University of Illinois at Chicago

H. Robert Malinowsky


ISSN 1068-4174

Number 3 - July 1993

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Reviewed in this issue:

21. AIDS Prevention Through Education: A World View, edited by Jaime Sepulveda, Harvey Fineberg, Jonathan Mann.
22. AIDS: The Literary Response, edited by Emmanuel S. Nelson.
23. Queer Blood: The Secret AIDS Genocide Plot, by Alan Cantwell, Jr.
24. Aid and Comfort, by Greg Johnson.
25. My Unicorn Has Gone Away: Life, Death, Grief and Living In the Years of AIDS, by Robert J.L. Publicover.
26. Working with Women and AIDS: Medical, Social, and Counselling Issues, edited by Judy Bury, Val Morrison, and Sheena McLachlan.
27. The HIV Test: Who Should Take It? What Does It Show?, by Peter Cochran (video).

Pre-1992 books briefly mentioned:

28. AIDS, Women, and the Next Generation: Towards a Morally Acceptable Public Policy for HIV Testing of Pregnant Women and Newborns, edited by Ruth R. Faden, Gail Geller, Madison Powers.
29. Teens with AIDS Speak Out, by Mary Kittredge.
30. AIDS: Deadly Threat, by Alvin Silverstein, Virginia Silverstein.
31. Ministry to Persons with AIDS: A Family Systems Approach, by Robert J. Perelli.
32. AIDS and Its Treatment by Traditional Chinese Medicine, edited by Huang Bing-shan.

21. AIDS Prevention Through Education: A World View, edited by Jaime Sepulveda, Harvey Fineberg, Jonathan Mann. 1992. Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016. 382p., bibliog. ISBN 0-19-506882-3, 0-19-508207-9pbk. $55.00, $29.95pbk. (Descriptors: Behavioral Research, Prevention, International Response, Education, Politics) (Contributors to this volume: Jeanne Blake, medical reporter; Maryan Pye, AIDS Programme for the Health Authority in the U.K.; David J. Hunter, Harvard School of Public Health, Claire M. Cassidy, Univ. of Maryland; Mark L. Rosenberg, Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control; Mukesh Kapila, Overseas Development Administration, U.K.; Marcie L. Cynamon, National Center for Health Statistics; Jaime Sepulveda, Under Secretary of Health, Mexico; Milton Gossett, Harvard School of Public Health; G. Stephen Bowen, Bureau of Health Resources Development; Michael L.E. Ramah, Porter/Novelli; Jose Antonio Izazola, Harvard School of Public Health; Lincoln C. Chen, Harvard School of Public Health; Gil Schwartz, Westinghouse Broadcasting Co.; Lloyd J. Kolbe, Centers for Disease Control; Mary Debus, Porter/Novelli; Federick Kroger, Centers for Disease Control; William DeJong, Harvard School of Public Health; William A. Smith, Academy for Educational Development; Jonathan M. Mann, Harvard School of Public Health; Laurie Garret, Medical reporter for Newsday; Jeremy S. Warshaw, Saatchi & Saatchi Advertising; June E. Osborn, University of Michigan; Steven L. Gortmaker, Harvard Institute for Social Research; Jay A. Winsten, Harvard School of Public Health; Mervyn F. Silverman, American Foundation for AIDS Research; Peter Lamptey, AIDSTECH Project at Family Health International; Harvey V. Fineberg, Harvard School of Public Health; Dennis D. Tolsma, Centers for Disease Control; Thomas W. Netter, Harvard Univ.; Thomas Goodgame, Harvard Institute for Social Research; Sharon Weir, AIDSTECH Project at Family Health International; Richard G. Parker, State Univ. of Rio de Janeiro)

This book is based on the premise that "AIDS is completely preventable with adequate information and the adoption of appropriate measures." It brings together the global experiences from many experts and consolidates new information since the First Symposium on AIDS Education and Communication that was sponsored by the World Health Organization and held in Ixtapa, Mexico, 1988. The contributors realize that the fight against AIDS will be long but stress that in order to win this fight "We must overcome the behavioral, biological and economic obstacles to prevention."

