University of Illinois at Chicago

H. Robert Malinowsky


ISSN 1068-4174

Number 10 - August 1994

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The Editor has been on vacation, resulting in no issue for the month of July.

Reviewed in this issue:

213. AIDS Epidemiology: A Quantitative Approach, by Ron Brookmeyer, Mitchell H. Gail.
214. AIDS and Women: The Greatest Gamble, produced by Peregrine Productions. (video)
215. Hugs InVited Series, a training kit of 4 videos, 4 discussion guides, a guide for families, and a loose-leaf guide produced by the Children's Hospital/Children's National Medical Center and the Child Welfare League of America.
216. Blood, Blood Products and HIV, 2nd edition, edited by R. Madhok, C.D. Forbes, B. L. Evatt.
217. Sleep with the Angels: A Mother Challenges AIDS, by Mary Fisher.
218. AIDS Care at Home: A Guide for Caregivers, Loved Ones, and People with AIDS, by Judith Greif, Beth Ann Golden.
219. Risky Sexual Behaviors Among African-Americans, by Ernest H. Johnson.
220. AIDS and Intravenous Drug Use: The Influence of Morality, Politics, Social Science, and Race in the Making of a Tragedy, by M. Daniel Fernando.
221. Rethinking AIDS: The Tragic Cost of Premature Consensus, by Robert S. Root-Bernstein.
222. Guide to Living with HIV Infection, revised edition by John G. Bartlett, Ann K. Finkbeiner.

Pre-1993 books briefly mentioned:

223. History of AIDS: Emergence and Origin of a Modern Pandemic, by Mirko D. Grmek.
224. Promoting Safer Sex: Prevention of Sexual Transmission of AIDS and other STD, edited by Maria Paalman.
225. What You Can Do to Avoid AIDS, by Earvin Magic Johnson.

213. AIDS Epidemiology: A Quantitative Approach, by Ron Brookmeyer, Mitchell H. Gail. 1994. Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016. 354p., illus., bibliog., index. (Monographs in Epidemiology and Biostatistics, no. 22) ISBN 0-19-507641-9. $49.95. (Descriptors: Epidemiology, Biometry, Statistical Methods, Epidemiologic Methods)

"The purpose of this book is to review the contribution of statistical science to our understanding of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and to summarize and interpret the major epidemiological findings." After an introductory chapter that covers a brief history of AIDS, the clinical effects of the HIV virus, how to measure the epidemic, and the worldwide scope of AIDS, the book presents detailed statistical discussions on a variety of topics related to AIDS and HIV. These include the "Risk factors for infection and the probability of HIV transmission," "Surveys to determine seroprevalence and seroincidence," "The incubation period distribution," "Cofactors and markers," "Screening and accuracy of tests for HIV," "Statistical issues in surveillance of AIDS incidence," "Back-calculation," "Epidemic transmission models," "Synthesizing data sources and methods for assessing the scope of the epidemic," and "Developing and evaluating new therapies and vaccines."

One will need a good background in statistics to understand all of the statistical data calculations. However, there is a considerable amount of what is presented that can be easily understood by skimming over these statistical discussions. Each chapter has an introduction that describes what is to be covered, making excellent overviews. Also of great importance to the general reader are the many charts and graphs that illustrate what is being presented. The authors suggest that for those "interested in the natural history of HIV infection in individuals may wish to concentrate on Chapters 1,2,4,5,6, and 11" while those "interested in monitoring and forecasting the epidemic in populations may wish to emphasize Chapters 1,3,6,7,8,9, and 10." All in all this is an excellent book for epidemiologists and statisticians. It will help greatly in predicting what might happen in the future and show how one can change the figures as the facts are presented through the years. This is a highly recommended book for all academic and medical libraries.

