A I D S B O O K R E V I E W J O U R N A L

University of Illinois at Chicago

H. Robert Malinowsky

Editor

ISSN 1068-4174

Number 11 - August 1994


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Reviewed in this issue:

226. AIDS Clinical Review 1993/1994, edited by Paul Volberding, Mark A. Jacobson.
227. Last Wishes: A Workbook for Recording Your Funeral, Memorial, and Other Final Instructions, by Lucinda Page Knox, Michael D. Knox.
228. AIDS in Africa, edited by Max Essex, Souleymane Mboup, Phyllis J. Kanki, Mbowa R. Kalengayi, Paula J. Brewer.
229. Sharing the Delirium: Second Generation AIDS Plays and Performances.
230. Flexible Bodies: Tracking Immunity in American Culture--From the Days of Polio to the Age of AIDS, by Emily Martin.
231. Herpesvirus Infections, edited by Ronald Glaser, James F. Jones.
232. Everything You Need to Know About Being HIV-Positive, by Amy Shire.
233. HIV Epidemiology: Models and Methods, edited by Alfredo Nicolosi.
234. Preventing AIDS: Theories and Methods of Behavioral Interventions, edited by Ralph J. DiClemente, John L. Peterson.
235. Everything You Need to Know When a Parent Has AIDS, by Barbara Hermie Draimin.

Pre-1993 books briefly mentioned:

236. Positive Lives: Responses to HIV--A Photodocumentary, edited by Stephen Mayes, Lyndall Stein.
237. From TB to AIDS: Epidemics Among Urban Blacks Since 1900, by David McBride.
238. AIDS in America, by Charles H. Russell.
239. Pediatric AIDS: The Challenge of HIV Infection in Infants, Children, and Adolescents, edited by Philip A. Pizzo, Catherine M. Wilfert.
240. AIDS and the Social Sciences: Common Threads, edited by Richard Ulack, William F. Skinner.

226. AIDS Clinical Review 1993/1994, edited by Paul Volberding, Mark A. Jacobson. 1994. Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016. 281p., illus., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-8247-8855-9, ISSN 1045-2877. $99.75. (Descriptors: HIV Variants, Syphilis, Tuberculosis, Pneumocystis carinii, Lymphoma, Vaccines, Health Care Workers, Legal Aspects) (21 contributors to this volume)

The AIDS Clinical Review has been an annual review publication since 1989. Its purpose is to provide a "yearly update for these HIV practitioners in which some of the most important and controversial clinical issues are dissected and discussed in depth." By having a volume such as this there is the advantage of having faster publication of information. Each of the authors of a review has had papers recently published. "They also typically incorporate the results of their own recent investigations, as well as reviewing new, unpublished data." The first chapter, "The Clinical Significance of the Biological Phenotype of HIV," provides a new observation about virus phenotype that may be capable of predicting clinical outcomes in some strains of HIV. Chapter two, "Counseling and Medical Evaluation of HTLV-1- and HTLV-2-Infected Patients," covers both evaluation and treatment of persons with the two retroviruses. The next six chapters cover new developments in the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the opportunistic infections of bacillary angiomatosis, syphilis, tuberculosis, Pneumocystis carinii, cryptococcal disease, and Hepatitis B and C. HIV-associated lymphoma is the topic of chapter 9, while chapter 10 gives a review of the treatment of HIV for 1993/94. Chapter 11 is a detailed chapter discussing the "Clinical Uses of Hematopoietic Growth Hormones in HIV-Related Illnesses."

The last three chapters provide the latest development on vaccines, risk of HIV infection in health care workers, and the patient rights and physician responsibility. This last chapter is a very important one in this day of discrimination since it covers the rights to control the content of the medical record; to experimental, unorthodox, and ineffective therapies; to die; and to receive care. Each of these rights has been and is continuing to be abused with the right to treatment high on the list. This chapter sums it up by stating "As practitioners, we are undoubtedly better off as we confront the dilemmas that AIDS has posed and will continue to pose, reflecting on our duties as doctors and nurses and what we would want for ourselves in the patient's position." This is a very well organized set of reviews, providing much new information for the researcher. It is a highly recommended series that all medical and academic libraries should subscribe to and have available for their users.

