Pre-1993 books and videos briefly mentioned:
This "book presents AIDS modeling research that can directly or indirectly improve decision making for planning, resource allocation, and public health policy." Many of the chapters are the papers that were presented at the 34th Joint National Meeting of the Operations Research Society of America and the Institute of Management Sciences held in San Francisco in 1992. It includes both models developed in academia and by public health practitioners. The reason for this is that "the modeling products of academics and practitioners differ in many ways, including data requirements, mathematical sophistication, precision, pragmatism, and focus." The focus is on the United States with the intended audience being public health decision makers, policy analysts, AIDS researchers, mathematicians, statisticians, and operations researchers interested in public health. To understand most of the book, the reader has to feel comfortable with applied mathematical presentations.
The first section, "AIDS Policy Modeling" contains 14 chapters covering projections, timing, costs and benefits, screening, optimization, and early drug intervention in HIV infection. The next section, "Models for AIDS Backcasting and Forecasting" has 6 chapters that cover "AIDS Incidence Projections that Incorporate Changes in the Latency Distribution," "Using Linear Programming in an HIV/AIDS Estimation Model," "Successful HIV/AIDS Modeling in San Francisco," "The Effects of Antiviral Therapy on the Transmission Dynamics of HIV-1," "A Risk-Based Heterosexual Model for the AIDS Epidemic with Biased Sexual Partner Selection," and "From a Microcosmic IDU Model to a Macrocosmic HIV Epidemic." The third section, "Modeling Infectivity and Disease Progression" has 5 chapters and the last section, "Modeling the Social Organization of Risky Behavior" has 5 chapters.
This is a highly technical book that will help statisticians and others appreciate how AIDS modeling has been and can continue to be used to understand better the AIDS epidemic. The authors are firm believers in their modeling and they hope that this volume will "create a dialogue between the potential producers and consumers of AIDS modeling." This is a highly recommended book for all medical and academic libraries.
242. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, 2nd edition, revised and expanded, edited by Peter D. Walzer. 1994. Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016. 706p., illus., bibliog., index. (Lung Biology in Health and Disease, v.69). ISBN 0-8247-8854-0. $115.00. (Descriptors: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia) (42 contributors to this volume)
"Today, lung disease associated with HIV-1 infection continues to be the leading cause of death in people with AIDS." Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) accounted for 60% of the AIDS-related cases in 1989 with 59% of those resulting in death. Much has been learned about this disease and much is yet to be learned. More and more drugs are being developed. This volume is a treatise on what has been learned in the past few years about PCP and identifies questions and avenues of investigation that are waiting to be explored. Nevertheless, the ten years since the first edition of this book have provided a great amount of new knowledge. With AIDS being the greatest health crisis of our time. The "urgent need to understand this pathogen and to develop new treatments has spawned breathtaking advances in molecular biology, meticulous epidemiological studies, further valuable studies of host defense, and seminal studies of the treatment and prevention of P. carinii pneumonia in the immunocompromised host, using agents that have never previously been used to treat this opportunistic infection." An indication of the new knowledge that has been presented is exemplified by the fact that the first edition of this book had 8 chapters with only one devoted to AIDS. This edition has 31 chapters, all of which are directly or indirectly related to AIDS. Another treatise that should be noted covering P. carinii is Walter Hughes' 2-volume work Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis, published in 1987, providing an excellent historical overview.
The chapters are arranged within 6 sections: "Basic Biology," "Epidemiology," "Pathophysiology," "Clinical Features," "Diagnosis," and "Treatment and Prevention." Each of the chapters follows an outline of introduction, discussion, conclusion, and references. The references, alone, cover some 2,000 citations. In the section on treatment and prevention a separate chapter is devoted to each of the following treatments: folate antagonists; pentamidine and related compounds; primaquine, other 8-aminoquinolines, and clindamycin; hydroxynaphthoquinones; beta-1,3-glucan synthesis inhibitors; and corticosteroids. This is a highly recommended treatise for all medical libraries.