214. AIDS and Women: The Greatest Gamble, produced by Peregrine Productions. 1993. Altschul Group Corp., 1560 Sherman Ave. Ste 100, Evanston, IL 60201. 26 minute color and black and white video. $295.00. (Descriptors: Women)

This very well produced video contains interviews with 5 women who have AIDS: Mary Corwin, Millie Ortiz, Aillene Getty, Monia Lisa Perry, and Gloria Ann Martinez Little Moon. Corwin, Ortiz, and Little Moon have children. Each contacted AIDS in a different manner. Their very open and frank comments have each of the interviewees describe how they felt when they discovered they were positive, how AIDS has changed their lives, and how you can cope with this deadly disease. The interviews are very sincere and in some cases include interviews with their children. In addition, there are brief street interviews of women and what they feel and believe. Some facts are given such as the future indicating that women and children will be at the top for those individuals who are HIV positive. This would be an excellent video for schools and clinics. It is non-threatening and certainly will catch the attention of the viewer. Since one person is a Latino, one a person of color, and one a Latino/Native American, it should have a wide audience. The photography is very good, alternating between black and white scenes and color scenes. This is a highly recommended video for any AIDS education class from school to university.

215. Hugs InVited Series, produced by the Children's Hospital/Children's National Medical Center and the Child Welfare League of America. 1991. Child Welfare League of America, 440 First St., NW, Ste 310, Washington, DC 20001-2085. $280.00 for set. Set includes Caring for Infants & Toddlers with HIV Infection, 21:02 minute color video with 37p. discussion guide. ISBN 0-87868-452-2. $59.95. Caring for School-Age Children with HIV Infection, 20:34 minute color video with 39p. discussion guide. ISBN 0-87868-453-0. $59.95. Adolescents: At Risk for HIV Infection, 21:37 minute color video with 35p. discussion guide. ISBN 0-87868-454-9. $59.95. Living with Loss: Children and HIV, 26:47 minute color video with 35p. discussion guide. ISBN 0-87868-482-4. $59.95. Caring at Home: A Guide for Families, by Dottie Ward-Wimmer, Martha W. Riley. 53p., illus. ISBN 0-87868-484-0. Caring in the Community for Children with HIV: A Training Guide for Child Care Providers, Foster Families, Home Health Aides, and Volunteers, by Mary Rathlev, Martha W. Riley, Sally Jo Jones. 1 loose-leaf volume with various paging, illus., bibliog. ISBN 0-87868-485-9. (Descriptors: Children, Adolescents, Care Providers, Foster Families, Home Health Aides, Volunteers, Death)

Although this is a 1991 publication, the Editor feels that this kit needs to be brought to the attention of educators and counselors again. The four videos are outstandingly produced and are a must for anyone who is caring for a child who is HIV positive or has AIDS.

The first two videos, Caring for Infants and Toddlers with HIV Infection and Caring for School-Age Children with HIV Infection contain the true stories of families who are caring for children with the HIV infection. They stress cleanliness but also stress that one cannot get the virus through casual contact. The care givers have to maintain a constant upbeat attitude. From the videos it is evident that the children are able to cope with the disease quite well and talk about what will happen as their health deterioates. The biggest problem is educating those with whom the child comes in contact such as at school or on the play ground. The next video, Adolescents: At Risk for HIV Infection contains frank and open discussions by teenagers about AIDS, sex, and safer sex. Education is stressed for all teenagers, whether they are at risk or not. It also indicates that parents need to educate themselves so that they are comfortable in talking about sex with their children and not be afraid of such words as masturbation, vagina, penis, or rubber. Condom use is of utmost importance in this educational process even though absence is the safest way for not contacting the virus. The main thing is to make the teenager feel good about herself or himself.

The final video, Living with Loss: Children and HIV is a very moving video that focuses on a Latino father, a pair of foster parents, a grandparent, and a mother who each have a child with AIDS. The need for support groups is stressed as the interviews provide the full life of the child from the time it had AIDS to its death. This video is a must for anyone who is facing the death of any child. It is very touching, yet warm and full of advice. Each of these videos has a discussion guide that can be used by educators, counselors, and care providers. Questions, answers, and various exercises are included. Caring at Home: A Guide for Families contains a wealth of information and guidance for parents or other care providers. It discusses sharing information with the child, talking with your child, when your child is well, and when your child is sick. There are tips for baby-sitters, nutrition tips, medicine tips, common medications, and pain control advice. This guide is very well written, easy to understand, and very non-threatening.

