A I D S B O O K R E V I E W J O U R N A L

University of Illinois at Chicago

H. Robert Malinowsky

Editor

ISSN 1068-4174

Number 1 - March, 1993


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Reviewed in this issue:
1. Living and Dying with AIDS, edited by Paul I. Ahmed.
2. Mechanisms and Specificity of HIV Entry Into Host Cells, edited by Nejat Duzgunes.
3. Children and the AIDS Virus, by Rosmarie Hausherr.
4. AIDS Issues: A Handbook, by David E. Newton.
5. The Environmental Contexts of AIDS, by Marie A. Muir.
6. Dictionary of AIDS Related Terminology, by Jeffrey T. Huber.
7. HIV/AIDS: A Guide to Nursing Care, by Jacquelyn Haak Flaskerud, Peter J. Ungvarski.
8. Beyond Love, by Dominique Lapierre.
9. Adolescents and AIDS: A Generation in Jeopardy, edited by Ralph J. DiClemente.
10. The Social Context of AIDS, edited by Joan Huber, Beth E. Schneider.
11. Blacks and AIDS: Causes and Origins, by Samuel V. Duh.
12. AIDS Crisis in America: A Reference Handbook, by Mary Ellen Hombs.
13. AIDS: How It Works in the Body, by Lorna Greenberg.

1. Living and Dying with AIDS, edited by Paul I. Ahmed. 1992. Plenum Press, 233 Spring St, New York, NY 10013. 273p., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-306-43851-8. $39.50. (Descriptors: Psychological Aspects, Psychological Adaptation)

"This book is about the care of sick human beings. It is about the heroic struggle of individuals with AIDS. It is about their daily coping in the workplace and at home; about economic problems, the loss of friendship and family support, and physical and emotional pain." It is also "about the social context in which HIV-infected persons and people with AIDS live. It is about how we must learn to deal with sickness in more compassionate and humanitarian ways and what we yet need to learn."

These quotes from the forward state very clearly what one can expect to find in this excellent book. It touches on a variety of topics including living with AIDS, AIDS and the care providers, adolescents and AIDS, monthers with AIDS, psychotherapy, coping processes and strategies, workplace issues, substance abuse and AIDS, dying with AIDS, living with AIDS, surviving grief, HIV in the army, impact of HIV on minorities, and coping with AIDS in hemophilia. It contains a great deal of statistics along with information on many topics. It is a well-written book that should have appeal to a wide number of readers. There are lengthy bibliographies with each chapter. This is a practical book for those who work with AIDS patients, their partners, families, and other concerned individuals. Highly recommended. (H. Robert Malinowsky)

2. Mechanisms and Specificity of HIV Entry Into Host Cells, edited by Nejat Duzgunes. 1991. Plenum Press, 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013. 242p., illus., bibliog., index. (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, v. 300) ISBN 0-306-44008-3. $69.50. (Descriptors: HIV, Host-Virus Relationships, Pathogenesis, Antigens, CD4, HIV Physiology, Viral Proteins, Virus Replication)

This is the proceedings of a workshop on mechanisms and specificity of HIV entry into host cells, held June 19-20, 1989, in San Francisco, CA. Several of the chapters are the edited transcripts of the discussions following each presentation at the workshop. The individual papers cover such topics as viral and cellular factors influencing HIV tropism, molecular analysis of receptor binding and viral tropism, infected cells, virus infections, mediators of fusion between HIV-infected macrophages and lymphoid cells, mechanism of HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T cells, HIV-1 infection of a non-CD4-expressing variant of HUT-78 cells, endocytic pathway for human immunodeficiency virus infection, the role of CD4 in the penetration of cells, and CD4 envelop interactions of HIV-1 and related human retroviruses.

