(There was no number published for October, 1996)
"The July 1992 ADAMHA Reorganization Act mandated that the Secretary of Health and Human Services, acting through the Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, request the National Academy of Sciences to conduct a study on the impact of needle exchange and bleach distribution programs on drug use behavior and the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In response to that legislative directive, in May 1993 the National Research Council (NRC) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences organized the panel on Needle Exchange and Bleach Distribution Programs within the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education." This book is a report of that panel whose overall charge "was to determine the effectiveness of needle exchange and bleach distribution programs." The panel "was asked to gather and analyze the relevant research regarding the effect of such programs on rates of drug use, the behavior of injection drug users, and the spread of AIDS and other diseases, such as hepatitis, among injection drug users and their sexual partners."
After an introduction that outlines the panel's charge, the dimensions of the problem, and responses to the epidemic, the report is divided into two parts: "Dimensions of the Problem" and "The Impact of Needle Exchange and Bleach Distribution Programs." The first part presents an excellent overview of the problem along with a review of research in 5 chapters: "The Epidemiology of HIV and AIDS," "The Epidemiology of Injection Drug Use," "Needle Exchange and Bleach Distribution Programs in the United States," "Community Views," and "The Legal Environment." Needless to say, there is much controversy with needle exchange and bleach distribution even though it could save lives. The over riding concern is that it makes needle drug use a legitimate pastime with the sanction of offering needle exchanges rather than combating the drug itself. In the legal environment the obvious roadblocks are the laws that govern the use of needles by drug users. The conclusions recommend that the laws be changed so that clean needles can be the norm rather than re-used needles.
The second part of the report covers: "The Effectiveness of Bleach as a Disinfectant of Injection Drug Equipment," "The Effects of Needle Exchange Programs," and "Directions for Future Research." The conclusions all support the needle exchange and clean needle programs. It was found that there was a decrease in new HIV infections and that there was a decrease in sharing needles. It is unfortunate that those who speak the loudest are those who speak against these programs, stating that they will increase the use of needle drugs, even though there is no evidence to support this claim. Unfortunately, even though many efforts have been made, especially in large cities like San Francisco, Chicago, and Montreal, there have not been any standard sampling strategies that can be used to scientifically support any of the claims of those groups who offer needle exchange and bleach.
This book is well worth reading providing researchers the necessary background to proceed with further testing of these two programs. It is, also, a recommended book for the legal community who will have to change laws in order to make such programs effective. A recommended book for all medical and academic libraries.
603. AIDS in the World II: Global Dimensions, Social Roots, and Responses, edited by Jonathan M. Mann, Daniel J. M. Tarantola. 1996. Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016. 616p., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-19-508994-4. $55.00. (Descriptors: Epidemiology, Government Policy, International Cooperation, World Health) (Contributors: Dennis Altman, Roy M. Anderson, Sara D. Back, Henry Bagarukayo, Mariella Baldo, Tony Barnett, Ronald Bayer, Seth Berkley, Bea Bezmalinovic, Timothy F. Brewer, Jonathan Broomberg, Fancoise Brun-Vezinet, Charles Cameron, Winnie Chikafumbwa, John Cleland, Robert Colebunders, Ellen C. Cooper, Inge B. Corless, Anthony P.M. Coxon, Kevin M. De Cock, Daniel Defert, Don C. Des Jarlais, Anke A. Ehrhardt, Christopher J. Elias, Jose Esparza, Eka Esu-Williams, Nancy Fee, Benoit Ferry, Donald P. Francis, Samuel R. Friedman, Donna Futterman, A.K. Ganesh, Lisa Garbus, George A. Gellert, Lawrence J. Gelmon, Pamela Gillies, Norbert Gilmore, Erica L. Gollub, Rachel