After an Overview that covers the health promotion against AIDS, the book is divided into 4 sections: "Methods for Behavioral Research;" "Lessons From National Experiences;" "Strategies for Communication and the Media;" and "Reflections on Education to Prevent AIDS." The first section describes the roles of quantitative and qualitative research in AIDS prevention, giving case studies, techniques, and models. The last part of the section talks about social marketing and the prevention of AIDS. Social marketing is defined as "the design, implementation and control of programs designed to ultimately influence individual behavior in ways that the marketer believes are in the individual's or society's interests." This is a relative new marketing strategy and the authors have done a good job in covering its role in AIDS education. The second section on lessons learned internationally describes what has been done in Brazil, Mexico, Africa, the U.S, and in Europe. It does this very well with examples, case studies, government responses, outlines of programs, and responses from various bodies of the governments in these countries. The third section on communication and the media is very interesting and actually gives an historical overview of how the media has covered the AIDS epidemic. It presents information on the current state of Americans' knowledge about AIDS, condom promotion, the governmental information gap, effectiveness of AIDS advertising and marketing and an excellent account of how Boston's WBZ-TV covered the crisis from the beginning to the present.

The last section of reflections is somewhat of a prediction of what needs to be done based on facts and figures to date. Such topics as the epidemiology of AIDS internationally, demographic impact of AIDS, economic impact, social impact, impact on health care systems, options, priorities, and the future are covered very well. One short but very important chapter covers the multicultural society. It begins by identifying what were the original high risk groups: homosexuals, hemophiliacs, heroin addicts, and Haitians. This has been set in the minds of people to the point that it is very difficult to educate anyone else. Cultural diversity becomes the one major challenge in getting the education about AIDS to the public. "The complex tasks of spreading information across barriers of language, culture and socioeconomic status are likely to prove impossible without the complicity and primary participation of members of targeted communities." It ends by pointing out that AIDS education at the earliest possible age in a child's life is critical. HIV and AIDS will not go away, they will be with us for years to come and educating the young people of the world is one sure way of helping prevent further spread of this deadly disease.

This is a very well written book, well organized, and worthwhile reading for anyone, but especially for educators in all schools. It is highly recommended. Its only failing is the lack of an index but the table of contents is detailed enough that finding a particular section is easy. (H. Robert Malinowsky)

22. AIDS: The Literary Response, edited by Emmanuel S. Nelson. 1992. Twayne Publishers, Macmillan, 866 3rd Ave., New York, NY 10022. 233p., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-8057-9029-2, 0-8057-9032-2pbk. $28.95, $12.95pbk. (Descriptors: AIDS in Literature, Gays in Literature) (Contributors to this volume: David Bergman, Towson State Univ.; Laurel Brodsley, Univ. of California at Los Angeles; Barbara Browning, Princeton Univ.; Annie Dawid, Lewis & Clark College; Joseph Dewey, Univ. of Pittsburgh at Johnstown; Judy Elsley, Univ. of Bristol; Kevin J. Harty, LaSalle Univ.; Gert Hekma, Univ. of Amsterdam; D.S. Lawson, Lander College; James Morrison, North Carolina State Univ. at Raleigh; Emmanuel S. Nelson, SUNY College at Cortland; Judith Laurence Pastore, Univ. of Lowell; Joel Shatzky, SUNY College at Cortland; Myles Weber, author; David Wetsel, Arizona State Univ. at Tempe; Les Wright, Univ. of California at Berkeley; Gregory Woods, Nottingham Polytechnic)

"The primary focus of this volume is on the creative response of gay male artists." It is a synthesis of what has been written by gay authors about AIDS, it is critical and examines representative texts and their contexts. Some of the texts include: Paul Monette's Borrowed Time, Randy Shilts' And the Band Played On, Marty Rubin's Boiled Frog Syndrome, Frans Kellendonk's The Mystical Body, Herve Guibert's A l'ami qui ne m'a pas sauve la vie (To the Friend Who Did Not Save My Life), Larry Kramer's The Normal Heart, and Harvey Fierstein's Safe Sex, to name a few. Each contributor has looked at a particular aspect in society and analyzed the literature that has been written with AIDS as the theme, showing its impact on the gay community. It is noted that the "artistic response of gay men to their individual and collective sorrow and terror, their anger and helplessness...has resulted in the most poignant and enduring texts of the AIDS era." "AIDS, to gay men, is a gravely personal issue. It is too real to be easily metaphorized or elegantly aestheticized. Many of them do not have to imagine the horror, for they live in the midst of a holocaust."