This is a highly technical account for the researcher who is working in this area of AIDS research. Each article is well-written and documented. All of the chapters are from camera-ready copy. There are lengthy bibliographies following most chapters and a fairly detailed index is included. It is recommended for all medical libraries where AIDS research is being conducted. (H. Robert Malinowsky)

3. Children and the AIDS Virus: A Book for Children, Parents, & Teachers, by Rosmarie Hausherr. 1989. Clarion Books/Houghton Mifflin Co., 215 Park Ave. S., New York, NY 10003. 48p., illus., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-89919-834-1, 0-395-51167-1pbk. $14.95, $5.95pbk. (Descriptors: Children, Juvenile Literature)

A very good book for children ages 6-10 that gives the basic facts about AIDS. The information is given in the form of snapshots of children who have the virus. It includes several ethnic groups. The book ends with information for adults including health care precautions, what we can do about AIDS, resources, and a brief but good bibliography. This is a non-threatening book that is recommended for all school and public libraries. (H. Robert Malinowsky)

4. AIDS Issues: A Handbook, by David E. Newton. 1992. Enslow Publishers, Bloy St. & Ramsey Ave, Box 777, Hillside, NJ 07205. 144p., bibliog., index. (Issues in Focus) ISBN 0-89490-338-1. $18.95. (Descriptors: Social Aspects, Juvenile Literature, HIV Infections, Children, Testing, Health Workers, )

This book "discusses some of the social, political, economic, ethical, and other issues that have arisen as a result of the AIDS epidemic." It does not, however, try to convince the reader what is right or wrong about various AIDS-related issues. It, instead, tries to give a feel of the attitudes that people have about the issues regardless of whether or not the reader agrees or disagrees. The first part of the book discusses the background of the AIDS epidemic presenting such issues as kids with AIDS attending school, the spread of the epidemic, Magic Johnson, illnesses, treatments, and the facts and myths of transmission. The second part of the book covers the specific issues, including the pros and cons of testing and who should be tested automatically; how the test results could be used either for good or bad; the risks for health care workers; and the problem of education to stop the epidemic. The last chapter covers research and funding. This is a well-written book that does not spend a great deal of time in long discussions. It presents the facts and issues and lets the reader form an opinion. It would be a good book for high school and undergraduate use and is recommended for school, public, and undergraduate libraries. (H. Robert Malinowsky)

5. The Environmental Contexts of AIDS, by Marie A. Muir. 1991. Praeger Publishers, One Madison Ave., New York, NY 10010. 214p., graphs, bibliog., index. ISBN 0-275-93618-X. (Descriptors: Environmental Aspects, Prevention & Control, Environmental Health, Health Promotion)

"The focus for this book has been to collect data that would be of use to those setting policy or concerned with HIV prevention, particularly interventions involving education and information." It also provides "a realistic framework for the general public to recognize that AIDS and HIV disease are serious concerns and that the interventions for mitigating the effects of the virus must be far ranging and innovative." A brief review of the AIDS problem is presented, followed with information on the health and environmental aspects, stressing education and information campaigns. The following six chapters cover the concerns for education and information of specific groups of individuals: general public, homosexual and bisexual males, injection drug users, adolescents and street youths, women, minorities, and special needs groups. A final chapter places all of this into perspective. This is a very well documented and researched book. Throughout the various chapters are "points to ponder" sections that present facts that figure greatly in doing research on AIDS. This would be a good book to read for background information and facts that have been brought together in one place. A very good and comprehensive set of safer-sex guidelines is given near the end of the book followed with an extensive bibliography. Recommended for all academic libraries as well as medical and large public libraries. (H. Robert Malinowsky)

6. Dictionary of AIDS Related Terminology, by Jeffrey T. Huber. 1993. Neal-Schuman, 100 Varick St., New York, NY 10013. 163p. ISBN 1-55570-117-5. (Descriptors: Dictionary, Acronyms, Abbreviations)

This compact dictionary "is an alphabetical list and explanation of key words, names, and phrases generally found in discussions of AIDS and HIV. The dictionary includes abbreviations, acronyms, historical terms, key names in the AIDS arena, medical terminology, drugs associated with past and present therapy, major organizations and institutions, and AIDS-specific sources of information. Dates, histories, biographies, addresses, and telephone numbers are included where appropriate and available. Cross references are provided from abbreviations, acronyms, vernacular, and product names to the main entry." This is a very good collection of AIDS and AIDS-related terms as well as certain slang terms associated with sexual activities. The definitions are well-written and understandable for the high school student. It is especially good for the various diseases that are associated with AIDS and the medications that are used, either approved or as test. Information on various organizations and institutions is also very good. Recommended for all libraries. (H. Robert Malinowsky)

