This volume contains selected papers that were presented at the Second International Conference of the International Council for Global Health Progress (ICGHP) held at UNESCO in Paris, France, on January 15-17, 1996. The focus of the conference was on the quality of life of those afflicted with cancer and AIDS. The first part of the book includes introductory remarks, followed by papers dealing with the quality of life, "be it definition, scientific research, evolution, cultural changes, ethics, measurements, or other issues dealing with health care and treatment survival.
The second part of the book includes papers that speak to "Quality of Life: Who is Responsible?," "Quality of Life: Who Defines It?," "Quality of Life at the End Stages of Life," "Quality of Life: Socio-Economic, Geographic, and Cultural Factors," and "Quality of Life: Pharmaceutical Considerations." Although these papers are three years old they still present some of the difficult aspects of dealing with devastating diseases and death where quality care is important to those who are suffering. A recommended book for all medical and academic libraries.
889. RePlacing Citizenship: AIDS Activism and Radical Democracy, by Michael P. Brown. 1997. Guilford Press, 72 Spring St., New York, NY 10012. 222p., illus., bibliog., index. (Mappings: Society/Theory/Space--A Guilford Series). ISBN 1-57230-210-0, 1-57230-222-4pbk. $42.95, $18.95pbk. (Descriptors: Social Aspects; British Columbia)
"AIDS activism and queer politics both stemmed from and continued to perpetuate a crisis in the gay and lesbian civil rights movement, which for a decade or more has been accused of failing to recognize that liability among political actors is the present condition of social politics." Michael Brown has presented the groundwork for a new way of understanding the relationship of this activism and the state. "He retains the notion of citizenship--the prescriptive and resistant practices that relate body to nation through rights, duties, responsibilities, and membership--but asks us to notice that the backdrop against which we see citizenship at play--the state, civil society, and family--is also fragmenting, acting incoherently, and constantly re-appearing in new hybrid forms." He argues that activists must look at all aspects of citizenship in order to understand this theory of the state or of citizenship.
The seven chapter headings point the way to delving into this difficult aspect of AIDS activism: "New Spaces of Radical Citizenship," "AIDS and the Gay Community in Vancouver," "Radical Citizenship in Civil Society?: ACTing UP in Vancouver," "From Civil Society to State Apparatus: Shifting Spaces in the Voluntary Sector," "From the Home to the State: Just Being There as a Buddy," "From Family to Civil Society: Citizenship at the Quilt Display," and "Conclusion: Where has the Citizen Gone?" Brown ends his book with a quote from Vito Russo in 1992: "AIDS is not what it appears to be at this moment in history. It is more than just a disease that ignorant people have turned into an excuse to exercise bigotry they already feel. It is more than a horror story to be exploited by the tabloids. AIDS is a test of who we are as a people." How true it was then and still is today. As long as we have the likes of Reverend Phelps and the increasing number of listservs on the internet, gays and lesbians are going to be exploited, slammed, and harassed. A highly recommended book for all libraries.
890. Nobody's Children: Orphans of the HIV Epidemic, by Steven F. Dansky. 1997. Harrington Park Press, 10 Alice St., Binghamton, NY 13904-1580. 178p., illus., bibliog., index. (Haworth Social Work Practice). ISBN 1-56023-923-9. $14.95. (Descriptors: Orphans; Children of AIDS Patients; Adoption)
The number of children orphaned by the loss of one or both parents to AIDS is increasing, with estimates that there will be 125,000 by the year 2000 just in the United States. Worldwide, there could be as many as ten million. Another alarming fact is that about half of parents die before they designate guardians to assume custody of their children. This book presents the challenges that HIV-infected parents face and the even more critical challenges that the children face. However, Steven Dansky presents some bright insights in how these children can survive the most dire circumstances. It covers such topics as single mothers who want to adopt, gay men wanting to be a parent, current epidemiology, testimony from adopted children, intimate and moving family stories, the fears of custody plans, stand-by guardianship laws, foster care programs, and children's reaction to death.