The first chapter looks at how Defoe's The Journal of the Plague Year has become a model for stories of plagues. Other chapters look at how suburban AIDS tends to be looked upon as more horrible that the AIDS in the gay communities; how the French blame the U.S. for importing AIDS to France; how the Dutch have written very little about AIDS in literary works; how the cinema has responded with some well-done movies as has the American theater; and how the NAMES Project has created a quilt that is indescribably moving beyond anyone's beliefs. The quilt embodies both disgust and desire, represents comfort and security, and it "sets about claiming power for people with AIDS by creating a story of their own making, for the victims, the panel makers, and even those who come to see the quilt."

This is an inspiring book that makes you want to search out the literary works and read or re-read them. It should be an eye opener for the heterosexual groups who scoff at AIDS and say it will never happen to me. It should bring compassion to the hearts of anyone who has been associated with this terrible disease. A slected bibliography is included offering non-literary texts, fiction, poetry, drama, memoirs/testaments, and criticism. There is also an "AIDS Filmography" listing 15 films with citations to their reviews. This is an excellent book providing the reader with insights that have never been thought about. It should be required reading in college and university short story writing classes. (H. Robert Malinowsky)

23. Queer Blood: The Secret AIDS Genocide Plot, by Alan Cantwell, Jr. 1993. Aries Rising Press, P.O. Box 29532, Los Angeles, CA 90029. 157p., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-917211-26-X. $12.95. (Descriptors: Etiology)

There has long been the story that there is a secret gay genocide with the culprit being a genetically engineered virus. Dr. Cantwell was a disbliever in this idea for quite sometime until he started noticing similarities of certain events, when they happened, and how they happened. Although there is no concrete scientific evidence that such a genocide is taking place, there are many questions that have not been answered. Why is it that the AIDS epidemic began at the same time as the hepatitis B vaccine trials in the late 1970s and early 1980s? Why did the African AIDS epidemic begin at the same time as the WHO smallpox eradication vaccine program during the 1970s? The blood specimens of the 1,083 men in the original hepatitis B experiment, as well as the blood of over 10,000 gays screened at that time, it was found that the virus was introduced into the gay community around 1978, the same year that the hepatitis B experiment began. Where did the rumor originate that AIDS is a manufactured virus genetically created to kill off the black race? The unproven belief is that vaccines containing lethal biological agents were injected into the African Blacks and white gays of Manhattan in order to produce a holocaust that would remove two undesirable groups from the earth.

Dr. Cantwell goes on to show other similarities and point out other facts that make one wonder if this theory could really be true. One thing that is true is that it is highly unlikely that a Black heterosexual epidemic in Africa could have transformed itself into a white gay disease in America. AIDS first appeared exclusively in young, white, healthy gay men in America. This is a book to be read with an open mind, remembering that there are few concrete facts that support this idea. Nevertheless this is a book and idea to be reckoned with. It is easy to read and takes little time to finish but when finished, you really do not know what to believe, especially if you are a gay male in the midst of the holocaust. (H. Robert Malinowsky)

24. Aid and Comfort, poems by Greg Johnson. 1993. University Press of Florida, 15 Northwest 15th St., Gainesville, FL 32611. 55p. (University of Central Florida Contemporary Poetry Series) ISBN 0-8130-1187-6, 0-8130-1188-4pbk. $16.95, $10.95pbk. (Descriptors: Comfort, AIDS in Poetry)

This small book contains 37 poems by an award-winning poet. Johnson's purpose in the poems was to help give compassion, truth, and a language of survival. The poems cover a wide variety of personal topics that touch on many people's lives: AIDS, aging, suicide, psychological aberration, and violence. His poetry is soothing to read with the words flowing across your tongue and through your mind like clear water. Although the acronym AIDS is never mentioned, it is there in several of the poems, making them all the more meaninful, especially in "Safe Sex", "Disease Without a Name", and "The Gay Nineties." This is a must-read/must-own book for anyone who seeks solice in reading poetry. (H. Robert Malinowsky)