227. Last Wishes: A Workbook for Recording Your Funeral, Memorial, and Other Final Instructions, by Lucinda Page Knox, Michael D. Knox. 1994. Applied Science Corp., PO Box 16118, Tampa, FL 33687. 144p. ISBN 0-9628460-0-7. $14.95. (Descriptors: Funerals, Memorials, Death, Dying)

Although this is not an AIDS-specific book, it is a very important one for any individual, whether healthy or not, to read and understand. "More than 2 million people die each year in the United States. Most die without leaving specific written instructions for their survivors." The text is brief but very clear. Numerous suggested forms are included. In fact, the entire book could be the final document with the appropriate portions filled in. There is even an envelope at the end for sealed instructions and requests. Included are a section for brief personal history, family members to be notified, friends to be notified, employers to be notified, employees to be notified, organizations to contact, obituary, funeral and memorial services, disposition of remains, designing of your own headstone, legal and insurance information, accounts and major assets, distribution of personal property, special messages, and various sample obituaries, wills, etc. Most of us do not like to think about these matters, but this book provides us with everything that we should think about and may overlook at the last minute. Recommended for personal use.

228. AIDS in Africa, edited by Max Essex, Souleymane Mboup, Phyllis J. Kanki, Mbowa R. Kalengayi, Paula J. Brewer. 1994. Raven Press, 1185 Ave. of the Americas, New York, NY 10036. 728p., illus., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-7817-0110-4. $160.00. (Descriptors: Epidemiology, Africa, Therapy, HIV Seroprevalence, Socioeconomic Factors) (70 contributors to this volume)

This impressive volume with a distinguished list of contributors "summarizes the primary biomedical, epidemiologic, and human realities that researchers, care providers, volunteers, and health officials in Africa confront each day in battling the AIDS epidemic." Some of the contributors are from Zaire and Rwanda, two countries now involved in the struggle to just keep people alive because of the political upheavals. Of the some 14 million people in the world who have AIDS, approximately 8 million live in sub-Sahara Africa. To control this disease will require much cooperation between governments, leaders, individuals, researchers, and volunteers.

There are other epidemics to contend with as well as malnutrition and economic dilapidation. It is important that research on AIDS in Africa be increased since "it is now Africa's turn to bear a disproportionate amount of the burden of AIDS, tomorrow the greater burden may lie elsewhere and we might be in a better position to reciprocate in the same spirit."

There are 7 introductory chapters discussing the etiology of AIDS, other human retroviruses, and vaccines. Section 2 covers epidemiology with 6 chapters, section 3 with 8 chapters covers clinical manifestations and treatments, section 4 has 3 chapters covering preventive strategies, section 5 covers the social and economic impact of AIDS on Africa with 4 chapters, and section 6 has 5 chapters that go into detail on the geographic variations of AIDS from North Africa to West Africa to Central Africa to East Africa to Southern Africa and the island countries. This section is extremely interesting in that it looks at each country and indicates the prevalence and incidence plus the prevention and control measures. This book has a wealth of information in it that is well documented and illustrated. It is a must for anyone doing research in this area and a recommended work for any medical library as well as large academic libraries.

229. Sharing the Delirium: Second Generation AIDS Plays and Performances, selected and introduced by Therese Jones. 1994. Heinemann/Reed Elsevier, 361 Hanover St., Portsmouth, NH 03801-3912. 342p. ISBN 0-435-08633-2. $16.95. (Descriptors: Patients, Gay Men, Drama, Gay Men's Writings)