Grellier, Sofia Gruskin, Geeta Rao Gupta, Caherine Hankins, Timothy W. Harding, Lori L. Heise, Aart Hendriks, S. Jody Heymann, William L. Heyward, Neal D. Hoffman, Arata Kochi, Louise Kuhn, Marie Laga, Marc Lallemant, Normand Lapointe, Margaret Laws, Sophie Le Coeur, Sarah Lee, Carol Levine, Jay A. Levy, Purnima Mane, Carola Marte, Anne L. Martin, Francine E. McCutchan, David Michaels, Ken Morrison, Ruth Gunn Mota, Roland Msiska, Daan Mulder, John K. M. Mulwa, Gerald Myers, Vinh Kim Nguyen, Paul P. Nunn, Richard J. O'Brien, James M. Oleske, Jeffrey O'Malley, June E. Osborn, Saladin Osmanov, Richard G. Parker, Anthony J. Pinching, Peter Piot, Mary Pittman, Mario Raviglione, Ronald M. Rowell, Kim Ryan, Paul A. Sato, Doris Schopper, Samuel Senkusu, Donald S. Shepard, Dean Shuey, Karen A. Stanecki, Zena A. Stein, S. Sundararaman, Rose Sunkutu, Katarina Tomasevski, Eric Van Praag, Bea Vuylsteke, Simon Watney, Maria J. Wawer, Peter O. Way, Ellen Weiss, Bruce G. Weniger, Daniel Whelan, Alan Whiteside, Roy Widdus, Geoffrey Woolcock, Mayada Youssef)
The first edition of this world survey of AIDS was published in November of 1992. "It described and analyzed the growing gap between the pandemic and the global response and, by uncovering the roots of individual and collective vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, set the stage for a revolutionary personal, community, and global approach to AIDS and health." This new edition "continues to track the pandemic and the efforts, successes, and failures encountered as the world attempts to curb its course and mitigate its impact." Part I--"The State of the Pandemic and Its Impact," provides an overview of recent trends, including the evolution of the pandemic, its spread, tuberculosis, STDs, impact on various countries, and the political impact. Part II--"The Frontier of Knowledge," provides a summary of the scientific progress of HIV/AIDS research, including treatment, long-term survivors, HIV-2 infection, transmission, and vaccine development.
Part III--"Response: Individuals and Populations," looks at how individuals and organizations are responding to this tragedy. It provides insights that target women, young people, gays, straights, drug users, prisoners, babies, and those needing blood. Part IV--"The Institutional Response," analyzes all of the efforts that are being made by governments, intergovernmental institutions, and nongovernment organizations. Finally, the last Part--"From Epidemiology to Vulnerability to Human Rights," attempts to tie the previous 4 parts together pointing out the vulnerability to human rights throughout the world.
There are numerous very useful charts and tables covering a variety of topics that have been brought forward from many government surveys. For a summary of what has taken place up to now, this is an excellent book. It is highly recommended for anyone who wants one book to scan for a summary of research and progress. A highly recommended book for all libraries.
604. Teaching About Sexuality and HIV: Principles and Methods for Effective Education, by Evonne Hedgepeth, Joan Helmich. 1996. New York University Press, 70 Washington Square South, New York, NY 10012-1091. 293p., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-8147-3515-0, 0-8147-3535-5pbk. $55.00, $20.00 pbk. (Descriptors: Study and Teaching, Sexuality)
This book is intended for many audiences with two that are of primary importance: "classroom teachers who address sexuality topics within their regular teaching, and community health educators who specialize in teaching about sexual health, HIV prevention, or family planning." The authors provide a book that should be of great use to those who need to inform others of the "how" and "why" of effective sexuality and HIV.
The first part of the book--"General Principles and Special Issues for Teaching About Sexuality and HIV," provides background information. The 5 chapters present what is needed in order to teach effectively about sexuality in general and specifically as it is related to HIV infection. Each chapter covers an aspect of teaching: "Modern Context for Teaching about Sexuality and HIV," "Effective Sexuality and HIV Education: What Works and Why," "Creating a Productive Learning Environment," "Theory and Research for Teaching about Sexuality and HIV," and "Meeting Special Challenges in Sexuality Education." The second part of the book covers "Sexuality Education Methods."