25. My Unicorn Has Gone Away: Life, Death, Grief and Living In the Years of AIDS, by Robert J.L. Publicover. 1992. Powder House Publishing, P.O. Box 137, Somerville, MA 02144. 105p., illus. ISBN 0-9634759-0-8. $14.00. (Descriptors: Comfort, Reminisces, Personal Accounts)

Of all the personal accounts that deal with AIDS, this reviewer found this book the most moving. More than once in reading the richly described stories, tears had to be wiped away and the book put down so that the thoughts and images could be enjoyed again and again. Robert, the author, and his partner John had a beautiful relationship and enjoyed life to its fullest. Then John became ill and died of AIDS related complications. Robert was devasted but he hung on to all of the memories and puts them down for all to read. He does this through small stories, poems, and letters that were written while John was alive. He talks about the good and bad times but he especially tries to comfort his own grief by writing about John, about his own emptiness without John, and about doing things before it is too late. The poem "January 1975" is a short one that anyone who has been in a long relationship will appreciate. It is about watching a late movie and "I imagine him sitting with me, I look into his eyes--and he into mine...I take his hand--he squeezes mine." It cause you to choke and your eyes to get moist. Probably the most touching of all the essays is his letter to John after the funeral, where he tells him he is sorry for certain things he said or did. He writes: "I hope you saw all of those who came to your wake and funeral...They came for you, John, not for me...I miss you so but I still love life; and there is so much more to do...John, when I told you at your bedside that I believed that we would meet again, I believed it...And now, I will, I must go on with my own life. I'm not just me, for you will always be in there." This is a highly recommended book that will make you cry but afterwards you will have an inner glow knowing that Robert has gone on and when and if a tragic event happens with you and your partner, you can go on. (H. Robert Malinowsky)

26. Working with Women and AIDS: Medical, Social, and Counselling Issues, edited by Judy Bury, Val Morrison, Sheena McLachlan. 1992. Tavistock/Routledge, Routledge, Chapman and Hall, Inc., 29 W. 35th St., New York, NY 10001. 153p., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-415-07658-7, 0-415-07659-5pbk. $59.95, $15.95pbk. (Descriptors: Social Aspects, Women, Women's Health Services, Pregnancy, Prostitution, Education, Counselling) (Contributors to this volume: Joy Barlow Roulston, Aberlour Child Care Trust in Scotland; Kate Bisset, Edinburgh; Judy Bury, general practice; Ruth Gilfillan, widow and mother; Jennifer Gray, Univ. of Edinburgh; Mary Hepburn, Glasgow Univ.; Netta Maciver, consultant in Madrid; Sheena McLachlan, Edinburgh; Ruth Morgan Thomas, Scottish Prostitutes Education Project; Val Morrison, research psychologist; Edith Springer, social worker in New York; Kate Thomson, Project Manager at Positively Women; Jane Wilson, Muirhouse/Pilton Drug Project in Edinburgh)

AIDS as it affects women has only recently had special attention. In the United Kingdom, the Scottish Women and HIV/AIDS Network is the major group that is trying to educate the young women in their teens, since 40% of the AIDS cases among women in the UK are in the 15-29 age group and are the ones most resistant to adopting safe sex guidelines. The book "concentrates on the social and counselling issues which are of great importance to women." As such, it becomes "a valuable account of the practical, policy and personal issues which have confronted women working with women, as the HIV epidemic has spread." The contributions to this book are the result of four conferences held in Scotland between 1988 and 1991. The first part, "Background Issues," covers some medical facts and figures, gives an overview of the social issues, and relates some reflections of women in the United States who are infected with the virus. The second part, "Contraception and Pregnancy," provides counselling information for those who are positive and also pregnant. It discusses the issue of heterosexual transmission and outlines protection against pregnancy, especially those who are HIV positive. The third section covers prostitution and provides a means for developing a service for prostitutes in Glasgow. "Education and Counselling Issues" is the focus of the fourth section. Here, education is the key word. Also, safer sex counselling to women from the drug-using communities is discussed. An important part of this section is a discussion of women as carers for those who are infected. It is pointed out that women have always been carers and it is no different now with those who are infected with the virus. In fact "it will be women who will increasingly carry the weight of caring for those affected by HIV and AIDS."