7. HIV/AIDS: Guide to Nursing Care, by Jacquelyn Haak Flaskerud, Peter J. Ungvarski. 2nd ed. 1993. W.B. Saunders Co./Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., The Curtis Center, Independence Square West, Philadelphia, PA 19106. 515p., graphs, bibliog., index. ISBN 0-7216-3718-3. (Descriptors: Nursing, Nurses' Instruction, Children, Psychosocial, Women, Ethics)

This book constitutes a "detailed guide to nursing, human service, and medical care, including the care of women, children, and intravenous drug users." It also "provides a comprehensive view of the spectrum of HIV disease to assist the nurse in clinical practice, whether that practice be in primary, secondary, or tertiary prevention of HIV." Student nurses as well as health and human service workers who use a case management approach to HIV care will find this a very useful book. An overview of the history of the epidemic and a description of the characteristics of HIV and how it affects the immune system are given first. Chapters then cover such topics as clinical manifestations of AIDS, nursing management of the adult client, nursing care of the child, psychosocial aspects, community-based and long-term care, cofactors of HIV and public health education, chemical dependency, HIV infection in women, infection control, ethical aspects, and living with AIDS.

For specific diseases a history is given followed by epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and considerations for nursing. This information is presented in textbook fashion but very readable and complete. In managing specific classes of individuals the information is presented in a logical manner with an overview, ways of transmission, prognosis, diagnosis, care delivery, and role of nurses. The chapters are then expanded to go into details of the specific diseases and problems associated with HIV. There are four important appendices--"Drugs used to treat infection and AIDS-related conditions," "Administration of aerosolized Pentamidine for Pneumocystis carnii Pneumonia Prophylaxis," "Case management," and "Deciding to enter an AIDS/HIV drug trial." This is an excellent book for any nursing student or practicing nurse and recommended for all medical libraries. (H. Robert Malinowsky)

8. Beyond Love, by Dominique Lapierre, translated from the French by Kathryn Spink. 1991. Warner Books, Inc., 666 5th Ave., New York, NY 10103. 400p., index. ISBN 0-446-39346-0. $12.99. (Descriptors: History)

This non-fiction essay/novel presents some of the major events that have occurred between 1980 and 1986 on the issues of AIDS. It is selective in the names and events that were chosen to be presented here in narrative fashion. It is a somewhat moving account that presents the stories of some of the doctors, scientists, Sisters, patients, heroes and dreamers who have worked on AIDS research or with AIDS patients. Recommended for general readers and public libraries. (H. Robert Malinowsky)

9. Adolescents and AIDS: A Generation in Jeopardy, edited by Ralph J. DiClemente. 1992. Sage Publications, Inc., 2455 Teller Road, Newbury Park, CA 91320. 314p., bibliog., index. ISSN 0-8039-4181-1, 0-8039-4182-Xpbk. $17.95pbk. (Descriptors: Adolescents, Prevention, Government Policy, Epidemiology, Public Policy, Psycosocial, Homeless, Ethics)

"This book, and the research underlying it, lay the foundations for understanding the problems (about AIDS) and what to do about them." "Prevention programs that will have any chance of success, first need good data about the prevalence and incidence of AIDS, of HIV infection, and of sexual practices among adolescents. The second requirement is a thoroughgoing understanding of the determinants of high risk behaviors and the consequent diseases in these populations. The full range of determinants--economic, social, psychological, policy--need to be explored. The third requirement is good sound data on the impact of preventive programs on behavior and disease spread in this vulnerable population." To this end the editor has done a remarkable job in collecting information. He shows "that information can be collected, that programs can be evaluated, and that they may have impact acceptable to many segments of society."