The first AIDS play was Larry Kramer's The Normal Heart, followed by William Hoffman's As Is and Harvey Fierstein's Safe Sex. Those who analyze AIDS plays call these the first generation happenings where "The playwright's obligation is to present the material, to present the facts, and mourn them, and mourn the situation." We are now into the second generation where the plays are angry and funny "and kind of abstract." The seven plays that were selected "reflect the creative genius and political commitment of the artists/activists who produced them and who share with us the exhilarating and empowering fusion of carnival." The seven plays are: "The Baddest of Boys," 1992, by Doug Holsclaw; "Myron, A Fairy Tale in Black and White," 1993, by Michael Kearns; "Queen of Angels," 1992, by James Carroll Pickett; "Satan and Simon DeSoto," 1991, by Ted Sod; "AIDS! The Musical!," 1991, by Wendell Jones and David Stanley, music by Robert Berg; "What Are Tuesdays Like?," 1993, by Victor Bumbalo; and "My Queer Body," 1994, by Tim Miller.

These are truly delightful plays to read and make one want to see productions of each. They are each unique and have a different message but all are entertaining. They will, however, upset many individuals who believe it is not right to make fun of terminal illness and death. With so many of our friends passing away, plays such as these help in the healing and mourning process. We all have to face death some day and if anyone can make that an easier process, then power to them. In AIDS! The Musical! one finds such songs as "Mother and father they kicked my ass out, I had to teach them what gay is about, They didn't argue, But they were not all that impressed. Father was crying and mother was drunk, They didn't notice my boyfriend the hunk, They finally woke up when I came home in pumps and a dress!" This is a highly recommended collection of plays to read and enjoy. Public and academic libraries should have several copies to circulate.

230. Flexible Bodies: Tracking Immunity in American Culture--From the Days of Polio to the Age of AIDS, by Emily Martin. 1994. Beacon Press, 25 Beacon St., Boston, MA 02108-2892. 320p., illus., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-8070-4626-4. $25.00. (Descriptors: Medical Anthropology, Immunity, Social Aspects, Immune System, Health and Hygiene)

Emily Martin has many concerns when it comes to tracking immunity, having lost a bother to polio and now volunteering in the AIDS crisis. She states "The shifts that especially concern me in this book relate to the questions of what health is, what it includes, what a body is made up of, what a person is made up of, what makes a healthy work organization, what disease is, and how the terms in which people come to understand themselves yield particular answers to questions like these." To do this she interviewed hundreds of people, observed research in labs, attended lectures and actually learned to perform Western blots and carried out a series of experiments. She further states that "Many of these shifts, as we will see, involve the emergence of the immune system as a field in terms of which all manner of questions and definitions about health are given meaning and measured." Her studies have shown that we now have a new trait called flexibility. Everyone desires it, some use it for good, and others use it against you, such as in discrimination.

With all of this in mind Martin begins tracking immunity in the culture of Americans, beginning with the days of polio to the present with AIDS. The chapter, "The Body at War: Media Views of the Immune System," is interesting in that it shows how concerned we were about the immune system in the 50s and in the late 80s with AIDS in the forefront. From here she illustrates how the person on the street views the immune system, then the practitioners and scientists. She devotes a chapter to the idea of flexibility, explaining how it is an integral part of our life, even in the training and development of managers where posters stated "Flexibility: The most important leadership tool of this decade."

This is an intriguing book that has to be read from cover to cover, thinking about what is written with out any interruptions. It is a provocative book that will make you think. If you were not flexible in your thoughts before reading the book, you will be afterwards. A highly recommended book for all libraries.

231. Herpesvirus Infections, edited by Ronald Glaser, James F. Jones. 1994. Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016. 279p., bibliog., index. (Infectious Disease and Therapy, 13) ISBN 0-8247-8867-2. $125.00. (Descriptors: Herpesvirus Diseases, Herpesviridae Infections) (Contributors to this volume: Yoshizo Asano, Fujita Health Univ. School of Medicine, Japan; William J. Britt, Univ. of Alabama; Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser, Ohio State Univ. Medical Center; Ronald Glaser, Ohio State Univ. Medical Center; Charles Grose, Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine; James F. Jones, Univ. of Colorado School of Medicine; Ben Z. Katz, Children's Memorial Hospital, Chicago; Richard J. Whitley, Univ. of Alabama)