This is a must read book for all social workers and counselors. It will make you sit back and think. Those parents who are HIV-infected, also, should read this book in order to understand what the future my look like for their children. A recommended book for all libraries.
891. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and the Lung, edited by Mark J. Rosen, James M. Beck. 1998. Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016. http://www.dekker.com 548p., illus., bibliog., index. (Lung Biology in Health and Disease, v.119). ISBN 0-8247-9883-X. $195.00. (Descriptors: Respiratory Infections; Lungs; Complications)
From the first cases of AIDS in 1981 until today, pulmonary complications have figured prominently in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality. This book is intended to provide current information about HIV's effects in the lung. The book begins with an overview of pulmonary complications, stressing epidemiological approaches and intensive care. The next part of the book describes the basic biology of HIV infection in the lung, giving the readers a sound foundation on which to understand the research that is being conducted. The next two parts cover the effects of HIV on the lung and diagnosis of pulmonary disorders. One chapter covers noninvasive diagnostic tests. The fourth section goes into detail about pulmonary infections including bacterial pneumonia, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, tuberculosis, viral infections, fungal pneumonias, pulmonary toxoplasmosis, pulmonary cryptosporidiosis, and strongyloidiasis.
The last major section covers noninfectious pulmonary disorders such as neoplastic diseases, inflammatory disorders, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis, nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis, and primary pulmonary hypertension. A final chapter outlines infection control where it is stressed that pulmonary specialists need to be especially careful and maintain safe work practices. This is a highly technical book intended for the practicing physician or researcher. As such, it is recommended for all medical libraries.
892. Gendered Epidemic: Representations of Women in the Age of AIDS, edited by Nancy L. Roth, Katie Hogan. 1998. Routledge, 29 West 35th St., New York, NY 10001. 236p., illus., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-415-91784-0, 0-415-91785-9pbk. $70.00, $21.99pbk. (Descriptors: Women)
The visibility of women has increased dramatically over the past few years, opening the doors to the "deeply entrenched historical silences and gendered distortions that characterized the first decade of the HIV pandemic." As a result, research has begun, more and more, to target women in HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. "This collection weaves together theoretical, critical, and practical perspectives to question the idea that simply taking AIDS and adding women will provide the insights necessary to stem the spread of HIV." The tokenism that has been so present in the past in the medical community has to end. Women have to be looked at as equals in this era of AIDS. "This book adds to the critical literature on women and HIV infection by providing an investigation of the ways in which HIV is a gendered epidemic--and why it is."
Part one covers "Gendered Habits: Gender, Sexuality, and HIV/AIDS." The one chapter in this part is "Ambiguous Elements: Rethinking the Gender/Sexuality Matrix in an Epidemic." Here is presented the idea that "identities are habitual actions." The next part, "Gendered Abjection: Prevention--Policy and Practice," delves deeper into the actual policy and practice of research, education, and politics. The last part, "Gendered Silence: Representation--Exclusions and Inclusions," provides essays that "expose media (including feminist media) silences about women and HIV/AIDS and explores the reasons behind the silence, examines how women are constructed when they are the object of mainstream media attention, explores how the AIDS quilt reifies gendered experiences, addresses how gender, race, and class intersect with HIV/AIDS in recent novels, and discusses how video images produced by HIV-positive women for and about themselves differ from other representations of women and HIV/AIDS."
This an extremely interesting book to read and one that all researchers and counselors should be made aware of. Women have too long taken what is left over when it comes to research and recognition. This book spells out these problems and provides some insights on how it is beginning to change. A highly recommended book for all libraries.