This is the how part of teaching. The 8 chapters cover: "Planning Sexuality Education Sessions," "Facilitating Sexuality Education Sessions," "Introspective Methods: Helping Learners See Relevance," "Giving and Gathering Information and Examining Concepts, Facts, and Ideas," "Helping Learners Reflect on Attitudes, Feelings, Values, and Beliefs," "Helping Learners Develop Skills and Practice What They Know," "Multipurpose Methods," and "Evaluating Learners, Educators, and Programs." Throughout the book the authors highlight stories and learning activities that help to illustrate what is being discussed. They also point out some of the best curricula that is currently available.
This is one of the best books available on the topic of teaching about sexuality. In the past we had sex education. In this book it is not sex education but understanding sexuality. Schools have a difficult time teaching this topic with so much interference from parents and others who feel that anything taught about sex should be done at home. Here is a book that may make this task easier. It certainly is a non-threatening book and should be read by those who have doubts in the value of teaching about sex. A highly recommended book for all school libraries as well as public and academic.
605. AIDS: The Politics and Policy of Disease, by Stella Z. Theodoulou. 1996. Prentice-Hall, One Lake St., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. 152p., bibliog. ISBN 0-13-368630-2. $24.00. (Descriptors: Government Policy, Social Aspects) (Contributors: Stella Z. Theodoulou, Ronald Bayer, R.M. Wachter, Tamsin Wilton, Gloria Y. Guevara, Henrik Minnassians, Mark C. Donovan, James A. Johnson, Walter J. Jones, Jonathan Peck, Clement Bezold, Marvin Leiner, Yole G. Sills)
"The political ramifications of AIDS are a daily media item, and like many other topics covered in political science courses, AIDS has an immediate and direct bearing on the lives of all of us. The ramifications of the disease will accompany each of us throughout the next decades." Every newspaper and every magazine covers some aspect of AIDS. Sometimes the articles give hope, sometimes they are grim, and all show how everyone can be touched by this disease. This book is intended to help students understand all of the political and policy aspects that this epidemic has brought upon this earth. The readings that are contained in this reader are the result of Theodoulou's course that was taught at California State University.
The first part--"The Politics of AIDS"--deals with "ethical considerations, constitutional issues, the bureaucratic dimension, the contradictions in delivery of public health services in a capitalist economy, the position of the disease within the current institutional and economic crisis of nonprosperous America, and the actors involved in the AIDS issue arena." The titles of the four readings more than explain what is being put forth: "AIDS Equals Politics," "The Politics of Prevention and Neglect," "AIDS, Activism, and the Politics of Health," and "Green Monkeys and Dark Continents: AIDS and Racism." Part two--"Public Policy and AIDS"--focuses "on the nature and dynamics of the policy process in relations to the disease, and on the evaluation of various governmental responses with respect to the criteria of effectiveness, justice, equity and ethical acceptability." Four readings point out these facts--"Myths and Illusions: The Media and AIDS Policy," "The Politics of Deservedness: The Ryan White Act and the Social Constructions of People with AIDS," "AIDS: Perspectives on Public Health, Policy, and Administration," and "Health Care and AIDS."
Finally, part three--"The International-Comparative Dimension of AIDS"--"deals with the comparative dimension of AIDS and looks at how other nations have responded to the demands of the epidemic" in three chapters: "Responding to AIDS: Governmental Policy Responses," "AIDS: Cuba's Effort to Contain," and "The International Response." These are all well-written readings that are intended to make the reader think about the politics and policy of AIDS. They contain a great amount of facts that would be of interest to more than just students. Laypeople will find this an excellent book to read. Graphs, charts, and rather extensive bibliographies are included. A recommended book for all libraries.