This research oriented book presents the latest "descriptions of new herpesviruses, herpesvirus complication of HIV infection, identification of the cause of a clinical illness whose origin had been unknown for over 80 years..." These are important developments that any researcher in this area should be aware of. "The collection of chapters in this text is intended to provide the clinician and scientist with an up-to-date review of clinical herpesvirus infections, including areas of viral pathogenesis not yet fully understood." The six chapters cover "Herpes Simplex Virus Infections," "Infections Associated with Human Cytomegalovirus," "Varicella Zoster Virus Infections: Chickenpox, Shingles, and Varicella Vaccine," "Epstein-Barr Virus Infections in Normal and Immunosuppressed Patients," "Human Herpesvirus Type 6 Infections," and "Stress-Associated Immune Modulation and Its Implications for Reactivation of Latent Herpesviruses." Recommended for all medical libraries.

232. Everything You Need to Know About Being HIV-Positive, by Amy Shire. 1994. Rosen Publishing Group, 29 E 21st St., New York, NY 10010. 64p., illus., bibliog., index. (The Need to Know Library) ISBN 0-8239-1689-8. $14.95. (Descriptors: Juvenile Literature, HIV Infections)

This is an interestingly written book for teenagers that describes what it means to be HIV positive. It covers such topics as denial, fear, and anger, how will others respond, legal rights, how do you take care of your body, making the right decisions, and keeping a positive outlook. All school libraries should have copies of this book as should public libraries. Highly recommended.

233. HIV Epidemiology: Models and Methods, edited by Alfredo Nicolosi. 1994. Raven Press, 1185 Ave. of the Americas, New York, NY 10036. 367p., illus., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-7817-0118-X. $85.00. (Descriptors: HIV Infections, Epidemiology, Data Interpretation, Epidemiologic Methods) (77 contributors to this volume)

These research papers are based on a workshop promoted by the Italian National Research Council, held in September, 1992. The topics covered in this workshop include HIV infection among intravenous drug users, heterosexual and gay transmission, history, treatments, statistics, and vaccine development or progress. Some of the papers are original results while others are critical reviews. All in all it is a highly technical book that will be of great interest to those who are involved in epidemiologic studies of HIV. It provides many new methodologies that will help in future epidemiological research. It is divided into 8 sections: "Intravenous Drug Users," "International Comparative Epidemiology," "Heterosexual Transmission," "Issues of Study Design," 'Vaccine Trials Against HIV Infection," "Statistical Data Analysis and Interpretation," "Natural History," and "Influence of Treatment on the Epidemiology of HIV infection." Each paper is very well documented, including a log of the discussions that followed the paper or during the presentation of the paper. This is a recommended book for all medical libraries.

234. Preventing AIDS: Theories and Methods of Behavioral Interventions, edited by Ralph J. DiClemente, John L. Peterson. 1994. Plenum Press, 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013. 336p., bibliog., index. (AIDS Prevention and Mental Health) ISBN 0-306-44606-5. $49.50. (Descriptors: HIV Infections, Prevention, Health Behavior) (35 contributors to this volumes)

This well organized volume "brings together a multidisciplinary group of behavioral researchers who have conducted major research interventions in HIV primary prevention. This volume identifies the principal theories and methods utilized in behavioral change interventions and examines their impact in a variety of populations." The first chapter discusses the changing HIV/AIDS risk behaviors while the second chapter covers the health belief model and HIV risk behavior change. The following chapters cover the social cognitive theory, using information to change sexually transmitted disease-related behaviors, diffusion theory, social models for changing health-relevant behavior, school based interventions, adolescent interventions, preventing HIV among runaways, in-treatment injection dug users, prevention for drug users, interventions for sexual partners of HIV-infected or high-risk individuals, interventions for sexually active heterosexual women, prevention for gay and bisexual men in metropolitan cities and in small cities, and lessons learned.