893. Television, AIDS and Risk: A Cultural Studies Approach to Health Communication, by John Tulloch, Deborah Lupton. 1997. Allen & Unwin/Paul & Co. Publishers Consortium, PO Box 442, Concord, MA 01742. 236p., illus., bibliog., index. (Australian Cultural Studies). ISBN 1-86448-224-9. $29.95. (Descriptors: Television in Health Education; Australia; Mass Media; Health Risk Communication; Prevention)
"This book addresses the ways in which meanings and images of HIV/AIDS are communicated via television." Tulloch and Lupton argue that the media of television contributes to a great extent the awareness of risk, danger and uncertainty, including crime, accidents, hazards, diseases, upheavals, natural disaster, wars, and environmental pollution. They also state "that it is through society and culture that we make sense of this phenomenon, understand it and experience it." Television is a cultural product and it is through television that awareness can be made. "In this book, as the title suggests, we continually point to the need to understand the role of culture when analysing the ways in which television portrayals of HIV/AIDS, sexuality and injecting drug use are constructed and interpreted." They emphasize the complex nature of this role that television has taken.
In the first chapter, "Television, AIDS and Cultural Analysis," Tulloch and Lupton provide the cultural perspective and explain their empirical research approach. In the second chapter, "AIDS on Television: Text and Context," advertising and television drama are looked at. Chapter three, "Making AIDS Television: Expert Cultures/Production Cultures," the state/marketing interface is explored as well as looking more into the production of Sophie. The last chapter, "Viewing AIDS Television: Audience Response," one learns of general responses to the production of the Grim Reaper, testimonials, condoms, and other televised advertisements and productions.
"To conclude, the production and reception of meanings in relation to television AIDS texts are inevitably embedded in social and cultural processes. These include the cultures of production that work to shape the content of such texts, such as the understandings of health promotion and media among public health bureaucrats and their marketing research and advertising consultants, as well as the professional objectives, intertexts, concerns and constraints of television workers in making television drama." A highly recommended book for all academic libraries.
894. Positively False: Exposing the Myths Around HIV and AIDS, by Joan Shenton. 1998. I. B. Tauris & Co./St Martin's Press, 175 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10010. 277p., illus., bibliog, index. ISBN 1-86064-333-7. $29.95. (Descriptors: Social Aspects; AZT; Africa; Haiti)
Although very much in the minority, Joan Shenton does not buy into the hypothesis: "HIV is an infection. HIV leads to AIDS. AIDS kills." In this book she introduces scientists who argue that HIV has never been isolated and "that the HIV test is simply picking up proteins said to be specific to the virus, but which reside in all of us and happen to become raised when the body's immune system is compromised for other reasons." Research has been driven by pharmaceutical companies anxious to protect their investments in drug treatments like AZT. "Worse still, these combined interests have succeeded in blocking off research in other directions."
She makes statements that the new protease inhibitors do not work. Unfortunately, she does not explain to the reader that they do not work if one does not keep a regimen of taking the cocktail dosages. Too many people suddenly feel good and stop taking the drug, resulting in a relapse that cannot be overcome with the previous drugs. A new regimen has to be developed which is not always possible. This reviewer has seen too many individuals who have improved their health through these cocktails to believe that they do not do any good. As with any drug treatment, one has to look at all of the other conditions of the individual and above all, you have to consider how the individual works to take his or her medicines faithfully, every time, and provide the right nutrition for the medications to work. It appears that this book looks at all of the things that go wrong rather than those that go right. Her final statement sums up her belief--"There has been no heterosexual pandemic; AIDS has remained firmly locked into the high risk groups; AIDS has not behaved like a sexually transmitted disease should and no cure for AIDS has been found." My response is why are so many teenagers testing positive (all of which are not gay or drug users) and why is it not a sexually transmitted disease when it can be transmitted through sexual intercourse? No, there is no cure, but there is no cure for many diseases--cancer, diabetes, heart disease, etc.
An interesting book that earns its way into academic libraries.