243. AIDS Research Archives: Observations on Social and Political Change 1980-1990. 1994. Jerry Alper, Inc., 271 Main St., PO Box 218, Eastchester, NY 10707. $675.00. (Descriptors: Social Issues, History, Politics)
The description of these archives is based on brochures from the publisher. The clippings and other ephemeral files of the Gay Men's Health Crisis (GMHC) are housed at the New York Public Library. This file has been microfilmed and is marketed as the AIDS Research Archives. It "documents the history of AIDS growth and treatment seen through the eyes of alternative media" by providing over 10 years of AIDS history. It covers some 150 publications, 3,000 articles, pamphlets, and reports. The 150 publications contain newsletters and papers published by gay organizations, the gay press, health clinics, and research groups. All of the material has been indexed under 160 subjects providing "an alternative media perspective on AIDS spread and treatment during the early years of the pandemic." Based on the publisher's statement, this would be an excellent reference source for any public, academic, or medical library. It would also provide a model for others who have collected this type of information and do not have it organized.
244. Evolution of Infectious Disease, by Paul W. Ewald. 1994. Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016. 298p., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-19-506058-X. $35.00. (Descriptors: Host-Parasite Relationships, Communicable Diseases, Evolution)
The study of the evolution of disease is intriguing, to say the least. In most studies of disease, the host has been the focus for researchers, medical doctors, and historians. Few have studied the parasite and its evolution to the point of causing or not causing an epidemic such as the pandemic of influenza that began towards the end of 1918 and killed some 20 million people before it ended. There are many questions as to why this kind of influenza has not repeated itself. Ewald believes he can "provide reasonable answers to these kinds of questions by integrating the fundamental principles of evolutionary biology with our knowledge of epidemiology." He indicates that we need to be aware of evolution that goes on around us not just to be educated but to recognize that it can mean life or death for all of mankind. "No parasites among us: from the parasites of our agricultural resources, to the vectors of our lethal diseases, to the protozoa, bacteria and viruses that will kill millions of us this year. If we want to understand and manage our world better, we had better try to understand the evolution of infectious disease."
This very interesting book can best be described by listing the chapter headings: "Why this book?," "Symptomatic treatment (Or how to bind The Origin of Species to The Physician's Desk Reference)," "Vectors, vertical transmission, and the evolution of virulence," "How to be severe without vectors," "When water moves like a mosquito," "Attendant-borne transmission (Or how are doctors and nurses like mosquitoes, machetes, and moving water?)," "War and virulence," "AIDS: Where did it come from and where is it going?," "The fight against AIDS: Biomedical strategies and HIV's evolutionary responses," "A look backward," and "and A glimpse forward (Or WHO needs Darwin)." This is a well written book that should be of interest to the educated layperson as well as the evolutionary researcher and the medical profession. Ewald presents a great deal of grist to chew on providing a lot of documented research on some of his theories and observations. There is a 70-page list of references that would keep any skeptic busy in looking up historical information. For the AIDS researcher, looking into the evolutionary route of the disease should not be overlooked. Much could be gained in looking at what has happened over the last 10 or 15 years and correlating that with what we know from the previous 50 years or more. We definitely need to understand the evolution of any infectious diseases, especially that of AIDS in order to come up with a cure or vaccine. This book is recommended for public, academic, and medical libraries.
245. Evolutionary Medicine: Rethinking the Origins of Disease, by Marc Lappe. 1994. Sierra Club Book, 100 Bush St., 13th fl., San Francisco, CA 94104. 255p., illus., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-87156-519-6. $30.00. (Descriptors: Diseases, Causes and Theories of Causation, Environmentally Induced Diseases, Environmental Health, Human Evolution, Disease Etiology, Epidemiologic Factors, Evolution, Hominidae)
This book and the previously reviewed one, Evolution of Infectious Disease, provide two important books that should be recognized by all researchers for their emphasis on evolution in the study of AIDS. Lappe is "convinced that evolutionary theory is as essential for understanding how the body works and responds to disease as it is for understanding how ecosystems work together." Evolution tends to be neglected in medical education, yet historians continue to point out how evolution has resulted in the spread of disease. Hindsight seems to rule. Maybe it is time to look more seriously at this concept of evolutionary biology when studying such diseases as AIDS or cancer or influenza. In geology, the past is the key to the present. Why have we not applied that same philosophy to other disciplines, especially the medical field? In between the chapters labeled "Introduction" and "Conclusion" are 10 interesting chapters: "Ecosystem disruption and disease," "Understanding natural selection," "Life, death, and cancer," "Infectious diseases," "Lethal germs," "AIDS," "Attacks against the self," "Vulnerability to disease," "Malaria," and "Evolution and asthma."
