exceeding job resource estimates.
- Academic Computing and Communications
- The UIC Academic Computing and Communications
Center, serving the academic- and research-related computing needs of
the faculty, staff, and students of the University
of Illinois at Chicago. Also known as the ACCC.
- Academic Data Network or ADN
- A local UIC campus-wide network which is part of the nationwide Internet
computer network. The TCP/IP protocol suite is used to communicate on the
ADN network. See also FDDI, Ethernet
and 10BaseT. Also see the ACCC
Computing Services page.
- See Academic Computing and Communications Center.
- A data record in the computer indicating a person's authorization level
and available resources. See the ACCC
Accounts page for more information on ACCC accounts and on opening yours.
- Obsolete. The Access Control Facility: ACF was a CMS/MVS utility that allowed
users to choose who can access their stored data.
- A programming language developed by the Department of Defense in the early
1970's as a standard language for real-time and concurrent applications. It
is a general purpose, block-structured language.
- address book
- A small database in which you store email addresses for the individuals
and groups that you correspond with, each labelled with an easy to remember
nickname. Use the ACCC Email Address
Conversion Utility to convert your addressbooks from one email platform
- See Academic Data Network.
- AIFF Audio Interface File Format
- A Mac format for 8-bit and 16-bit digital audio.
- American National Standards Institute: The principle United States organization
for the development and publication of industry standards.
- ADSTAR Distributed Storage Manager: An IBM product which provides services
for backing up, archiving and restoring data files by allowing a central workstation
to act as a server for networked workstations and personal computers. ADSM
is available at UIC, for use with personal computers which are attached to
the UIC campus computer network. See ADSM Network
Backup. The ADSM service is also available on tigger
- A Programming Language: A high level computer language used for mathematical
manipulations; not available on the ACCC's machines.
- A suite of transport protocols introduced and maintained by Apple. Software
that supports AppleTalk protocols is included in all newer versions of MacOS.
- Data compression and file packaging program for personal computers.
- Offline storage system for data which is not actively being used. The ACCC
no longer offices data archiving service. (You're much better off using a
personal computer that has a CD-ROM read/write drive.) See also Backup.
- Obsolete. Was an data archiving and encoding system for VM/CMS.
- Advanced Research Project Agency Network:
A research oriented network developed by the Defense Advanced Research Agency
of the Department of Defense (previously called DARPA) using the Internet
protocols. ARPANET evolved into the Internet; the name ARPANET was officially
retired in 1990.
- A text formatting term: The portion of any character which extends above
the height of a lower case "m". See also descenders.
- American Standard Code for Information Interchange: The ANSI standard code
for sending alphanumeric characters through electronic equipment such as computers
and terminals. ASCII uses an 8-bit code for character representation; 7 data
bits and a parity bit. IBM is big and powerful enough to stick with their
own code for their mainframe computers: EBCDIC.
- The assembler language is a symbolic programming language which allows
writing machine level instructions with simple mnemonics rather than numeric
instructions. The term "the assembler" also refers to a program that translates
symbolic machine language into actual machine language.
- A method of transmitting blocks (or packets) of data that permits arbitrary
spacing between individual characters. Transmission is controlled by start
and stop bits at the beginning of each block.
- Asynchronous Transmission Mode; a high-speed, connection-oriented, transmission
standard for WANs and LANs, with 53-byte cells, 5-byte header, and 48-byte
payload. For more information, see the A3C Connection article on ATM:
Building the Data Highway.
- ATM address
- a unique 20-byte hierarchical address using prefixes similar to telephone
country codes, area codes, and exchanges, identifying every node on any ATM
network; ATM addresses label machines in ATM switches' routing tables. Unlike
IP addresses (which are carried in the address information with each cell),
ATM addresses are only used on an ATM network to set up the path for a connection.
- Sound file format, originally for SUN UNIX systems, now also supported
on PCs and Macs.
- Attachment Unit Interface: An IEEE 802.3 (ethernet) cable connecting the
MAU (Media Access Unit) to the networked device. Also called a transceiver
- AVI AudioVideo Interleaved
- Microsoft's native video for Windows movie format for storing video with
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- Backbone network
- A local area network like the ACCC's ADN, which acts primarily as a conduit
for traffic to and from other networks.
- Using computer resources in a non-interactive way, at the discretion of
the operating system. Background jobs usually do not interfere with your ability
to use your account interactively.