895. AIDS Crisis: A Documentary History, edited by Douglas A. Feldman, Julia Wang Miller. 1998. Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, PO Box 5007, Westport, CT 06881-5007. http://www.greenwood.com 266p., bibliog., index. (Primary Documents in American History and Contemporary Issues Series). ISBN 0-313-28715-5. $49.95. (Descriptors: History)
Through 228 documents, the history of AIDS is spelled out in detail from document 1, "AIDS Is Perfectly Natural," (Stephen Jay Gould, "The Terrifying Normalcy of AIDS," The New York Times Magazine 136, p.32, April 19, 1987) to document 228, "Is AIDS Nearly Over? Or Is This Just the Beginning?" (Mark Schoofs, "The HIV Melting Pot," Village Voice 42 (7): 43, February 18, 1997). This book "is designed to give the reader a comprehensive perspective of the social, cultural, psychological, historical, political, economic, and biomedical aspects of AIDS in the United States and on a global level, by presenting the original texts from primary documents and key secondary sources." It is an excellent reference book. Each document begins with a note that describes what the document is about and sets the scene for what is highlighted in the document. Additional suggested readings are included at the end of each chapter.
The documents are arranged within 9 chapters: "The History of HIV/AIDS," "The Impact of the Epidemic," "HIV/AIDS Within Communities and Populations," "AIDS in the Developing World," "The Human Side of AIDS," "The Politics of AIDS," "Education and Behavioral Change," "Legal and Ethical Issues," and "The Future of AIDS." A highly recommended book for all libraries.
896. Communicable and Non-Communicable Disease Basics: A Primer, by Madeline M. Hurster. 1997. Bergin & Garvey/Greenwood Publishing Group, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. 154p., illus., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-89789-507-X, 0-89789-508-8pbk. $49.95, $16.95pbk. (Descriptors: Causes and Theories of Causation; Communicable Diseases; Constitutional Diseases)
This small book is crammed full of information, presented in easy-to-understand text. It is truly a primer on disease. The book is intended to provide an understanding of the disease process in humans.
Disease is the opposite of wellness or health. There are three biological laws of disease: 1. "Disease results when there is an imbalance between the host and the agent." 2. "The nature and extent of the imbalance are determined by the nature and characteristics of the host and agent." and 3. "These characteristics are largely governed by conditions of the environment." In other words there are three players in disease--the person or host who is the target of the disease, the agent which causes the disease, and the environment which enhances or reduces the host's chances of resisting disease. For a disease to be communicable it must meet 4 criteria: the presence of a host, the presence of a disease-producing agent, a mode of transmission, and a mode of entry. All diseases that do not meet these 4 criteria are then called non-communicable diseases. In non-communicable disease, some part or parts of the body cease to function as they were intended.
Now comes the difficult part--disease prevention. "Unfortunately, being well informed about how to prevent a disease does not always result in behavior that will prevent it." Education can help but it is not the final answer, only the first step. Everyone has to be involved from the individual to parents to schools to the government. The hardest part is getting individuals to change their behavior so that they do not get a disease. How true this is in the case of HIV/AIDS. As new therapies are developed, individuals become less concerned because they believe treatment will cure them. Then there are always those who want to take risks and not follow the rules of safe health. This book delves into all of these issues and provides test questions to see if you understand what you have read. A highly recommended book for all libraries and all age groups.
897. HIV/AIDS and the Drug Culture: Shattered Lives, by Elizabeth Hagan, Joan Gormley. 1998. Haworth Press, 10 Alice St., Binghamton, NY 13904-1580. 219p., bibliog., index. (Haworth Psychosocial Issues of HIV/AIDS). ISBN 0-7890-0465-8, 0-7890-0554-9pbk. $39.95, $19.95pbk. (Descriptors: Drug Abuse; Needle Exchange Programs)
Those who become immersed in the demands of addiction brought about by being part of the drug culture, find themselves isolated from family, friends, and anyone who can help. Their primary goal in life is to take care of their addiction. When these individuals become HIV positive, their lives are even more devastated. They are angry, lonely, and lost souls. They fade away into the dark as forgotten individuals with no one to speak for them. This book tries to speak for those individuals so that they can receive the complex care that they need. "The intention of this book is to provide information and guidance to clinicians and caregivers dealing directly with the challenge of the dually diagnosed HIV/AIDS and intravenous drug user, to assist in the development of comprehensive care and treatment plans, and to share what we have learned." It is hoped that what is presented will help the health care teams deal with this neglected culture.