The chapter on AIDS has some controversial material, yet it needs to be placed before the researcher so that "no stone is left unturned" in this search for the cause of AIDS and a search for a cure or vaccine. "Because of its newness in the human population and its high mutation rate, it is likely that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes AIDS is undergoing evolutionary changes even as this is being written." That in itself is frightening when one thinks of how research is conducted. If the virus is evolving faster than we can research it, then we are losing the battle until such time that the evolutionary process crosses itself and begins to cancel out its progress. There is no doubt that evolutionary biology will become more important as the years go on in the search for controls to all diseases. As data is collected and analyzed, the evolution of the disease being studied becomes more important. We will not just think of the victim and its immediate problems, but will think of the entire evolutionary life of the virus or disease. This is a recommended book for public, academic, and medical libraries.
246. Muses from Chaos and Ash: AIDS, Artists, and Art, by Andrea R. Vaucher. 1993. Grove Press, 841 Broadway, New York, NY 10003-4793. 260p. ISBN 0-8021-1413-X. $22.50. (Descriptors: Interviews, Artists, Attitudes, Patients, Modern Art)
Andrea R. Vaucher has produced a moving book that documents a window in the time of AIDS and its disastrous effect on art and artists. "AIDS has ravaged the international creative community, leaving a torrent of interrupted dreams and unfinished personal canvases in its wake. During the first week of December in 1991, a bell tolled every ten minutes in art galleries and museums around the world, marking the rate at which people were dying of AIDS." The interviews of artists who are HIV positive or have AIDS are presented in this book, showing the "courage and willingness to shatter denial and confront the truth." These are powerful conversations that made Vaucher uncomfortable in the beginning. "As they heroically explored their lives and their deaths, they never ran from their feelings, not even the most painful ones." It is truly a book for everyone to read--the skeptical straight world, the religious right, those with AIDS or who are HIV positive, the caregivers, teenagers, survivors, and you and I. It is not an "analytic study of work and performance" but rather a talk on the creative process itself with comments on art, psychology, politics, and philosophy.
Included in the interviews are Reza Abdoh (playwright/director), Peter Adair (filmmaker), Steve Brown (filmmaker), Cyril Collard (novelist/filmmaker), Rick Darnell (Choreographer/performance artist), Tory Dent (poet), Robert Farber (painter), Herve Guibert (novelist), Keith Haring (painter), Essex Hemphill (poet), Bo Huston (novelsit), Larry Kramer (author), Robert Mapplethorpe (photographer), Jamie McHugh (dancer), Paul Monette (author), Cookie Mueller (writer/actress), Kenny O'Brien (designer), Marlon Riggs (filmmaker), Philip Justin Smith (playwright/performer), Burton Taylor (dancer), Tim Wengerd (dancer), Edmund White (novelist), David Wojnarowicz (painter), and Arnie Zane (choreographer). This is a highly recommended book for all libraries.