606. HIV and AIDS: A Strategy for Nursing Care, 4th edition by Robert J. Pratt. 1995. Arnold/Singular Publishing Group, 401 West "A" St, Ste 325, San Diego, CA 92101-7904. 472p., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-340-59233-8. $35.25. (Descriptors: Nursing Care, Children)
First published in 1986, "this book has established itself as the definitive reference text in Europe on the nursing care of individuals with HIV disease." This 4th edition has been completely rewritten reflecting all the latest information about the disease. The primary focus of the book has not changed which is the "unique role of the nurse in caring for individuals infected with HIV." Although it is the definitive text for Europe, this book has been published in five different languages, thus meeting the needs of nurses and other health care professionals throughout the world. There is a wealth of information crammed into this book, providing the nurse the guidance and information that is needed to give excellent health care to those afflicted with the HIV virus. The information is presented in easy to follow text including various treatments, discussions of drugs, nutritional requirements, and the impact of AIDS on women and children.
The best indication of what this book covers can be shown by the table of contents: "The Evolution of a Pandemic," "The Biology of HIV--The Cause of AIDS," "HIV Transmission," "Understanding Immunology," "Pathways of Destruction in HIV Disease," "The Clinical Consequences of HIV Infection," "A Dangerous Liaison--Tuberculosis and HIV Disease," "HIV Disease and the Nervous System," "Acute Viral Hepatitis and HIV Disease," "The Impact of HIV Infection on Women," "Children and HIV Disease," "A Strategy for Infection Control in Nursing Practice," "The Risk of Occupational Exposure to HIV," "The Individualized Care of Patients with HIV Disease," "Nutrition and HIV Disease," "Discharge Planning and Community Care," "The Nurse as a Health Educator," "The Management of Strategic Nursing Care," and "Nursing Issues Related to Medical Management."
There are also 9 appendices that provide additional information: "Revision of the CDC Surveillance Case Definition for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome," "Interim Proposed World Health Organization Clinical Staging System for HIV Infection and Disease," "Recommendations for Prevention of HIV Transmission in Health Care Settings," "Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of Tuberculosis in Health-Care Settings, with Special Focus on HIV-Related Issues," "Social History Form," "Model AIDS Educational Strategy for Pre-Registration Nursing Programmes," "Model Philosophy for Nursing," "Model Policy Statements, and "Technical Guidance on HIV Counseling."
This is a highly recommended book for all nurses and those individuals who care for HIV-infected individuals. It should be in all medical libraries and is an appropriate book for all other libraries.
607. Staging Gay Lives: An Anthology of Contemporary Gay Theater, edited by John M. Clum. 1996, Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave., Boulder, CO 80301-2877. 471p. ISBN 0-8133-2504-8, 0-8133-2505-6pbk. $65.00, $24.95pbk. (Descriptors: American Drama, Gay Men's Writings, English Drama, Men Authors, Drama) (Contributors: Dan Pruitt, Patrick Hutchison, Patrick Wilde, John M. Clum, Peter Gill, Martin Sherman, Godfrey Hamilton, Pomo Afro Homos, Chay Yew, Guillermo Reyes, Naomi Wallace)
The first gay theater stretching back to the 1950s was labeled the "Theater of the Ridiculous." Everything was described as ridiculous from the saying "gay is good" to the gay liberation movement. We laughed at ourselves because "Becoming humorless, we lose connection to the most vital parts of our culture." Today's gay theater is called fabulous and is best shown by the slogan: "We're here, we're queer, we're fabulous, get used to it." "Fabulous is one of those words that provides a measure of the degree to which a person or event manifests a particular, usually oppressed, subculture's most distinctive, invigorating features." In otherwords it is everything that being gay can be: "Irony. Tragic history, Defiance. Gender-fuck. Glitter. Drama. It is not butch. It is not hot."
