This document is available in English and French at the above URL. The paper sets out the basis, in international law, for the following conclusions: 1. States' binding legal obligations to realize human rights have primacy in international law; 2. therefore, the TRIPS Agreement must be interpreted in a fashion consistent with States' superseding obligations under international law to respect, protect and fulfill human rights; and 3. where this is not possible, States' obligations under the TRIPS Agreement must be recognized as not binding to the extent there is a conflict with their human rights obligations under international law.
1111. Human Rights, Global Responsibility and Access to Treatments in the Developing World, by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, rue Saint-Pierre, ste. 408, Montreal, Quebec H2Y 2M4. 40p. electronic at http://www.aidslaw.ca/Maincontent/events/proceedings-agm2001.htm. (Descriptors: Human Rights; Developing Countries; Responsibility)
This document contains six presentations made during the Legal Network's Annual General Meeting and Skills Building Workshops, 21-23 September 2001. These papers underscore the urgency of addressing the issue of access to treatments in developing countries. "A South African Perspective," by Mark Heywood provides a South African perspective, focusing on why the issue of access to medicines has become so critical to the response to the epidemic in that country. "What's TRIPS Got to Do With It? And Why Should Canadians Care?," by Richard Elliott explores the connection between the international struggle for access to treatments and the implications of the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Agreement (TRIPS) on equitable access to health care in Canada. "Accessing Essential Medicines: Why We Need a Global Campaign," by Marie-Helene Bonin discusses the reasons why medicines are not available for many of the diseases that afflict the Third World. "Ethical Imperative for Action or Why Should We Care?," by David J. Roy looks at the moral and ethical imperatives for providing people in the Third World with affordable medicines. "Canada after the UNGASS on HIV/AIDS," by Richard Elliott focuses on what Canada needs to do to live up to its obligations under the UN Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. "Some Reflections on Globalization, Development, Human Rights, and Access to Medicines," by Mark Heywood explores the links between globalization, development and human rights, and then situated the issue of access to treatment in the context of these broader issues.
Contact Thomas Haig firstname.lastname@example.org or 514-397-6028 ext 2324 for further documentation on global access to treatment and international trade law available through the Legal network's Resource Centre. Contact Richard Elliott email@example.com or 416-595-1666 for further information about the Legal Network's activities related to the ongoing campaign for global access to treatment.
1112. Whatudo.org: HIV/AIDS Facts, Options, and Action, edited by HIV InSite, University of California, San Francisco. Website at http://www.whatudo.org/ (Descriptors: Adolescents; Young People; Popular)
This website is designed "to provide straightforward, unbiased, nonjudgmental, accurate, and timely information about HIV/AIDS to young people who are searching for answers on the Web." It provides full text fact sheets, statistics, news, interviews with teens, scenarios, interactive polls, questions, chat, and related links. There are also lists of places for individuals to get involved in the fight against AIDS.
1113. HIV Testing and Confidentiality, by Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, rue Saint-Pierre, ste. 408, Montreal, Quebec H2Y 2M4. Website at http://www.aidslaw.ca/Maincontent/issues/testing.htm. (Descriptors: Testing; Occupational Exposure)
Recently, there have been renewed calls in Canada for compulsory testing of persons who are believed to be the source of an occupational exposure to HBV, HBC and HIV and who refuse to test voluntarily. Bill C-217 (formerly Bill C-244), a private members bill currently before the Canadian federal Parliament, would authorize court-ordered testing of a source person where there are reasonable grounds to believe that a health-care worker, firefighter, peace officer, security officer or "good Samaritan" may have been infected in coming to the aid of that person. HIV Testing and Confidentiality is a website of info sheets containing a review of the issues raised by occupational exposure to infectious diseases and the benefits and harms of compulsory testing of source persons. They demonstrate that more could (and must) be done to prevent occupational exposure, support workers, and obtain voluntary consent for testing from source persons, without having recourse to compulsory testing. Hard copies of the backgrounder and series of info sheets can be obtained from the Canadian HIV/AIDS Clearinghouse, 1565 Carling Ave., Ste. 400, Ottawa, ON k1Z 8R1. More information available at http://wwwclearinghouse.cpha.ca .
1114. Recent Dissertations in the History of Medicine: AIDS (Social and Historical Context), published by University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. A website at http://www.hsls.pitt.edu/services/histmed/dissertations.html. (Descriptors: History; Dissertations)
This monthly current awareness website began in October, 2001. It provides a listing of dissertations gleaned from Dissertations Abstracts that cover any/all aspects of the history and current socio-cultural aspect of HIV/AIDS worldwide. Many of these dissertations will never be published in any other format.