251. Rock and a Hard Place: One Boy's Triumphant Story, by Anthony Godby Johnson, foreword by Paul Monette, introduction by Jack L. Godby, afterword by Fred Rogers. 1993. Crown Publishers, 201 E. 50th St., New York, NY 10022. 213p. ISBN 0-517-59501-X. $20.00. (Descriptors: Abused Children, Sexually Abused Children, Biography)
This story, written by a 14-year old, is a warm account of a sexually abused and neglected boy who has AIDS. He was rescued from his biological parents after he called a national hotline and was adopted by his social workers who became loving parents and helped this young man through many obstacles. His life story, all be it only 14 years, is touching and one that will keep you reading until you have finished. Tony had a great deal of strength and was able to put this across in his writing. This strength will be transmitted to other teenagers who read this book and relate to many of the things that have happened to Tony. He writes with wit, wisdom, sincerity, humor, sadness, and hope all rolled together neatly so that you are drawn towards him to read and hear more of this 14-year-old's trials and tribulations. In has last chapter, "Cicely, Alaska; Hot Pretzels; and Purple Light," he speaks of the Republican convention where Barbara Bush removed the red ribbon before speaking before the convention. He realized that politics was a contest of ideas and that the Democrats were not afraid to say gay or AIDS and talked about programs for the poor while the Republicans talked about family values. In spite of all the abuse he had in his early years, he still relates "If I've learned anything, it's that we're all just people. Our values and beliefs are our own. No matter what we believe, we all suffer, we all hurt, and it isn't because of how we think or what we do, it's just because we're human." "Silence does equal death, but there's nothing that can be done about that until the silence stops serving a purpose that frightens people more than death itself."
This young man speaks as an adult and is fully aware of how AIDS is transmitted. He is not afraid to speak out against those who say abstinence is the only way. He states that kids have sex and unprotected sex. Condoms are a must. "Self-esteem is what needs to be addressed at great length, because a lack of it is usually the reason that kids engage in impulsive sex." This book should be an inspiration to all who are faced with death, whether it is AIDS or some other devastating disease. Tony sums it all up with: "At the moment of my death, I want three things. I want not to be afraid. I want the people I love to know just how much I love them, and that a part of me will be inside them and make them smile every time they think about me." We all should be so lucky to have this outlook when faced with the end. This book is recommended for all libraries.
248. AIDS & Anthropology Bulletin: The Newsletter of the AIDS and Anthropology Research Group. 1990?- . AIDS and Anthropology Research Group (AARG), Department of Anthropology, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Houston, TX 77004-5882. Comes with membership in AARG. (Descriptors: Anthropology)
A newsletter of the AARG that reports happenings of the group, meeting announcements, obituaries, publication alerts, and bibliographies.
249. Human Herpesviruses, edited by Bernard Roizman, Richard J. Whitley, Carlos Lopez. 1993. Raven Press, 1185 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036. 433p., illus., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-7817-0024-8. $90.00. (Descriptors: Herpesvirus Diseases, Herpesviridae, Herpesvirus Infections, Vaccines) (21 contributors to this volume)
This impressive volume is a treatise on the human herpesviruses that were first discovered the first quarter of this century. "Herpesviruses have been discovered in all higher eukaryotes investigated to date." This volume is limited to just the human herpesviruses. This is a highly technical volume that contains 16 chapters that cover in detail the various herpesviruses, their replication, biology, clinical aspects, therapy, and possible vaccines. Although this is not an AIDS-related diseases, it has gained the attention of AIDS researchers since it involves the immune system. Anyone who is doing AIDS research will recognize the importance of the herpesviruses. Included in the discussions are accounts of the Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, Varicella-Zoster virus, human herpesviruses 6 and 7, and B virus. Six chapters speak of therapy and vaccine research. This is a recommended book for all medical libraries.
250. How to Talk to Your Kids About Really Important Things: Specific Questions and Answers and Useful Things to Say, by Charles E. Schaefer, Theresa Foy DiGeronimo. 1994. Jossey-Bass Publishers, 350 Sansome St., San Francisco, CA 94104. 309p.( Jossey-Bass Social and Behavioral Science Series; Jossey-Bass Education Series; Jossey-Bass Health Series) ISBN 1-55542-611-5. $12.50. (Descriptors: Parent and Child, Communication in the Family, Parenting, Children's Questions and Answers)
It is difficult, at times, to explain certain things to children when they happen such as death of a loved one, death of a pet, dying child, hospital stay, moving, remarriage, homosexuality, prejudice, puberty, HIV/AIDS, and sexual abuse. This small book does a good job in coaching parents or guardians on what can be said. On the questions about HIV and AIDS, this book does quite well in giving advice. It speaks of when to bring up the subject, media reports, and school programs. This is followed by advice and responses for children aged 4-7 and 8-12. The focus is on these ages and, therefore, the matter of information about sex and AIDS is not discussed. They stress that you cannot get AIDS by playing with HIV positive children and that you must have compassion for those that are HIV positive and not ridicule or isolate them. All in all, a good book with advice on a wide variety of topics. Recommended for home use as well as school and public libraries.