So, the one word that can describe the dramatic presentations by the above-mentioned distinguished writers is "Fabulous!" They represent the work of white, African-American, Asian, and Hispanic gay male playwrights and one female. "These plays offer a dramatized history of gay life over the past decade, from the shock, grief, and anger of AIDS dramas to plays that place the experience of gay men within a larger cultural critique." These are outstanding works that present to the audience the true gay experience. They are a delight to read and re-read and if one has the chance should be enticing to those who have live gay theater where they happen to live. The productions that are presented include: "The Harvey Milk Show," "What's Wrong with Angry?," "Randy's House," "Mean Tears," "A Madhouse in Goa," "Kissing Marianne," "Dark Fruit," "Porcelain," "Men on the Verge of a His-panic Breakdown," and "In the Heart of America." A highly recommended book for all libraries and especially for the personal libraries of those who like to read good drama.
608. Molecular Biology of HIV/AIDS, edited by A.M.L. Lever. 1996. John Wiley, 605 Third Ave., New York, NY 10158-0012. 222p., illus., bibliog., index. (Molecular Medical Science Series). ISBN 0-471-96094-2. $47.95. (Descriptors: HIV Infections, Molecular Aspects) (Contributors: Eddie D. Blair, Andrew Carmichael, Graham Darby, Andrew R. Freedman, Warner C. Greene, George E. Griffin, Jerome E. Groopman, Karen A. Kent, A.M.L. Lever, Derek A. Mann, Dawn McGuire, Erling W. Rud, Robin Shattock, Sunil Shaunak, Ian Teo, Brian J. Thomson, John L. Ziegler)
There are many books that cover the biology of HIV/AIDS in great detail. This book, even though it is small, has been "designed to give the newcomer to the field an introduction to HIV and AIDS, and to impart a flavour of some of the more exciting areas of research by leading a little more deeply into selected subjects, with an emphasis on pathogenesis." With that in mind, readers of this book should use it as a stepping stone to future research. It is meant to encourage and excite those who are doing research in the HIV/AIDS arena.
The 10 papers that are put forth include: "Molecular Biology of the Human Immunodeficiency Viruses," "Mucosal Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus," "Early Events After Infection," "The Molecular Biology of Disease Progression," "The Cellular Immune Response to HIV," "Viral Co-factors in HIV Infection," "Neurological Damage in HIV Infection," "Malignancies Associated with HIV Infection," "The Molecular Biology of Antiretroviral Drugs," and "Progress with HIV Vaccines." The aim of books such as this one is to encourage researchers to develop a cure for the disease or a way to prevent it from spreading. Highly recommended for all medical libraries.
609. Infectious AIDS: Have We Been Misled?, by Peter H. Duesberg. 1995. North Atlantic Books, PO Box 12327, Berkeley, CA 94712. 582p., bibliog., index. ISBN 1-55643-204-6, 1-55643-195-3 pbk. $27.50, $18.95 pbk. (Descriptors: Etiology)
The 13 articles in this book were originally published in scientific journals between 1987 and 1995. There is much controversy surrounding the many theories of how HIV/AIDS has developed and is spreading. Duesberg has challenged many of these theories and has published his findings and thoughts in various respected scientific journals. He points out that we still are unable to put our finger on the how and why and "the HIV/AIDS hypothesis remains simply that: a theory with erratic correlation, but no proof of causality, between HIV and AIDS." Although Duesberg has not been taken too seriously, he, nonetheless, has much to say, even though most researchers pay little or no attention to his theories and hypotheses. Research should always be open ended and researchers should consider all aspects regardless of how controversial.
The 13 articles contained in this book are: "Retroviruses as Carcinogens and Pathogens: Expectations and Reality," "HIV Is Not the Cause of AIDS," "Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Correlation but Not Causation," "AIDS Epidemiology: Inconsistencies with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and with Infectious Disease," "Latent Viruses and Mutated Oncogenes: No Evidence for Pathogenicity," "AIDS Acquired by Drug Consumption and Other Noncontagious Risk Factors," "The HIV Gap in National AIDS Statistics," "Can Epidemiology Determine Whether Drugs or HIV Cause AIDS?," "Infectious AIDS--Stretching the Germ Theory Beyond Its Limits," "The Duesberg Phenomenon: Duesberg and Other Voices," "Foreign Protein-Mediated Immunodeficiency in Hemophiliacs with and without HIV," "Duesberg and the Right of Reply According to Maddox," and "How Much Longer Can We Afford the AIDS Virus Monopoly?"