- To make a copy of a data set for safety purposes. Backups can be either
to disk or tape. The ACCC does daily and weekly ADSM
backups of files on the ACCC UNIX workstations. ADSM backup for registed on-campus
personal computers can also be scheduled automatically; see ADSM
- The amount of data that can be carried on a wire or other transmission
medium, measured in bits per second, bps; directly related to the difference
between the highest and lowest frequencies that can be carried on it. In other
words, the range of useful frequencies of a communications signal or channel.
See also baseband and broadband.
- Baseband cable
- A type of cable connection used in computer networks which is highly reliable
and easy to manage, but which uses only one carrier frequency, and therefore
is capable of transmitting only one message at a time. See also broadband
- A text formatting term: The baseline of a text is the lowermost point of
the body of the letters, not including descenders
(the lower parts of letters like "g" and "j").
- The binary to 7-bit ASCII encoding scheme developed to allow binary files
to be attached to MIME email messages. See also MIME.
- Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code: A simple to learn and
easy to use programming language.
- Batch Jobs or Batch Processing
- In batch processing, the program and data to be processed is collected
with the commands needed to execute the program, and submitted to the operating
system. The submitted batch jobs are kept in disk storage until execution;
and they are selected for execution by the operating system in order by job
class and priority. See also Interactive
- A measure of the speed of data transmission, equal to the number of discrete
conditions or signal events that can be sent or received per second. Baud
is the same as bps (bits per second) only if each signal event transmits only
- Bell 103A
- An AT x standard for modems providing full duplex, 300 bits per second,
asynchronous or synchronous transmission over the public telephone network.
- Bell 212A
- An AT x standard for modems providing full duplex, 1200 bits per second,
asynchronous or synchronous transmission over the public telephone network.
- A numbering system with only two digits; 0 and 1, where 0=off and 1=on.
- Binary Synchronous Communication, aka BSC. A transmission protocol used
by IBM mainframes. BISYNC gathers a number of message characters and puts
them in a single, large message block that includes special characters, synchronized
bits, and station-addressing information.
- A BInary digiT: The smallest piece of data possible, a "1" or a "0". 8
bits make up a "byte"; one byte can represent a single character.
- 2-D array of pixels representing video and graphics.
- Because It's Time NETwork or Because It's There NETwork: A network of educational
sites separate from the Internet; . Listservs, the most popular form of email
discussion groups, originated on BITNET. UIC was one of the first members
of BITNET and one of the last. UIC withdrew from BITNET November 1, 1996.
- In communications, a group of individual data elements sent, received or
stored as a unit to increase transmission efficiency. See also packet.
- Also a text formatting term: In some text editors or word processing packages,
there are block commands which allow you to mark a block of text to be treated
or processed as a unit.
- BioMeDical computer Programs: A set computer programs that provide a wide
variety of analytical capabilities that range from plots and simple data descriptions
to advanced statistical techniques. See the ACCC
Statistical Resources and Information page.
- A Windows native format for a bitmapped graphics file. See also Bitmap.
- A protocol that is used by a network node to determine the IP address of
its Ethernet interfaces, in order to effect network booting.
- The ACCC's Convex Exemplar supercomputer, borg.uic.edu. See the Borg
- Bits Per Inch per track: A measure of the recording density on magnetic
computer tape. For example, on a nine track tape written at 1600 bpi, you
can store 1600 bytes (200 80 character records) on an inch of tape.
- Bits Per Second: A measure of the speed of transmission of computer data.
See also Baud.
- A communications device which is used to connect two networks which communicate
in an essentially similar manner. See also Gateway.
- Broadband cable
- A type of cable used in computer networks which can carry several messages
at the same time, but which is somewhat difficult to install and manage. In
contrast to baseband cable, broadband cable multiplexes multiple independent
signals onto one cable. For home Internet access, your principal broadband
choices are cable modems, which run on Cable TV wiring,
and several varieties of DSL (Digital Subscriber
Line), which run on standard copper telephone telephone lines.
- A WWW client program that can "speak" at least HTTP and gopher, and can
interpret HTML documents. Examples are Mosaic and Netscape (both for Windows,
X Windows, and Mac) from NCSA, Lynx (UNIX/VT100) and DosLynx (DOS) from the
University of Kansas, and Cello (Windows) and Viola (X Windows) from Cornell.
Netscape for Macintosh and Netscape for Windows are included in our Network
- A storage device which compensates for the differences in the rate of data
flow during data transmission between devices.
- An error in either computer hardware or software. Finding and correcting
errors is known as debugging.
- Bulletin board systems
- BBS: An electronic information system. See the ACCC
Netnews / Usenet page. See also NETNEWS
- A byte is 8 bits; one byte can represent a single character. On most machines,
the byte is the basic unit of addressable memory. On IBM mainframes, a word
is 4 bytes (32 bits).
