The X-Ray Laboratory was established
Guggenheim and has a Bruker Apex single-crystal
diffractometer (first picture) with both high-temperature
(to 1200 EC) furnace, high-pressure diamond anvil,
and low temperature attachments. This instrumentation
allows for the atomic structure determination of materials.
The laboratory also houses a Siemens D-5000 automated
powder diffractometer (second picture) with a high-temperature
furnace capable of operation in either an oxidizing
or reducing environment to 1500 EC. Recently an in-house,
low-temperature, high-pressure environmental chamber
for the study of organic-clay systems on the surface
and near-surface of Mars was built.
Among other uses, the powder diffractometer is capable
of phase identification, and can be used also to track
phase transformations with respect to temperature or
other conditions. In addition, the laboratory has Debye-Scherrer
powder cameras and Gandolfi cameras, which are used
to identify very small amounts of material. A scanner
is available to process these film data. Buerger precession
cameras are available for preliminary single-crystal
work and this instrument is especially useful to obtain
data on exsolution and twinning textures.