Finally, Caring in the Community for Children with HIV is a very detailed guide to help child care providers, foster families, home health aides, and volunteers. "The goal of this training is to enable participants to respond sensitively , compassionately, and competently to HIV-affected children and families." The guide consists of 5 modules: "The Challenge of HIV Disease Among Children," "HIV Transmission and Infection Control," "The Spectrum of HIV Disease," "Confidentiality," and " Caregivers and Families." This is a very detailed guide, one that educators can use as is or adapt to the situation at hand. It leaves room for ingenuity and is definitely non-threatening.

This kit is highly recommended for all schools, counselors, hospitals, and educational facilities which are training individuals to work with children who have terminal illnesses such as AIDS.

216. Blood, Blood Products and HIV, 2nd edition, edited by R. Madhok, C.D. Forbes, B.L. Evatt. 1994. Chapman & Hall Inc., One Penn Plaza, 41st Fl., New York, NY 10119. 276p., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-412-40400-1. $74.95. (Descriptors: Blood, Blood Products) (Contributors to this volume: Rajan Madhok, Gartnavel General Hospital, Glasgow; Charles D. Forbes, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee; Bruce L. Evatt, Centers for Disease Control; Louis M. Aledort, Mount Sinai Medical Center; G.R.D. Catto, Univ. of Aberdeen; Terence L. Chorba, Centers for Disease Control; James W. Curran, Centers for Disease Control; Bruce Cuthbertson, Scottish National Transfusion Service; Roger Y. Dodd, American Red Cross; Peter R. Foster, Scottish National Blood Transfusion; J. Richard George, Centers for Disease Control; W. Craig Hooper, Centers for Disease Control; A.M. MacLeod, Univ. of Aberdeen; A.C. Mawle, Centers for Disease Control; J.S. McDougal, Centers for Disease Control; J.K.A. Nicholson, Centers for Disease Control; Maria Ribeiro, Emory School of Medicine; P. Roy-Chaudhury, Univ. of Aberdeen; Charles A. Schable, Centers for Disease Control; Dawn K. Smith, Centers fo Disease Control; Patricia Wilkie, St George's Hospital Medical School, London)

The screening for HIV-1 antibody is a number one priority for all blood transfusion centers. "The risk of transfusion-associated HIV-1 infection has been reduced to a per unit risk of 1 in 60,000 in Europe, and has been calculated to be as low as 1 in 225,000 in the United States." Research is continuing so that the risk can be lowered farther. Much of this book, first published in 1987, is a review of the literature that presents the latest in research and technology. The first four chapters give an overview, covering the "International epidemiology of HIV infection", "Transfusion-associated HIV-1 infection", "The AIDS virus", and "The effects of HIV-1 on the immune system." The rest of the chapters cover "The role of cytokines and immune-associated soluble antigens in HIV disease," "The immunosuppressive effects of blood," "Serological detection of HIV infection," "Donor screening for HIV infection--The United States model," "Procedures for the prevention of virus transmission by blood products," "Psychological and ethical implications of HIV testing and screening," and "Challenges in future hemophilia care." The last chapter points out the enormous problems that are present for China, India, Africa and the Russias where enough untainted blood is not available. It is just too expensive now for these countries to have the bloodbanks that are needed. The book ends with a statement that needs to be inked into the brows of all our leaders: "we need to address the enormous prejudices facing the HIV-positive patient." Unless these prejudices are overcome, the funding for the research will not be provided. This book is recommended for all medical and academic libraries.

217. Sleep with the Angels: A Mother Challenges AIDS, by Mary Fisher. 1994. Family AIDS Network, 1707 L St. NW, Ste 1010, Washington, DC 20036. 220p., illus., bibliog. ISBN 1-55921-105-9, 1-55921-103-2pbk. $22.50, $12.95pbk. (Descriptors: Social Aspects, Parents)