The last section is simply titled "Feelings and Needs." Counselling and a diagnosis of being positive are discussed at some length as well as what it is like being positive. There is a lot of good advice in this book that is based on actual events. Although women with AIDS are not in large numbers, their needs are special, especially if an unborn child is involved. The education directed at those who are positive and run the risk of getting pregnant is extremely important and needs to be developed in such a way that the women will understand just how important it is. A recommended book for all counselors. (H. Robert Malinowsky)

27. The HIV Test: Who Should Take It? What Does It Show?, produced by Peter Cochran, Anson Schloat, John Young, Karin Rhines (consultant). 1993. Human Relations Media, 175 Tompkins Ave., Pleasantville, NY 10570. time, 25:30. Teacher's Guide. 26p. $189.00 for video and guide. (Descriptors: HIV Test, Counselling) (Contributors to this video: Marge Bell, C.A.S.; Carol Chirman, R.N.S.; Robert Klein, Albert Einstein College of Medicine; AIDS Related Community Services; People with AIDS, NY)

This is an excellent video that describes the HIV test for antibodies of the virus that causes AIDS. Using computer animation, graphics, interviews, and personal accounts, it explains in plain language the sequence of the different tests, including an initial ELISA or SUDS HIV-1, and a Western Blot. The reasons for being tested are gone over and explained through the use of personal accounts. The host does a very good job at explaining and describing behaviors that do and do not put a person at risk of getting HIV; things that do put a person at risk; and details of how unprotected sex can transmit the virus. A counselor describes some of the reasons people seek testing and the kinds of questions people should ask when calling a testing place are presented. The need for counselling before and after testing is stressed.

All of this is done in a comfortable manner so that the message is presented without being boring with complex descriptions. The voice of the host is excellent and the people who are on screen as counselors and persons with the HIV virus, are well chosen to represent both the affluent and those who may not be as fortunate.

The Teacher's Guide is small booklet that parallels the video and then gives some additional information that can be presented in a classroom situation, including the evolving definitions of AIDS, false positives, mandatory testing, and Adolescents and HIV and AIDS. It concludes with some review questions plus suggestions for activities that can be used in high school and college classes. The guide ends with suggested readings, a small glossary, places to contact for more information, AIDS hotlines, and a listing of states that provide anonymous testing, counseling, or allow minors to consent to HIV/STD testing. This is one of the best videos covering HIV testing that this reviewer has seen. It is up-to-date, non-threatening, in a language for adolesencents as well as adults, and at just the right length to get the major points across concerning testing. Highly recommended for school, public, and academic libraries as well as clinics and testing centers. (H. Robert Malinowsky)

28. AIDS, Women, and the Next Generation: Towards a Morally Acceptable Public Policy for HIV Testing of Pregnant Women and Newborns, edited by Ruth R. Faden, Gail Geller, Madison Powers. 1991. Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016. 374p., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-19-506572-7. $39.95. (Descriptors: AIDS in Pregnancy, AIDS in Infants, Diagnosis, Pregnancy, Health Policy, Infant Diseases, Newborn Diseases, Prenatal Diagnosis) (Contributors to this volume: Katherine L. Acuff, Johns Hopkins Univ.; Anita L. Allen, Georgetown Univ. Law Center; Judith Areen, Georgetown Univ. Law Center; Ruth R. Faden, Johns Hopkins Univ.; Gail Geller, Johns Hopkins Univ.; Nancy Hutton, Johns Hopkins Univ.; Timothy R.B. Johnson, Johns Hopkins Univ.; Nancy E. Kass, Johns Hopkins Univ.; Patricia A. King, Georgetown Univ. Law Center; John Modlin, Johns Hopkins Univ.; Madison Powers, Kennedy Institute of Ethics; John T. Repke, Johns Hopkins Hospital; Alfred Saah, Johns Hopkins Univ.; LeRoy Walters, Kennedy Institute of Ethics; Lawrence S. Wissow, Johns Hopkins Univ.)

This book speaks to the problems of screening pregnant women and newborns for the HIV virus. It is a complex issue in that it involves a disproportionate number of disadvantaged women and children of color. It "provides a comprehensive analysis of the complex medical, public health, legal, ethical, and social issues raised by HIV screening and testing of pregnant women and newborns."