A recommended book for academic libraries. Unfortunately, some will label it heresy, but it does have some merit in documenting one scientist's controversial thoughts about the cause of AIDS.
610. Inventing the AIDS Virus, by Peter H. Duesberg. 1996. Regnery Publishing, Inc, 422 First St., SE, Ste. 300, Washington, DC 20003. 722p., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-89526-470-6. $29.95. (Descriptors: Etiology, HIV Infections, Viruses)
This is another book by Duesberg following the 13 articles that were published in the above book--Infectious AIDS, destined to be an extremely controversial book that will cause "a firestorm of yet undetermined proportions in both the scientific and lay communities." The publisher states that it is the most difficult book that they have published in nearly 50 years, documenting "one of the great science scandals of the century." The book "has been edited by at least five editors, has been agonized over by the publishers of three major publishing firms, and concurrently praised and damned by countless critics." The crucial point of the book and of Duesberg's writings is that there is no scientific evidence that demonstrates that HIV causes AIDS and that giving drugs to combat HIV may be hazardous to an individual's health.
Duesberg stated that "HIV does not cause AIDS...AIDS is not sexually transmitted...AZT makes AIDS worse, not better..." His statements have been kept out of the mainstream press, maybe because AIDS is a seven billion dollar research project. AIDS research, also, has produced the least results because of the lure of all this research money. If you are HIV positive and read this book, do it with an open mind because you could become confused, concerned, or depressed. This book could scare you into doing something drastic and life-threatening. Do not take any action without consulting with your physician. Researchers are beginning to take note of what Duesberg has been saying but so far no one is ready to say that he is right and everyone else is wrong. Read this book from the point of view that it is the theory of one researcher who is raising many questions for the other researchers to answer. For those who are using AZT in combination with other drugs, be careful in suddenly stopping all of your medications. There have been some positive results in these "cocktail" prescriptions.
This book is for academic libraries. It, however, is not for the uneducated layperson.
611. AIDS: What Does It Mean to You?, 5th edition by Margaret O. Hyde, Elizabeth H. Forsyth. 1996. Walker Publishing Co., 435 Hudson St., New York, NY 10014. 114p., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-8027-8396-1. $15.85. (Descriptors: Juvenile Literature)
This small book has become an excellent source of information on AIDS, providing the latest on discoveries and statistics surrounding this disease. The 10 chapters cover: "AIDS: What Does It Mean to You?," "Are You at Risk?," "Living with AIDS," "Changing Feelings About AIDS," "AIDS: Global Epidemic," "Old Plagues and New Microbes," "Tracking the AIDS Virus," "Fighting the AIDS Virus," "Caring for People with AIDS," and "The Changing Face of AIDS."
This is a book for the layperson and teenagers. It is well-written and highly recommended for all school and public libraries.
612. Know About AIDS, 3rd edition by Margaret O. Hyde, Elizabeth H. Forsyth. 1994. Walker Publishing Co., 435 Hudson St., New York, NY 10014. 106p., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-8027-8345-7. $12.95. (Descriptors: Juvenile Literature)
A book for young readers, this is an excellent introduction to the facts about AIDS. With the previous book by Hyde and Forsyth, anyone should have a good knowledge of AIDS and how it affects everyone in the world. This book covers: "AIDS in Your Lifetime," "Who Get AIDS?," "Viruses and AIDS," "Where Did AIDS Begin?," "AIDS Around the World," "AIDS at Home and in School," "The Search for a Cure," "A Death in the Family," "AIDS in Infants, Children, and Adolescents," "Testing for AIDS," "Do You Really Know About AIDS?," and "Caring and Compassion for People with AIDS." Highly recommended for all school and public libraries.