Each case study is an actual situation. For each of the situations a set of strategies has been developed to help meet the needs of this group of people. The book is divided into three parts. The first part is written from the point of view of the health care provider in the outpatient clinic setting, addressing nursing, social work, and case management issues for care planning. The second part covers the same issues but from the point of view of the home health care team. The last part identifies some of the many challenges for the hospice care provider "as the patients' needs change from palliative care to intensive symptom management and family/caregiver education and support."
The single biggest challenge is to recognize that it is impossible to help someone who does not want to be helped. "We must reach out, make ourselves available, and recognize and deal with the urgent needs while simultaneously teaching self-help and building self-esteem." This is a well-written book with a wealth of information to help the care giving professionals. Although, drug use in itself is difficult to handle, those who are HIV positive are even more difficult to work with and help. "The ability to make a difference within one life and for one community becomes a daily reality." A highly recommended book for all academic and medical libraries.
898. Viral Sex: The Nature of AIDS, by Jaap Goudsmit. 1997. Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016. 260p., illus., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-19-509728-9. $27.50. (Descriptors: HIV Infections; Viruses)
Here it is 1999 and researchers are reporting an HIV link to chimpanzees. The results of the research were published in the February 1, 1999 issue of Nature. The book, Viral Sex, by Jaap Goudsmit was published in 1997, telling us of a possible link. It can only be hoped that the researchers who spoke of their research in February, 1999, give Goudsmit credit for bringing this to the attention of the research community.
HIV is not new to the world or the primate family. Simian Immunodeficiency virus (SIV) has long infected certain African apes and monkeys. The apes and monkeys experience no disease as a result of SIV, harmless to them but lethal to others such as humans. By accident or necessity, it appears that this virus has found a new host--humans--and has been renamed the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). We know what has happened, HIV has spread rapidly, first in the gay communities and then the drug communities, now into the straight communities.
Goudsmit, a leading AIDS researcher provides us with an illuminating insight on how the HIV virus has spread. Key to this insight is the concept of viral sex. "We learn that HIV not only produces offspring that are almost exact copies of the parents, as do most other viruses, but that it can also reproduce sexually, creating a recombinant population of variants. This viral sex has given HIV an edge in adapting to new hosts such as from apes and monkeys to humans. He presents alarming evidence that the ongoing destruction of the Western Equatorial rain forest has greatly enhanced the movement of the virus from ape to man through the encroachment of man on the rain forest and then coming in contact with the apes who have the SIV virus.
This is an extremely interesting book to read and one that all researchers should consider in their study of the HIV virus. We have made great strides in trying to control the virus but we still have a long way to go. This idea of viral sex and AIDS is one that should be taken seriously if we are to find a long term cure. This is a highly recommended book to read and should be in all academic and medical libraries. It will cause much discussion and may open new avenues of research.
Postscript: Todays news announcement has opened the way for new research.
899. Herpes Simplex, by T. Natasha Posner. 1998. Routledge, 29 West 35th St., New York, NY 10001. 143p., bibliog., index. (The Experience of Illness). ISBN 0-415-10744-X. $22.99. (Descriptors: Herpes Simplex; Social Aspects; Psychological Aspects)
Herpes simplex is medically minor and very common but the cause of considerable distress, psychologically and socially. This book is an attempt to try make the affliction less distressing. "The first part of the book examines the impact of diagnosis and then explains the roles of accurate information and empathic support, medical treatment and support groups in learning to live with recurrent symptoms." The rest of the book describes the experiences of people with the condition in different parts of their bodies. The Herpes Viruses Association is acquiring as much knowledge as possible about people's experiences and highlights the significance of herpes simplex as a public health problem. The seven chapters cover: "Introduction: The Cultural, Epidemiological and Biomedical Context," "The Impact of Diagnosis," "Learning to Live with HSV Symptoms," "Social Implications," "Individual Meaning and Management," "Fighting Stigma," and "Conclusion: The Significance of Herpes Simplex."