The issues are presented by a distinguished group of contributors with the topics presented in 5 major parts: "Introduction," "Public Health and Medical Issues," "Legal Issues," "Ethical and Social Issues," and "Conclusion." Such topics as history of prenatal and newborn screening, infection and obstetric care, legal issues in nonvoluntary prenatal HIV screening, ethical and legal aspects, informed consent, and future policy recommendations. A very well researched book with much information for those working with potential HIV positive pregnant women. (H. Robert Malinowsky).

29. Teens with AIDS Speak Out, by Mary Kittredge. 1991. Julian Messner, Silver Burdett Press, Inc., Simon & Schuster, Prentice Hall Bldg., Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632. 119p., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-671-74542-5. $8.95. (Descriptors: AIDS in Adolescence, Personal Accounts, Juvenile Literature) (Contributor to this volume: Dale C. Garell, Univ. of Southern California School of Medicine)

This well-written book for adolescents contains stories of young people who are experiencing the AIDS epidemic firsthand. Some of the stories are very moving and intended to raise an awareness in the minds of those who read it. It is intended to present "some very real issues for you to consider about your own behavior and about you as a caring, concerned individual who may one day have to deal with AIDS in your own circle of friends or family." A brief glossary is included. This is a recommended book for all school and public libraries. (H. Robert Malinowsky)

30. AIDS: Deadly Threat, by Alvin Silverstein, Virginia Silverstein. Revised and expanded. 1991. Enslow Publishers, Bloy St. and Ramsey Ave., Box 777, Hillside, NJ 07205. 160p., illus., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-89490-175-3. $18.95. (Descriptors: Juvenile Literature)

This is a good book for young people that explains in simple terms what is currently understood about AIDS. It attempts to take the mystery away so that a better understanding is brought forward for the young person reading the book. It discusses such topics as the body's defenses, facts about AIDS, the virus, diagnosis and treatment, young victims, coping, and future conquests. There is a brief glossary. A recommended book for all school and public libraries. (H. Robert Malinowsky)

31. Ministry to Persons with AIDS: A Family Systems Approach, by Robert J. Perelli. 1991. Augsburg Fortress, 426 S. 5th St., Box 1209, Minneapolis, MN 55440. 112p., bibliog. (Guides to Pastoral Care) ISBN 0-8066-2507-4. $9.95. (Descriptors: Pastoral Counseling; Family Relationships; Family Psychotherapy; Religious Aspects)

"The focus of this book will be on the crisis of AIDS in the male homosexual community." Although this is the focus, the counselling strategies can also be used for other individuals. Perelli makes a point that the church has to have compassion for the gay male even though the Bible and Christian doctrine teach that these individuals are disordered and that being gay is immoral. By discussing such topics at the emotional stresses of AIDS, system of psychosocial stressors, family systems theory, and the applications of this theory, Perelli makes a good contribution "to improving the ministry and quality of pastoral care to people with AIDS." This should be a must-read book for all ministers, regardless of their faith. (H. Robert Malinowsky)

32. AIDS and Its Treatment by Traditional Chinese Medicine, edited by Huang Bing-shan. 1991. Blue Poppy Press, 1775 Linden Ave., Boulder, CO 80304. 282p., index. ISBN 0-936185-28-7. $24.95. (Descriptors: Chinese Medicine, Alternative Therapies) (Contributors to this volume: Huang Bing-shan; He Yu-zin; Sun Qian; Ma Dong-xin; Zhang Xiao-wei; Han Yu-shan; Wang Go-en; Zhang Jian; Lu Yan; Brian MacKenna; Cong Zhong; Fu Di; Bob Flaws)

An alternative medicine book that provides insight into the treatment of HIV positive individuals. It does not claim to cure the patient but to provide a prolonging life, improving quality of life, and alleviating suffering. It utilizes both Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture/moxibustion to treat such things as loss of appetite, diarrhea, sweating, lymphadenopathy, vomiting, fatigue, insomnia, weight loss, abdominal masses, herpes, Kaposi's Sarcoma, thrush, eye diseases, dementia, tumors, urinary problems, sore throat, and pruritus. (H. Robert Malinowsky)

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