Mary Fisher learned that she was HIV positive in July of 1991 and told her story to the public in February, 1992. She is an artist and a mother of two. By going public she decided "that I should not run and hide. I should stand up and fight, occasionally with tears but mostly with love." This book is about that fight in telling the world about what it is like to be HIV positive. It is a book of her most frequently quoted speeches including her most famous one at the Republican National Convention. It is truly unfortunate that many Republicans did not remember her speech and still stir themselves away from discussing AIDS funding. Each of the speeches is preceded with a small introduction that outlines why the speech was given and any special results from the speech. These speeches were given at a wide variety of functions and meetings, such as the National Commission on AIDS, Catholic Health Association Membership Assembly, Trinity College Commencement, Women's Coalition of Memphis, Betty Ford Center Alumni Dinner, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and the AIDS Consortium of Southeastern Michigan. Her speeches are enlightening and full of hope and love. If there is anger, it is well covered. Her goal is to help others who may be in the same situation as she is. Anyone who has AIDS or is HIV positive should read this book, think about what Mary Fisher has said and do as she has, educate the world. Women, especially, will find this a heartwarming book. It is highly recommended for all libraries from school to medical.

218. AIDS Care at Home: A Guide for Caregivers, Loved Ones, and People with AIDS, by Judith Greif, Beth Ann Golden. 1994. John Wiley, 605 Third Ave., New York, NY 10158. 360p., illus., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-471-58468-1. $17.95. (Descriptors: Home Care, Care Providers, Psychology)

In 1986 there were 19,181 cases of AIDS with 10,152 lives lost. There are now a total of 718,894 documented cases of AIDS with estimates as high as 2.5 million. More than half of the some 718,000 have died. "The World Health Organization estimates that 13 to 14 million adults and 1 million children worldwide are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and that by the year 2000, that figure will more likely be 40 million. Each one of these infected persons has the potential to someday manifest the full-blown disease." These frightening statistics point out the urgency to have practical, hands-on manuals that cover home care for PWAs. This manual is the result of collecting what many people have done and putting it together in a logical, easy-to-use book. It has a great deal of common sense and reassurance for the caregivers. Since caring for any PWA can be a highly stressful and emotional job with exhaustion always present, this book could be the Bible that they turn to in order to solve the simple to complex problems in care of the individuals.

"This book is a guide for adult people with AIDS (PWAs) and their caregivers. Thus no attempt is made to discuss the special needs or issues that arise when caring for a child or adolescent with AIDS." There are four parts: Part 1--"What is AIDS?"; Part 2--"Getting Organized" includes chapters on setting up a safe and comfortable environment, preventing the transmission of infection to and from the person with AIDS, and maintaining the PWA's lifestyle; Part 3--"Managing Symptoms", covers checking for signs and symptoms of illness, fever, fatigue, pain swollen glands, skin care, hair care, the eyes, mouth care, heart and lungs, nutrition, digestive problems, diabetes, sexuality and safe sex, genitourinary system, extremities, brain, chemotherapy and radiation, and home administration of nutritional and medical therapies; and Part 4--"Psychological Issues" includes death and dying. The text is very well organized, indicating what to do and what not to do. Under diabetes, there is much about what to look for and then it lists what to do. There is always a section of "when to consult your doctor."

There are 8 very useful appendices: Directory of Laboratory Tests; Medication Guide; Adjunct Therapies; Home Safety, Comfort, and Hygiene Checklist; How to Move People Safely; Preparing for Hospitalization; Where to Seek Additional Help; and the Caregiver's Bookshelf. A glossary of the more common terms is included as is a detailed index. The chapter on death and dying also gives excellent advice on wills and powers of attorney. All in all, this is an excellent guide that every PWA and caregiver should have at hand. It would even merit being a ready reference book for any library reference department, since it answers so many questions and advises one on where else to look for information. A highly recommended source.

219. Risky Sexual Behaviors Among African-Americans, by Ernest H. Johnson. 1993. Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. 180p., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-275-94162-0. $55.00. (Descriptors: Risk Factors, Afro-Americans, Health and Hygiene, Sexual Behavior, Epidemiology)

"Most African-Americans suffer poorer health than the non-minority populations. They die in larger numbers and suffer more illnesses and incidence of disease than the nation as a whole." An alarming fact is that African-Americans comprise 24 percent of AIDS cases in the U.S. "and in a larger percentage of these cases AIDS was contracted through heterosexual intercourse." "This book describes the interrelationships between knowledge about AIDS, attitudes and emotional reactions associated with the use of condoms, previous history of being treated for sexually transmitted diseases, drug usage, and other relevant factors associated with African-American males and females who engage in risky sexual behaviors." The information was obtained from 200 African-American males and 205 African-American females whose average was 22 years.