This is an excellent book intended for medical and academic libraries that highlights the many problems associated with a non-life threatening disease that can be contacted through sexual contact.
900. Being Positive: The Lives of Men and Women with HIV, by Robert Klitzman. 1997. Ivan R. Dee, 1332 N. Halsted St., Chicago, IL 60622. 243p., bibliog., index. ISBN 1-56663-164-5. $26.00. (Descriptors: Psychological Aspects; HIV-Positive Persons)
Klitzman has written a moving account of the lives of men and women with HIV, who expressed their thoughts openly in interviews. "Through these pages I have tried to present a picture--a group portrait--and a sense of the fabric and texture of these individuals' lives.". The details of each individuals' experiences differed, but common patterns emerged, cutting across lines of class, race, and sexual orientation. Several patterns emerged: the HIV community or HIV-land arose; spirituality in various forms began to appear; volunteerism became a meaning of and sense of purpose; attempts to reconnect with families was seen; "many minimized or reframed their illness in order to deal with it;" and finally, many resorted to drugs and alcohol in order to deal with the sickness.
It should be pointed out that all of these interviews were done before July, 1996, which is before the current protease inhibitors. Klitzman points out, however, that he still sees today the same patterns as pre-protease-inhibitor days. This is a very interesting book to read and one that should be read by all counselors, care givers, and physicians. It spells out through the interviews the enormous task we have in caring for the HIV-positive men, women, and children. Yes, individuals are living longer, but the guard is being let down and more and more individuals are becoming infected. There is still no cure in sight. Much more has to be done and books such as this will help in the education of those who are doubters.
901. HIV and Social Work: A Practitioner's Guide, edited by David M. Aronstein, Bruce J. Thompson. 1998. Haworth Press, 10 Alice St., Binghamton, NY 13904-1580. 586p., illus., bibliog., index. (Haworth Psychosocial Issues of HIV/AIDS). ISBN 0-7890-0180-2, 1-56023-906-9pbk. $69.95, $24.95pbk. (Descriptors: Social Aspects; Social Service)
With the help of an excellent selection of contributors, Aronstein and Thompson have put together a handbook for social workers that should be available in all academic and medical libraries. The contributors are social workers who have worked on the front line of AIDS work in the United States. Some may question why we need such a book now when the outlook for controlling HIV/AIDS is looking more optimistic, with AIDS becoming a manageable chronic condition. This optimism should not distract from social workers who have to work with the poor, minorities, and young people who do not have convenient access to the medical help that others may have. These groups are at a very high risk for contracting the HIV virus and will not benefit from the new therapies due to underinsurance or no insurance.
After an introduction that outlines the essential facts every social worker needs to know, the handbook proceeds into "Practice Settings." The health setting is covered first in the area of acute care and hospice care. The mental health settings are then discussed where one has to work with couples, individuals, families, ethical issues, dementia, and support groups. The next section, "People in Special Circumstances," covers clients who use drugs, parents and children with HIV, women with HIV and childbearing, adolescents, people with HIV in the workplace, gay men, HIV-positive women, elderly, rural settings, preexisting mental illness, and HIV in correctional facilities.
The fourth section covers the economic supports and housing that may be available while the last section discusses "Caring for the Professional Caregiver."
This is not a concise handbook. Its 586 pages provide a wealth of information for the social worker. An extensive list of references enables one to search deeper on various topics, but the text of the book is so well-written that further reading may not be necessary. Again, this is a highly recommended book for all medical and academic libraries.