DiClemente presents a wealth of information beginning with the first part of five chapters covering "Epidemiology: The Scope of the Problem", discussing the various problems that pertain to adolescents. Part 2--"Prevention: Theory, Design, and Evaluation" includes seven chapters that deal with the development, implementation, and evaluation of intervention strategies for promoting and adoption and maintenance of HIV-preventive behaviors. This is an especially important part of the book since prevention and the education of prevention are at the core of all AIDS research at the present time until a cure or vaccine is developed. Finally the three chapters of the last part--"Policy and Legal Perspectives"--describe the role of health and public policy as it affects adolescents in the context of the AIDS epidemic. This book should be required reading by all people who are concerned with the youths of today and the problems they face with AIDS. This includes behavioral and medical researchers, counselors, practitioners, policy analysts, program administrators, planners, and others. Highly recommended for all libraries. (H. Robert Malinowsky)

10. The Social Context of AIDS, edited by Joan Huber, Beth E. Schneider. 1992. Sage Publications, Inc., 2455 Teller Road, Newbury Park, CA 91320. 192p., glossary, bibliog., index. (American Sociological Association Presidential Series). ISBN 0-8039-4329-6, 0-8039-4330-Xpbk. $18.95pbk. (Descriptors: Social Aspects, Unsafe Sex, Health Care)

"The materials in this volume are organized to highlight the kinds of directions sociological research has taken in approaching the problem of AIDS." The two chapters of the first part--"The Social Context of AIDS"--present a framework for researchers working on the social context, impact, and consequences of AIDS, covering the sociology and people living with AIDS and the class, gender, and race relations associated with AIDS. In the second part --"The Social Context of Risk Behavior"--sociologist discuss the social context and dynamics of risky behavior of self-identified gay men, women who are partners of intravenous drug users, and male prostitutes. The last part--"The Social Context of Treatment and Policy"--provides an analysis of the social context as it pertains to the treatment of persons with AIDS and public policy. Each of the chapters is a revision of a paper presented during the 1989 annual meeting of the American Sociological Association held in San Francisco. This is a good collection of papers that highlight some of the sociological problems facing researchers working in the AIDS environment. These are technical articles, many of which are based on detailed surveys and statistical analyses. Recommended for all medical and research libraries. (H. Robert Malinowsky)

11. Blacks and AIDS: Causes and Origins, by Samuel V. Duh. 1991. Sage Publications, Inc., 2455 Teller Road, Newbury Park, CA 91320. 152p., bibliog. (Sage series on race and ethnic relations, v. 3). ISBN 0-8039-4346-6, 0-8039-4347-4pbk. $21.95pbk. (Descriptors: Blacks, Afro-Americans, Epidemiology, Genetics)

"Initially, AIDS occurred mostly among male homosexuals. Subsequently, it was found in intravenous drug users, blood and blood product recipients, and, finally, heterosexuals." Today it is known that anybody can contract AIDS and it can be found in almost every country and in almost every demographic group. The incidence and prevalence of AIDS are rather unevenly distributed with Black people disproportionately affected, having the highest rates of infection; progressing more quickly from HIV infection to acquisition of AIDS; and dying more quickly from the disease. The incidence is increasing more rapidly in blacks than in other racial/ethnic groups. The author, Duh, presents information on whether or not there is a genetic basis for this disproportionately high rate. He discusses the overall health status of blacks, the history and epidemiology of AIDS, transmission and pathogenesis, AIDS in Africa, genetic versus environmental basis of AIDS, and control measures. It is written to be read by any educated layperson even though much technological information is presented. As a result, the scientific community will, also, find this a useful source of information. Physicians, health care professionals, politicians, organizations, and societies dealing with all aspects of AIDS will need this book. Highly recommended for all libraries. (H. Robert Malinowsky)

12. AIDS Crisis in America: A Reference Handbook, by Mary Ellen Hombs. 1992. ABC-Clio, 130 Cremona Drive, P.O. Box 1911, Santa Barbara, CA 93116-1911. 268p., bibliog., glossary, index. (Contemporary World Issues). ISBN 0-87436-648-8. $39.50. (Descriptors: Epidemiology, Government Policy, Bibliography)