After the first chapter, which is an introduction and overview, each chapter presents the current research pertaining to the topics discussed. Chapter 2 describes the design and methodology of the study. Chapter 3 discusses whether or not risky sexual behavior is related to knowledge of how AIDS is transmitted. Chapter 4 describes the sexual attitudes and behaviors of the individuals who are involved in multiple sex partners, use of condoms and whether or not the individuals feel that they are at a greater risk of AIDS than those with single partners. Chapter 5 looks at those individuals who have been previously treated for STDs and Chapter 6 describes the characteristics of those who always use condoms. Chapter 7 covers drug use and risky sexual behavior, Chapter 8 covers anal intercourse, and Chapter 9 describes those who have tested positive for AIDS.

The discussions are thorough, presenting a wealth of statistics, some in the form of charts and graphs. The distressing facts are that the findings indicate "that African-Americans with HIV/AIDS are more likely to have a history of sexually transmitted diseases." The biggest problem in the African-American communities is the lack of understanding about AIDS. Instead, the religious groups use AIDS as a means of identifying those who are unfit to be part of the community and therefore, education becomes a back-room discussion. There does seem, however, that these individuals have a good knowledge about AIDS but do not understand the link between AIDS and risky sexual behavior, probably because we do not know the full story about the sexuality of African-Americans. Johnson is very concerned about this lack of understanding and feels more effort has to be made to correct this deficiency. He believes that there should be "community empowerment as an adjunct to the development and implementation of HIV/AIDS education for African-Americans. He further indicates that education will have to be done through "schools, churches, community recreation centers, neighborhood basketball courts, workplaces, fraternities/sororities, and boys and girls clubs such as the Scouts."

An excellent book, even though it is alarming and distressing. It is recommended for all libraries.

220. AIDS and Intravenous Drug Use: The Influence of Morality, Politics, Social Science, and Race in the Making of a Tragedy, by M. Daniel Fernando. 1993. Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. 167p. bibliog., index. ISBN 0-275-94245-7. $45.00. (Descriptors: Prevention, Government Policy, Social Aspects, Intravenous Drug Abuse, Needle Sharing, Needle Exchange Programs, Drug Use, Minorities, Health and Hygiene, Drug Paraphernalia, Law and Legislation)

"The thesis of this book is a simple one. HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is spread among drug users through the use of contaminated needles. They are forced to use contaminated needles because of the scarcity and high price of needles in an illegal market, a situation caused and fostered by restrictive needle access policies and the criminalization of drug paraphernalia possession." Fernando makes a plea that these policies have to be changed now if we are to control the rampant spread of AIDS among the intravenous drug users. By first giving them the clean needles we are helping to halt the spread of the virus. The next step is then to get them to stop using drugs. Once they are drug free, they will also be AIDS free.

The chapter, "The Myth of Needle Sharing" is a powerful chapter. Fernando claims that their is a myth in this idea of needle sharing resulting in contaminated needles. There is not enough data to substantiate this, resulting in a lot of damage and much political fodder that results in an attitude of so what, dug users are expendable. Tied with this are the racial implications that AIDS and drug users has created. It is no secret that minorities make up the greatest number of intravenous drug users. "The black church, which plays a major role in the black community, has been reluctant to acknowledge AIDS, despite its awareness of the disease's impact on the community, because of its espousal of conservative values." This results in a less than desired educational impact on the African-American communities. Until this changes, the rise of AIDS in intravenous drug users will continue to rise. Fernando sums it up by stating "The second decade of AIDS will necessitate acknowledgment of real issues of the crisis. Pious platitudes and fear of heterosexual AIDS invading white middle-class America, which may have been successful in generating research funds, will not be convincing in the second decade."

A very well written book that brings a different point of view about AIDS and drugs. All counselors should read this book and it should be recommended reading for all Black religious and political leaders. We have to stop dragging our feet in finding a solution to this crisis and recognize that it is equally a black and white, gay and straight problem.