1115. To Improve Health and Health Care, Volume 5: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Anthology, edited by Stephen L. Issacs, James R. Knickman. 2002. Jossey-Bass, 989 Market St., San Francisco, CA 94103-1741. 272p., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-7879-5946-4. $21.00. (Descriptors: Public health; Research Grants; Endowments)
This is the 5th volume of the series To Improve Health and Health Care, with the first volume published in 1997 and produced by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The series "tries to present clearly and forthrightly what the Foundation does, why it does it, and what it has learned from its experience." All of the papers focus on the improvement of health care of the American people. This volume covers nurse home visitation program, tuberculosis, health care to Native Americans, service credit banking, long-term care, health policy fellowships programs, recovery high school, literature and medicine, AIDS, program-related investments, and grant making in New Jersey.
The paper on AIDS is by Ethan Bronner, entitled "The Foundation and AIDS: Behind the Curve but Leading the Way." It is an historical essay on the work of the Foundation in AIDS research. A very informative paper that would be of interest to all academic libraries.
1116. Outpatient Management of HIV Infection, 3rd edition by Joseph R. Masci. 2001. CRC Press, 2000 NW Corporate Blvd, Boca Raton, FL 33431. 301p., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-8493-2319-3. $59.95. (Descriptors: HIV Infections; Treatments; Ambulatory Care; Therapy)
Although new therapies have greatly reduced the number of new HIV/AIDS cases and death rates have fallen in the developed countries, HIV/AIDS continues to run rampant in the developing world. Unfortunately the efforts of many individual countries in the developing world are unable to take advantage of all of the new technologies and treatments that are being used in the developed countries such as the United States. But, even in the United States, much needs to be done to continue the education process so that we do not settle back into high-risk sexual activity which can send the number of new cases up rather than down.
Knowledge about HIV/AIDS and the treatments that are being developed is accumulating at a remarkable rate. "An informed, compassionate practitioner remains the most important ally for the HIV-infected individual attempting to navigate the complex medical and social issues inherent in this disease." This book should help those practitioners.
There are 13 chapters covering "Overview of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic," "Pathogenesis and natural History of HIV Infection," "Testing for HIV Infection," "Overview of HIV-Related Disorders," "General Approach to HIV Infection," "Symptom-Oriented Evaluation and Management," "Diagnosis and Management of Minor Medical problems," "Therapy of Serious HIV-Related Disorders," "Infection in Women," "Antiretroviral Therapy," "Issues in the Care of the Patient Taking Antiretroviral Therapy," "Managed Care and Quality Management Issues," and "General Health Maintenance."
There is, also, a chapter of case studies and an appendix that provides a drug compendium of antiretroviral agents and drugs used to prevent and/or treat HIV-related infections. This is an excellent book that should be of great use to all practicing physicians and a recommended book for all public, academic, and medical libraries.
1117. Big Shot: Passion, Politics, and The Struggle for an AIDS Vaccine, by Patricia Thomas. 2001. Public Affairs, 250 West 57th St., Ste. 1321, New York, NY 10107. 515p., bibliog., index. ISBN 1-891620-88-6. $27.50. (Descriptors: Vaccines; Popular Works)
This is an excellent account of the search for an AIDS vaccine since HIV was identified as the cause of AIDS in 1994. Thomas "dramatizes the controversial search for a vaccine-the players, the politics, the money-in a vivid, suspenseful story that reveals how science is done, and not done, in America today." Treatments have moved quickly but finding a vaccine has been a slow process. Vaccines are a biological product with each custom-made to protect against a specific disease. "Social attitudes toward AIDS, careerism and timidity among bureaucrats, and corporate anxieties about profits and liability have all been roadblocks to vaccine research and development." Unfortunately, this has placed the search for an AIDS vaccine on the back burner and until very recently only 10 percent of federal spending on AIDS went towards developing a vaccine.
This books does a great job, bringing to our attention all of the struggles among scientists, corporate executives, bureaucrats, and military officers who are frustrated in the quest for a vaccine. This is a book for the general reader. It is highly recommended for all public libraries as well as academic libraries.