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- Cable modems
- A broadband Internet connection method that uses
cable TV cabling; see Connecting from Home.
- Carrier detect
- A signal from an RS-232 connection indicating that a communication connection
has been established with a remote system.
- Comite Consultatif Internationale de Telegraphique et Telephonique, or
the Consultative Committee on International Telphone and Telegraphy. The CCITT
is now known as the ITU-T (for Telecommunication Standardization Sector of
the International Telecommunications Union). An international committee that
sets standards for international communications. The CCITT standard data modems
needed for telephone communications on dial-in telephone
lines are: CCITT V.32-bis for 14.4 Kbps, CCITT V.34 for 28.8 Kbps and 33.6
Kbps. For more information, see internet.com's PC
Webopaedia entry CCITT, or see the ITU home
- CDI Compact Disc Digital Interactive
- A compact disk standard developed by Phillips for CDs containing a mix
of sound, images, and interaction; for CD players following the Green Book.
- CD-R Compact Disk-Recordable
- A multi-session CD-ROM recording format; requires a multi-session CD-ROM
- Common Gateway Interface. A protocol used by HTTPD
to channel information from a browser to a custom program (such as a database
interface) and to return the result of the custom program to the browser.
- A special purpose computer used for communication between a main computer
and an external device, such as a disk or tape. Also, in networking: a communications
link between two or more points; also called a circuit, path,
or link. (ATM's use of "path" is different, though;
- Chicago NAP
- Ameritech's Chicago Network Access Point.
See also NAP.
- Committee on Institutional Cooperation,
academic consortium consisting of the Big Ten universities along with the
University of Chicago, the University of Illinois at Chicago, and the University
of Pennsylvania. CICNet is a now-retired computer network connecting the CIC
universities and other organizations in the Midwest.
- A front end device (a node or software program that requests services from
a server. See also Server.
- Client-server computing
- A distributed computing network system in which each transaction is divided
into two parts: a front end client, and a back end server, which are two different
devices or programs. See RPC. See also Peer-to-peer
- Clock cycle
- The unit of type used by the basic timing system of a computer. The clock
cycle is used to measure the computer's theoretical performance. The clock
cycles of the ACCC's IBM 3090/300J/VF computer is 14.5 nanoseconds.
- Conversational Monitor System: The most widely used interactive computer
system at UIC. CMS runs under the VM operating system on UICVM.
- Coaxial cable
- A cable with a hollow outer cylindrical conductor surrounding a single
inner while conductor.
- COmmon Business Oriented Language: An old but still commonly used programming
language primarily for business applications.
- Color depth
- Number of colors in an image: 8-bit (256 colors), 16-bit (32,768 colors),
and 24-bit (16.4 million colors).
- A program that translates a high level symbolic language to a low level
machine language, FORTRAN, Pascal, and PL/I are familiar compilers.
- COM port
- The DOS name of the serial ports on PC's.
- Running data through an algorithm which reduces its size to reduce the
space or bandwidth needed to store or transmit it. See also encoding.
- Connectionless transfer
- Data transfer without a virtual circuit (a preselected path for the transfer);
IP is a connectionless protocol; FTP
and ATM are not.
- Continuous tone
- An image made of blended levels of gray flowing into each other without
- Control character
- A byte of data (a character) whose occurrence initiates, modifies or stops
- An acoustic device sometimes used to establish a phone connection between
electronic devices such as a terminal and a computer.
- Software containing instructional material, educational software, or audiovisual
- Control Program: The interactive part of the VM operating system. CMS users
encounter CP when they LOGON and LOGOFF, or if their CMS session is interrupted.
- Central Processing Unit: The "brain" of the computer which performs most
- A text formatting term: To trim the edges of a graphic image, removing
part of the image.
- Cathode Ray Tube: A terminal with a TV screen and keyboard.
- Computer Science Network. A larger computer communication network consisting
of universities, research institutions, and commercial concerns, which merged
with BITNET to form CREN.
- Clear To Send: When using DCE (Data Communications Equipment; a modem is
a common example), the CTS indicates that the DCE is ready to accept data.
- As related to magnetic disks, a cylinder is a vertical column of tracks
on a magnetic disk pack; since the read/write heads can read from any track
on the cylinder without being moved in or out, storing multi-track files on
cylinders is quite efficient. Cylinder is also used as a unit of storage space.
On CMS, a one cylinder minidisk has storage for about 600K bytes.