221. Rethinking AIDS: The Tragic Cost of Premature Consensus, by Robert S. Root-Bernstein. 1993. Free Press/Macmillan, 866 Third Ave., New York, NY 10022. 512p., illus., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-02-926905-9. $27.95. (Descriptors: Etiology, HIV Infections, HIV Viruses)

This book, considered by some as controversial, is a critique on what is known about AIDS. He assumes that most of the published experiments and clinical observations are accurate. "The data are correct; our interpretation of them is not. The problem is that a fact is not a fact until it is interpreted in the light of theory." He maintains that we know much about AIDS but too little about the other causative agents in AIDS. "It is imperative to rethink and research AIDS." In his chapter "Alternative Hypotheses for Explaining AIDS," Root-Bernstein stresses the need to study more of the cofactors rather than just saying that the HIV virus is the sole cause. He also indicates that AIDS is a disease that is the result of a "combination of many immunosuppressive factors." It may be easier to treat a cofactor than the HIV virus and thus in the long run be treating the virus so that it does not reproduce and result in AIDS. He states that he "could not care less whether AIDS is causes by HIV, by HIV with appropriate cofactors, or by non-HIV causes." His main concern is that research should not rule out everything but the HIV virus. The door has been closed on this alternative research and it needs to be reopened. Human lives depend on this research and until that is recognized we may be going down the wrong path.

This is a book well worth reading. It will make you think, make you angry, make you worried, and make you question everything you read. But that is what it is suppose to do. We cannot afford to go into this research blindly in the second decade. Maybe Root-Bernstein is right it what he advocates. If so, it would be a shame that the door is shut without any hope of it being reopened. If he is wrong, he admits that he will take the consequences, but how will we know if he is wrong if science does not try something different in research. Unfortunately AIDS research has become so politically and monetarily motivated that it appears some large companies are afraid of finding a solution for fear of losing all of the money that is currently being spent on this research. That would certainly be a sad day in the lives of all of those who are HIV positive. This book deserves to be read by everyone, including the current researchers. Our political leaders should look seriously at what is being said here and the person on the street should be aware of what is being written. It may cause confusion, but better that than causing more lives to be lost. Recommended for all libraries.

222. Guide to Living with HIV Infection, revised edition by John G. Bartlett, Ann K. Finkbeiner, developed at the Johns Hopkins AIDS Clinic. 1993. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2715 North Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-4319. 356p., index. ISBN 0-8018-4663-3, 0-8018-4664-1pbk. $40.00, $15.95. (Descriptors: HIV Infections, Psychological Aspects, Patients Rehabilitation)

"This book guides people through HIV infection, lets them know what they're up against, and helps them deal thoroughly and positively with the medical and emotional problems the infection presents. The book, first published in 1991, is about how to live with HIV infection, that is, how to live as long and full and satisfying a life as possible." This is a guide for the adult and is not intended to cover children with AIDS. Also, home nursing care is left to other excellent books such as the one reviewed above. Each chapter stands alone. The social and emotional issues are discussed and all groups of people are addressed together. The first chapter covers what you should understand about being diagnosed as HIV positive. This is followed by a discussion on preventing transmission and three chapters covering the effects of HIV infection on the body, the emotions, and interpersonal relations. The next four chapters are medical in nature discussing what to do when..., HIV and the central nervous system, medical personnel and procedures, and the range of available therapies.

Practical matters are covered in chapter ten such as making legal, financial, and medical decisions. Chapter eleven is preparing for and accepting death followed with a chapter on tactics for preserving mental health. Three appendices cover resources or where to go for help, understanding the tests for HIV, and a glossary. This is a straightforward written book that is based on actual experiences. It is meant to help dispel some of the fears that are associated with the HIV virus. It is an excellent book for anyone who is HIV positive and the caregivers who work with them. Counselors should have a copy at hand and all libraries from school to medical should have a copy.