1118. Everything You Need to Know About AIDS and HIV, by Katherine White. 2001. Rosen Publishing Group, 29 East 21st St., New York, NY 10010. 64p., color illus., bibliog., index. (The Need to Know Library). ISBN 0-8239-3314-8. $23.95. (Descriptors: Juvenile Literature; HIV Infections; Popular Works)
The Need to Know Library series continues to be an excellent series for young people who need easy to read information on a large number of topics. This particular one on AIDS and HIV is no exception. Information about the virus and disease are presented in a straightforward text with well-chosen color photographs and illustrations. It gives the reader information on how a person contracts the HIV virus, how to protect oneself from the virus, and a discussion of new treatments and research. Safe sex includes abstinence as well as the use of condoms. There is very good advice given to young people who are at the stage of their lives when sexual activity kicks in. This is a recommended book for all school and public libraries. It is a must read for those families with teenagers.
1119. Journal of HIV/AIDS Prevention and Education for Adolescents and Children, volume 4, no. 1, 2001, edited by Julio Morales, Marcia Bok. 2001. Haworth Social Work Press, 10 Alice St., Binghamton, NY 13904-1580. ISSN 1069-837X. $95.00 per year institutions; $60.00 per year individuals; $110.00 per year libraries. (Descriptors: Education; Prevention; Adolescents; Young People)
This publication addresses "AIDS as a public health issue, bringing public and professional attention to AIDS and children within the context of social justice and the need for social change." First published in 1997, it has balanced the research and technical aspect of AIDS with the human side.
This issue includes the following articles: "Beliefs About the Appropriateness of AIDS-Related Education for Sixth and Ninth Grade Students," "HIV Prevention in Challenging Subcultures: Reaching Rural Freshmen in University Orientation Classes," "Associations Between Adolescents' Sexual Risk Behavior and Scores on Six Psychometric Scales: Impulsivity Predicts Risk," and "How Can Mothers and Fathers Become Involved in the Sexuality Education of Adolescents?" This is a highly recommended journal for all libraries.
1120. HIV/AIDS and Children in the English Speaking Caribbean, edited by Barbara A. Dicks. 2001. Haworth Press, 10 Alice St., Binghamton, NY 13904-1580. 165p., bibliog. (Journal of HIV/AIDS Prevention and Education for Adolescents and Children, volume 4, nos. 2-3). ISSN 1069-837X. $24.95. (Descriptors: Caribbean; Adolescents; Young People; Education)
"The HIV/AIDS epidemic has become a major developmental problem affecting every country in the world, and the Caribbean in particular, where the epidemic is the worst in the Western Hemisphere and second in magnitude only to that in Sub-Saharan Africa." Transmission of the virus has shifted from being predominantly homosexual to mainly heterosexual. As a result, a great effort is being made to publicly educate the people in the Caribbean countries. This combined issue of the Journal of HIV/AIDS Prevention and Education for Adolescents and Children is intended to "serve as a medium to disseminate information among young people on issues related to HIV/AIDS, sexuality, and protective measures against HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections, as well as living positively with HIV."
The ten papers in this issue cover: "HIV/AIDS-Challenging a Monster," "HIV/AIDS in Caribbean Children and Adolescents," "Social and Demographic Factors Affecting the HIV Infected Children in Barbados," "Knowledge, Attitudes, and Sexual Practice Among the HIV Infected Women with Repeated Childbirths in Barbados," "Psychocultural Factors Associated with HIV Infection Among Trinidad and Tobago Adolescents," "Residential Care for Children with HIV/AIDS in Trinidad and Tobago," "Developing a Theory-Based, Culturally Sensitive Intervention for Adolescents: The Antigua School Project," "Sexual Risk-Taking Behavior and HIV Knowledge of Kingston's Street Boys," "Popular Music and Sexual Behavior Among Female Adolescents in Jamaica," and "School-Based HIV/AIDS Education in Grenada." These are well written research papers that should be of interest to researchers in academic and medical institutions.
1121. Evaluating HIV/AIDS Treatment Programs: Innovative Methods and Findings, edited by G. J. Huba, Lisa A. Melchior, Vivian B. Brown, Trudy A. Larson, A. T. Panter. 2000. Haworth Press, 10 Alice St., Binghamton, NY 13904-1580. 272p., bibliog., index. (Drugs and Society, volume 16, no. 1-2, 2000). ISBN 0-7890-1190-5, 0-7890-1191-3pbk. $49.95, $29.95pbk. (Descriptors: Evaluation; Research; Trials)
"In 1994, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), through its Special Projects of National Significance (SPNS) Program, funded 27 innovative models of HIV Care." These models have been collectively labeled the SPNS Cooperative Agreement and represent "a diverse group of organizations with common goals-to improve access to care, health, and quality of life for traditionally underserved populations living with HIV/AIDS." This book highlights the efforts of two clusters of projects within this initiative. The 13 papers cover a wide variety of topics including a description of the SPNS Cooperative Agreements, implementation, and use of evaluations. Several model programs are discussed: "Continuum of Care Model for Adolescents Living with HIV: Larkin Street Youth Center," "Fortune Society's Latino Discharge Planning," and "CCHER's Enhanced Innovative Case Management Program."