251. Dr. Ruth's Encyclopedia of Sex, by Ruth K. Westheimer. 1994. Continuum Publishing Co., 370 Lexington Ave., New York, NY 10017. 319p., illus., index. ISBN 0-8264-0625-4. $29.50. (Descriptors: Sex Dictionaries)
This encyclopedia is brought to everyone's attention because Dr. Ruth is so well known and has no bias towards any group. Her advice is straight forward, full of common sense. "If it makes you feel good, do it" could be her motto. She, however, gives excellent medical advice that should not be overlooked by anyone. Although she may upset some, all in all, what she states is for anyone and everyone, young and old. Her entry for AIDS is brief, to the point, and accurate. Unfortunately, there will be many who will not accept this book because of its frankness and illustrations. It also contains two glossaries. One is a general glossary of often encountered sex terminology. The other, more controversial for those who are on a moral pilgrimage, is a glossary of sexual slang that includes every conceivable slang term used in describing sex and sexual acts. This glossary is an excellent source for anyone doing counseling in the intercities or many of the ethnic neighborhoods where sex terms may be totally unfamiliar and the person being counseled is ashamed to try to describe the terms. If you can talk and think of the level of those you are talking to, then you may be able to get the AIDS message across since talking about sex is so very much involved in this educational process. This encyclopedia is highly recommended for home use providing parents are understanding and ready to explain some of what it contains. It definitely is recommended for school, public, academic, and medical libraries.
252. After Goodbye: An AIDS Story. Narrated by Ruby Dee, produced by North Texas Public Broadcasting. 1993. Distributed by PBS Video, 1320 Braddock Place, Alexandria, VA 22314-1698. Color video. 56min. AGASOOO. $69.95. (Descriptors: Death, Grieving)
This video is about the Turtle Creek Chorale of Dallas, Texas, a chorale of 200 that has lost 60 members to AIDS. It is a beautiful video of music, narrative, and expressions. To listen to the music is moving, sad, uplifting, understanding, and just plain beautiful. The songs speak of loss and grief as well as joy and happiness. The expressions on the faces of the chorale speak in themselves to what it means to grieve, to miss someone, to love someone, to care for someone, and to be depressed over their loss or being HIV positive. Interspersed with the music are comments from a PWA who says the biggest disappointment for him is the hatred of PWAs and gays by so many people whom you would think would have compassion. Also are expressions from family and loved ones speaking about their loss along with the anger that it produced. Finally, scenes showing the making of AIDS panels and a view of the AIDS quilt result in closure and healing for those who have lost someone to AIDS. This is an outstanding video, as are most PBS distributed productions. It is destined to be a landmark in revealing how a group such as the Turtle Creek Chorale has coped with the losses they have encountered. This is a highly recommended video for all levels of viewers from school to professional and should be available for personal viewing through all libraries.
This and the other 5 videos that are mentioned below, make an excellent nucleus for any library that wants AIDS-related videos for its circulating collection. All schools will benefit from these videos.
253. Teens Talk AIDS, produced by WNYC TV. 1991. Distributed by PBS Video, 1320 Braddock Place, Alexandria, VA 22313-1698. Color video. 28min. TTAAOOO. $59.95. (Descriptors: Teens)
A well orchestrated video of a group of teenagers, two of which are HIV positive, that get together and talk about AIDS. It includes all ethnic groups. They talk about the myths and facts and are very honest, straightforward, and sometimes blunt in their remarks. An excellent video for all secondary schools and for all public libraries.