223. History of AIDS: Emergence and Origin of a Modern Pandemic, by Mirko D. Grmek, translated by Russell C. Maulitz, Jacalyn Duffin. 1990. Princeton University Press, 41 William St., Princeton, NJ 08540. 279p. bibliog., index. ISBN 0-691-08552-8. $35.00. (Descriptors: History, Epidemiology)

This is a translation of Histoiere du sida: Debut et origine d'une pandemie actuelle, and is the first such history of AIDS that is international, written by a physician, philogist, and historian of science. Grmek offers two interwoven stories: "That of the reality of an unprecedented epidemic event, and that of the growth of our ideas about it." Part one, "A Calamity for our times," defines the new disease, research in the gay community, the first stirrings in Europe and "AIDS/SIDA: The Four-H Disease. Part two, "The Oracles of science," covers research into the virus, its discovery, solution to a controversy and the stages of AIDS. Part three looks back historically and points out lessons to be learned, the world before AIDS and questions whether or not AIDS is an ancient diseases. The final part, "Disaster: Its extent and causes," discusses the origin and spread of the AIDS agents, the biological and social conditions of the pandemic, the African source, and the highs and lows of modern medicine. This is a very good, readable history that includes a 47 page bibliography. Recommended for all libraries.

224. Promoting Safer Sex: Prevention of Sexual Transmission of AIDS and Other STD: Proceedings of an International Workshop, May 1989, The Netherlands, organized by The Dutch Foundation for Sexually Transmitted Diseases Control, Edited by Maria Paalman. 1990. Swets & Zeitlinger, PO Box 517, Berwyn, PA 19312. 250p., bibliog. ISBN 90-265-1012-8. $42.00. (Descriptors: Prevention and Control, Sex Education, Sexually Transmitted Diseases) (Contributors to this volume: Dirk Avonts, Institute of Tropical Medicine; Susan Biersteker, STD Foundation; Allan Brandt, Harvard Medical School; Ernst Buning, Drugsdept Municipal Health Service; Willard Cates, Centers for Disease Control; Hilary Curtis, British Medical Association; Dick Dees, Ministry of Health, the Netherlands; Don Des Jarlais, Beth Israel Medical Centre; Chuck Frutchey, San Francisco AIDS Foundation; Amanda Heggs, Denmark; Mukesh Kapila AIDS Programme Health Education Authority; Jo Kenny, Santa Cruz AIDS Project; Jonathan Mann, WHO/GPA; Andre Meheus, WHO/STD; Marjo Meijer, The Netherlands; Hans Moerkerk, Duch Commission on AIDS Control; Maria Paalman, STD Foundation; Peter Piot, Institute of Tropical Medicine; Theo Sandfort, Gay and Lesbian Studies Dept, State Univ. of Utrecht; Gunter Schmidt, Psych. Univ. Klinik Eppendort, West Germany; Guus Schryvers, State Univ. of Utrecht; Martien Sleutjes, STD Foundation; Frans van Spanje, STD Foundation; Nicoline Tamsma, Municipal Health Service Rotterdam; Janherman Veenker, The Netherlands; Rob Vlasblom, STD Foundation; Ernest de Vroome, Gay and Lesbian Studies Dept., State Univ. of Utrecht; Piet Wynsma, Dutch Health Education Centre)

The papers in this book are the result of plenary sessions and workshops at a conference held in 1989. "Ten different workshops, consisting of 15-25 invited experts, were organized: eight of them around a specific target group for prevention, one on condom use and one concerned with policy making." These proceedings include the keynote addresses and the workshop reports. The result of this workshop is that safer sex factors can be described as the "p" factors: partners, practices, prophylaxis, peers, persons with STDs, populations, politics, and panacea. Finally the book concludes with a statement that "STDs and HIV are not a single epidemic. Rather, as the Workshops have emphasized, they are multiple epidemics affecting vastly different populations in all parts of the world." Recommended for medical and academic libraries.

225. What You Can Do to Avoid AIDS, Earvin Magic Johnson. 1992. Times Books/Random House, 201 E. 50th St., 22nd Fl., New York, NY 10022. 192p., index. ISBN 0-8129-2063-5. $3.99. Descriptors: Famous Personalities, Safer Sex, Prevention)

This is a very frank, honest discussion about AIDS that is intended for the teenager. Magic Johnson speaks from the heart with the help of many advisors. His advice is always to seek medical advice and not try to do things on your own. There is nothing new to learn from the book, just that it is spoken by someone who is looked up to in the professional athletic arena. An excellent book for all teenagers to read and a book that is recommended for all libraries.

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