Two papers target substance abuse-"The Impact of an Intervention Program for HIV-Positive Women on Well-Being, Substance Use, Physical Symptoms, and Depression" and "Substance Abuse and Health Services Utilization Among Women in a Comprehensive HIV Program." These are all well researched and documented papers that will benefit other researchers who are evaluating other AIDS/HIV programs. With the evaluation of each new program, more knowledge is amassed that will make research much more effective and, in turn, will benefit the general public. This is a recommended publication for all academic and medical libraries.
1122. Living with Hepatitis C: Everything You Need to Know, by Jenny Heathcote, Colina Yim, Quynh Thai, Averell Sherker. 2001. Firefly Books, 4 Daybreak Lane, Westport, CT 06880. 138p., index. (Your Personal Health). ISBN 1-55209-612-2. $14.95. (Descriptors: Hepatitis C Virus; Popular Works; Treatment)
The Your Personal Health series is intended to be small brief books for the layperson on various health topics such as Hepatitis C, Crohn's Disease, allergies, and multiple sclerosis. This one on Hepatitis C provides up-to-date, practical advice for patients, their families, and caretakers. The book discusses the various types of hepatitis, how each is transmitted, common symptoms, diagnosis, causes and effects of lifestyle, treatments and side effects, complimentary therapies, liver transplantation, and myths and misconceptions. It is an easy to read book with a minimum of technical jargon but still professional and accurate. It is a recommended book for all libraries.
1123. Next Generation of AIDS Patients: Service Needs and Vulnerabilities, edited by George J. Huba, Lisa A. Melchior, A. T. Panter, Vivian B. Brown, David A. Cherin, W. June Simmons. 2001. Haworth Press, 10 Alice St., Binghamton, NY 13904-1580. (Home Health Care Services Quarterly, volume 19, no. 1-2, 2001). ISBN 0-7890-1361-4, 0-7890-1362-2pbk. $59.95, $34.95pbk. (Descriptors: Patients; Medically Uninsured Persons; Poor Medical Care)
This book focuses "on the needs of AIDS patients who remain vulnerable to both the disease and mainstream treatment regimens and who have been underserved by both traditional models of community-based services and service delivery programs." Much effort needs to be focused on medical and support services for uninsured and underinsured, low-income persons with HIV/AIDS. These are the individuals who are most vulnerable and who ultimately pose a risk for others. Information needs to be gathered and analyzed so that better service can be proposed and implemented. The six papers cover: "Introduction: Evaluating HIV/AIDS Treatment Programs for Underserved and Vulnerable Patients, Innovative Methods and Findings," "Finding the Underserved: Directions for HIV Care in the Future," "Unmet Needs in Groups of Traditionally Underserved Individuals with HIV/AIDS: Empirical Models," "Perceived Barriers to Receiving HIV Services in Groups of Traditionally Underserved Individuals: Empirical Models," "Satisfaction with Innovate Community and University Health Clinic Programs for Groups of Traditionally Underserved Individuals with HIV/AIDS: Empirical Models," and "Satisfaction with Services in Innovative Managed Care Programs for Groups of Traditionally Underserved Individuals with HIV/AIDS; Empirical Models." This is a recommended book for all academic and medical libraries.
1124. When Someone Dies: A Practical Guide to Holistic Care at the End of Life, by Hannah Cooke. 2000. Butterworth-Heinemann, 225 Wildwood Ave., Woburn, MA 01801-2041. 182p., bibliog., index. (Nursing Healthcare). ISBN 0-7506-4094-4. $39.99. (Death; Holistic Care)
Death is a difficult part of life that everyone must face. Information on dealing with dying and bereavement is important for all health care personnel. Based on work over the years, Cooke has written a very useful text dealing with these issues. In the section on Caring for Dying Patients and their Families, the issues of communication with the dying patient and family are outlined as well as choices for dying people, patient comfort and control of symptoms, and wills and end of life decisions. This is followed with two chapters covering the care of the patient after death and organ donation and donation of bodies. Two well-written chapters cover supporting the bereaved and practical matters following death. Finally, a very useful section covers the religious needs of the dying with excellent information on religious traditions and health care. This is an excellent book that would be a key reference source for any public as well as academic library. Highly recommended.