This is an interesting book with a wealth of information for researchers. Intervention research has much to offer in how we look at AIDS and its consequences. For example "cultural and gender differences regarding sexuality and sex roles can be a formidable barrier to effective behavior change." Two important results of intervention research show that more community intervention programs need to be developed to promote the adoption of social norms that will in turn encourage low-risk behavior and behavior change interventions need the ability to maintain initial changes in high-risk behaviors. This is an excellent work and should be in all medical and academic libraries as well as large public libraries.

235. Everything You Need to Know When a Parent Has AIDS, by Barbara Hermie Draimin. 1994. Rosen Publishing Group, 29 E. 21st St., New York, NY 10010. 64p., illus., bibliog., index. (The Need to Know Library) ISBN 0-8239-1690-1. $14.95. (Descriptors: Juvenile Literature, Children of AIDS Patients, Parent and Child, Family Relationships)

So many books for teenagers have focused on the teenager being the one who is HIV positive. This book looks at the parent who is HIV positive. In straight forward text it discusses the facts about HIV and AIDS, will I get AIDS from my parents, preventing HIV, what does AIDS do to a family, whom can I tell, and what will illness and death look like. Great effort is taken to help the child through the troubling times, including starting over after a parent dies. All school libraries should have this well written book as well as public libraries.

236. Positive Lives: Responses to HIV--A Photodocumentary, edited by Stephen Mayes, Lyndall Stein. 1993. Cassell, 387 Park Ave. S., New York, NY 10016-8810. 142p., illus. ISBN 0-304-32846-4. $29.95. (Descriptors: Photographs, Social Aspects)

This is a powerful book!! One picture can say more than a thousand words. The pictures contained in this book document many lives including parents, buddies, friends, doctors, nurses, and siblings. "Photography, as Roland Barthes observed, is always about death, since it records unrepeatable moments, captures the passing of the present and arrests that process of decay called time." These photographs do capture life and death in a way that one cannot forget. "AIDS is a lonely thing...AIDS may be opportunistic, but it usually comes inopportunely to cut short lives that have yet to be fulfilled." This book documents the effects of HIV infection on communities in Britain. The photographs show grief and courage and a commitment of those who are fighting this dreadful disease.

It is difficult to photograph disease, feelings, love, and fear. However, when one looks at these photographs, all these senses are there in the eyes, reflections, conditions, and other surroundings. The photographers have made a remarkable contribution in documenting the devastating consequences of AIDS and its destruction of everything around it. This is a moving book, one that some people will not be able to look at. When the reviewer looked at it, he was reminded of the first time he saw the Quilt. The sadness was there but there was also the love that these individuals had. For those who say AIDS is Gods way of punishing us, I say, look at this book. Would any God want his or her children to look this way and suffer?? A highly recommended book for all libraries.

237. From TB to AIDS: Epidemics Among Urban Blacks Since 1900, by David McBride. 1991. State University of New York Press, State University Plaza, Albany, NY 12246. 234p., bibliog., index. (SUNY Series in Afro-American Studies) ISBN 0-7914-0529-X. $18.95. (Descriptors: Afro-Americans, Health and Hygiene; Social Medicine; Epidemiology; Blacks; Communicable Diseases; Delivery of Health Care; History; Disease Outbreaks; Prejudice; Urban Population)

The goal of this book is "to measure the effects of disease outbreaks and race-health differentials on black Americans as well as expert structures within and outside of black communities involved in controlling this problem." The book is in two parts. Part l, "Discovering the black health crisis," discusses the problems and origins of sociomedical racialism in the south; black migrations, World War I, and the new clinical order; and building the black public health sector in the 1920s. The 2nd part, "Federal missions, racial realities," speaks of the depression through the new deal as the nation-state confronts the black health crisis; World War II to pharmacological revolution; and finally facing the AIDS epidemic. There has been a lack of historical studies that look into the role of disease and alienation in the urban black communities, so this book becomes a very important work. The book focuses on the 1920s when TB was taking its heaviest toll, the depression when venereal disease was rampant, then the 1940s through the 1970s when an all out effort was made to control TB and venereal diseases, and finally the 1980s when AIDS has taken over as the new black epidemic. This is a powerful book that should be of interest to any sociological researcher interested in how diseases among the Afro-Americans have been overlooked and are still not being given their proper place in priorities. Public, academic, and medical libraries should have this book.