254. Club Connect: AIDS Fighters, produced by WTVS-TV of Detroit. 1992. Distributed by PBS Video, 1320 Braddock Place, Alexandria, VA 22314-1698. Color video. 30min. CCNC606. $59.95. (Descriptors: Teens)
The Club Connect series is a video broadcast that covers events and concerns of the 90s that teens would be interested in. This one covers AIDS. It contains several accounts of teens who have AIDS including one who lectures to high school students about the disease, how you get it and how you can be safe, including absence and the use of condoms. The Sugar Cubes, an Icland-based rock group gives their views on AIDS awareness in Iceland and another episode covers teens who are raising money for AIDS research. Another excellent video for secondary schools and public libraries. The music is excellent with rock that the teens can relate to.
255. Frontline: AIDS, Blood & Politics, produced by a consortium including KTS Seattle, WGBH Boston, WNET New York, WPBT Miami, and WTVS Detroit. 1992. Distributed by PBS Video, 1320 Braddock Place, Alexandria, VA 22313-1698. Color video. 57min. FROL206. $69.95.
This is the excellent, but frightening, documentary on blood banks and AIDS. It is a ten-year investigative report that raises the question of why did not the nation's blood suppliers, including the American Red Cross and the FDA, take stringent safeguards on the blood supply in the early 1980s when AIDS first appeared. It reports on all of the failings, the politics, the sidestepping, and the finger pointing that took place and put the blood supply at high risk. It even points out that there are still some large blood banks that do not fully comply with the federal regulations on the blood safety of the United States. This is a very exhaustive investigation and one that should be made available to the public through all public libraries and also through medical and academic libraries. It is highly recommended.
256. Picture This--AIDS and Teens, directed by Terry Black, Kent Smith; produced by Spellbound Productions and WFYI. 1992. PBS Video, 1320 Braddock Place, Alexandria, VA 22314-1698. Color video. 57min. PTAT000. $69.95.
This well produced video is in the form of an interactive theater presentation where the actors perform a portion of the production and then the audience reacts. Each of the episodes is presented with several teenagers stating their views on a particular question that pertains to AIDS. The performance is then presented and stopped every so often by the moderator who then asks the audience of teenagers questions about the situation. This is a very effective method in getting a point across to those who are watching. The fact that actors and audience are all teenagers makes it all the more meaningful. All of the episodes deal with actual teenage situations that place them at risk. These include dating and having unprotected sex, getting pregnant and then being tested, going to a party where sex is the ultimate goal, getting intoxicated and then having unprotected sex, and arguing whether or not to have sex when one of the two does not want to.
The actors are good and believable. The audience is very candid and not afraid to ask the right questions that answer a wide variety of questions concerning safe sex and AIDS. It moves along at the right pace, is not boring, and makes the points that need to be made. This would be an excellent video to show in the classroom along with class discussion in addition to the discussion that is presented in the video. It is also an excellent video for those to watch by themselves or as group. Public and school libraries should have copies for students to check out and view.
257. Soapbox with Tom Cottle--Our Kids Talk AIDS, produced by WGBY-TV. 1991. PBS Video, 1320 Braddock Place, Alexandria, VA 22314-1698. 30min. color video. SBOX601. ISBN 0-7936-0607-1. $69.95.
Dr. Tom Cottle talks bluntly to teenagers about sex and AIDS. He gives some facts and stresses the need to talk about sex in school, among teenagers, and with parents. There is not enough talk about sex in school when students are only required to take one health course. Most teenagers are afraid to talk to their parents about sex and about AIDS. Teenage boys feel that they can put on a condom easily without any pre-instruction--it is something that you just know how to do. Some teens believe there will be a cure in ten years and it takes ten years to come down with AIDS once infected, so why worry. Teen peer pressure is talked about, resulting in teens having sex when they really do not want it. This video would be good to show in schools but would also be an excellent one to watch with parents. The message has to get through to parents that they are responsible in the education of their children and need to feel comfortable talking about AIDS, sex, death, etc. This is vital when over 85% of the teenagers in the U.S. admit to having had sex at least once. A recommended video for public and school libraries.