This handbook provides users sources of information that may be spread throughout a variety of resources, some of which are difficult to locate. It is intended to help the serious researchers as well as the ordinary citizen, volunteers, and policymakers. Obviously, a book containing all of these resources would be several thousand pages in length and grossly out of date the minute it was published. Mary Ellen Hombs has done an excellent job in selecting the most useful information, verifying it, putting it in a usable format, and presenting some of the more important facts in the history of AIDS. The first chapter presents a brief historical account of AIDS, giving definitions, treatments, demographics, and public policy issues. This is a well-done chapter that would be understandable for the layperson and student. The second chapter is a chronology that begins with 1970 when H.M. Temin and S. Mitzutani discover reverse transcriptase, an enzyme produced by retroviruses and ending with September, 1992, with Magic Johnson announcing that he was HIV+. The next chapter gives brief biographical sketches of several personalities who have been associated with the AIDS epidemic: Dr. Francoise Barre, Kimberly Bergalis, Dr. Samuel Broder, Michael Callen, Gaetan Dugas, Dr. Robert Gallo, Keith Haring, George Kenneth Horne, Jr., Rock Hudson, Earvin Magic Johnson, Cleve Jones, Dr. C. Everett Koop, Larry Kramer, Dr. Mathilde Krim, Robert Mapplethorpe, Belinda Mason, Dr. Luc Montagnier, Dr. June Osborn, Dr. Grethe Rask, Ryan White, and Phil Zwickler. One may want to question why other names were not included, but the author picked those that were felt to exemplify AIDS and its impact on researchers and citizens. The fourth chapter, "Facts and Statistics," gives numerous tables, graphs, and listings, including glossaries pertaining to transmission, testing, drug therapies, and drug trials. This is an excellent chapter for finding information about health care costs and concerns, facts on testing, women and AIDS, and treatment, as well as numerous other frequently asked for facts.

The fifth chapter covers various important documents and reports that have been referred to in the media and contains reprints of these documents with a citation to their original source. The next chapter is a brief chapter covering HIV/AIDS and the law. The seventh chapter is a directory of organizations, government agencies, and hotlines with telephone numbers and addresses. A very brief sentence identifies the purpose of the facility. The last chapter is a bibliographical listing of reference materials. It includes reference books, monographs, pamphlets, newsletters, government documents, anthologies, personal accounts, photographic works, fiction, poetry, films, videos, and electronic databases.

All in all this is an excellent book that will provide references for many individuals doing AIDS research. It is well written and intended to be understandable at the layperson level. Although some of the information will become dated, much of it will continue to be useful. It is hoped that the publisher will recognize the importance of such a work and encourage frequent new editions so that those who need the information will be able to have it available. This is a recommended book for all levels of users from high school to researcher and should be available in all libraries. (H. Robert Malinowsky)

13. AIDS: How It Works in the Body, by Lorna Greenberg. 1992. Franklin Watts, Orchard Books, 5450 N. Cumberland Ave., Chicago, IL 60656. 64p., color illus., glossary, index. (A First Book). ISBN 0-531-20074-4. $12.40. (Descriptors: Juvenile Literature, HIV Infections)

There are far too few books that are written about AIDS for the elementary and secondary school child. It is important that more books for this level of reader be made available so that education about AIDS can begin at an early age and with facts and not myths. Lorna Greenberg has done a good job in presenting the facts about AIDS in a concise, readable and accurate manner. She presents brief information on the history of the disease, its causes, defending the body, T-cells, HIV against the immune system, HIV in the body, and the the future outlook. This book does not use a scare-tactic approach. It is straight to the point. It has tried to not be biased and mentions the use of condoms as a method of decreasing the spread of AIDS from one person to another. There are color illustrations but many are somewhat advanced for the younger child. A brief glossary is included. This is one of the better new books for the younger readers. It is highly recommended for school libraries and all public libraries. (H. Robert Malinowsky)


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