238. AIDS in America, by Charles H. Russell. 1991. Springer-Verlag, 175 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10010. 147p. ISBN 0-387-97462-8. $49.00. (Descriptors: Epidemiology, Public Opinion, Socioeconomic Factors)

This book of statistical tables is based on the General Social Survey, a public opinion poll conducted annually by the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago. In 1988 the Center asked for the first time a series of 17 questions related to AIDS. The tables are compiled into 9 sections: "Characteristics of Persons Who Have Known Individuals with AIDS," "Age and Responses to Questions about AIDS," "Gender and Responses to Questions about AIDS," "Race and Response to AIDS Questions," "Number of Persons Known with AIDS and Responses to AIDS Questions," "Region and Response to AIDS Questions," "Income and Response to AIDS Questions," "Education and Response to AIDS Questions," and "Religion and Response to AIDS Questions." This is a reference source for researchers and not a book to pick up and read for its content. Although one can read through the tables and form opinions, much study has to be made before the real understanding can be seen. A very useful book for sociometrical studies and recommended for medical and academic libraries.

239. Pediatric AIDS: The Challenge of HIV Infection in Infants, Children, and Adolescents, edited by Philip A. Pizzo, Catherine M. Wilfert. 1991. Williams & Wilkins, 428 E Preston St, Baltimore, MD 21202. 813p., illus., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-683-06894-6. $92.00. (Descriptors: Children, Adolescence, Infancy & Childhood) (97 contributors to this volume)

This large volume with a distinguished group of contributors could be used as a standard textbook and a general reference volume on pediatric AIDS. It "is an attempt to integrate the ingredients and components that are essential to current and future strategies aimed at the management and prevention of this every-increasing problem." It is a summary of all that is known up to the time of publication concerning AIDS in children. Every pediatrician should have this volume on their reference shelf and all medical and large academic libraries should have it available, especially as a reference volume for medical libraries.

240. AIDS and the Social Sciences: Common Threads, edited by Richard Ulack, William F. Skinner. 1991. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40508-4008. 177p., illus., bibliog. ISBN 0-8131-1760-7. $21.00. (Descriptors: Social Aspects) (Contributors to this volume: William W. Darrow, Centers for Disease Control; Ernest Drucker, Albert Einstein College of Medicine; Douglas A. Feldman, Univ. of Miami; Peter Gould, Pennsylvania State Univ.; Edwin Hackney, Bluegrass East Comprehensive Care Center; Beth E. Schneider, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara; Gary W. Shannon, Univ. of Kentucky; William F. Skinner, Univ. of Kentucky; Ronald Stall, Univ. of California, San Francisco; Richard Ulack, Univ. of Kentucky; Ernestine Vanderveen, Dept. of Health and Human Services, Maryland)

This book is the proceedings of a symposium held in October 1989 on the University of Kentucky campus. This was the first symposium that addressed AIDS and social sciences with speakers from the fields of geography, sociology, anthropology, psychology, and social work. "The major objective of the symposium, and therefore of this volume, is to inform, educate, and enhance the understanding of the social science community about the etiology, spread, and prevention of AIDS." The papers do a very good job of doing just this. Those presented included: "AIDS: A Search for Origins," "Modeling the Geographic Spread of AIDS for Educational Intervention," "Communities at Risk: The Social Epidemiology of AIDS in New York City," "Low-Incidence Community Response to AIDS," "AIDS: Socioepidemiologic Responses to an Epidemic," "An Anthropological Research Agenda for an AIDS Epicenter within the United States," "The Sociocultural Impacts of AIDS in Central and East Africa," "Women, Children, and AIDS: Research Suggestions," and "Federal Funding in AIDS Activity." If you have not seen or heard of this book, find it, and read it. The social aspects are a very important part of the AIDS crisis and this symposium sets the stage for those aspects. Recommended for all medical and academic libraries as well as large public libraries.


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