A I D S B O O K R E V I E W J O U R N A L No. 32


University of Illinois at Chicago

H. Robert Malinowsky


ISSN 1068-4174

Number 32-February, 1997

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627. AIDS: Examining the Crisis, by Tom Flynn, Karen Lound.
628. First Comes Love, by Marion Winik.
629. AIDS Prevention in the Community: Lessons from the First Decade, edited by Nicholas Freudenberg, Marc A. Zimmerman.
630. Golden Age of Promiscuity, by Brad Gooch.
631. Immuno Biology: The Immune System in Health and Disease, 2nd edition by Charles A. Janeway, Jr., Paul Travers.
632. Fully Exposed: The Male Nude in Photography, 2nd edition by Emmanuel Cooper.
633. HIV/AIDS and the Older Adult, edited by Kathleen M. Nokes.
634. Acting=(equals)Life, by Michael Kearns.
635. Gay Olympian: The Life and Death of Dr. Tom Waddell, by Tom Waddell, Dick Schaap.
636. Under the Rainbow: Growing Up Gay, by Arnie Kantrowitz.
637. Sex, Disease, and Society: A Comparative History of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS in Asia and the Pacific, edited by Milton Lewis, Scott Bamber, Michael Waugh.
639. Kampala Women Getting By: Wellbeing in the Time of AIDS, by Sandra Wallman.
640. Unholy Ghosts, by Richard Zimler.
641. Immunology of HIV Infection, edited by Sudhir Gupta.
642. AIDS Education: Reaching Diverse Populations, edited by Melinda K. Moore, Martin L. Forst.

627.AIDS: Examining the Crisis, by Tom Flynn, Karen Lound. 1995. Lerner Publications Co., 241 First Ave. N., Minneapolis, MN 55401. 72p., index. (Frontline). ISBN 0-8225-2625-5. $21.50. (Descriptors: Juvenile Literature, Social Aspects)

Intended for the young reader, this book provides information on "how HIV is transmitted, how AIDS affects the body, and the medical treatments available for people with AIDS." It, also, provides an insight into the politics, education, and public health efforts that are being discussed on a daily basis throughout the United States, including the controversies and myths that are so prevalent. Too many young people are infected with the virus before they adequately know about it and how to prevent themselves from becoming infected. There is still the feeling among a large proportion of the young people that AIDS is a gay disease or one that affects drug users. Flynn and Lound have done a good job at outlining six topics that pertain to AIDS: "A Modern Plague," "A Deadly Virus," "HIV: Transmission and Prevention," "The HIV Antibody Test," "A Country Reacts," and "The Future Epidemic."

The discussion of transmission and prevention is very good, ending with two very important rules that should be on the desk of every young person: "Learn the facts about HIV before you have sex. If you do have sex, correctly use a condom every time" and "Stay away from drugs, especially injected drugs. If you do inject drugs, use a new needle every time." Some will say that these rules encourage sex and drug use. That is a very unfortunate assumption because it is too late to follow the rules after you are infected. Safer sex has to be promoted again and again, including abstinence and saying no to drugs. In the chapter, "A Country Reacts," will be found information about action groups, the Names Project, and a list of famous people who have died of AIDS.

This is a highly recommended book for all school and public libraries. Every young person should have the opportunity to read this book, understand what is being said, ask questions, and, above all, practice safe sex.

628.First Comes Love, by Marion Wink. 1996. Pantheon Books/Random House, 201 E 50th St, New York, NY 10022. 258p. ISBN 0-679-44572-2. $23.00. (Descriptors: Patients, Family Relationships, Married People, Biography)

This is a tear-jerking story about Marion and her husband Tony who was gay. She knew he was gay before she married him but the electricity between the two of them was so strong that they married and raised two children. That in itself would be a worthwhile story to read but we are quickly brought to the realization that other factors figure into this story--AIDS, drug addiction, and betrayal. Marion loved Tony very much which made it even more difficult to watch him die. This is a powerful book with a message that love, loss, and survival are part of life, especially if the loss is brought about by AIDS. A recommended book for all public libraries and upper-level school libraries.

629.AIDS Prevention in the Community: Lessons from the First Decade, edited by Nicholas Freudenberg, Marc A. Zimmerman. 1995. American Public Health Association, 1015 Fifteenth St., NW, Washington, DC 20005. 225p., index. ISBN 0-87553-219-5. $48.00. (Descriptors: Case Histories, Social Issues, Political Issues, History) (Contributors: Marshall H. Becker, Rosalind J. Carter, Shoshana S. Coman, Myrna Cozen, Nicholas Freudenberg, Barbara A. Israel, Nancy K. Janz, Jacalyn Lee, D. Rebecca Prevots, Helen Rodriguez-Trias, Patricia A. Wren, Marc A. Zimmerman)

The contributors to this book "describe and analyze the characteristics and strategies of community organizations that determine their effectiveness in HIV prevention education." Education is a key factor in combating AIDS. If the disease is to be brought under control and eventually eradicated, every possible means has to be used to educate our young people as well as the older individuals. Too many people still do not understand what AIDS is and that it can strike anyone. There are so many myths surrounding AIDS that educators have a difficult time getting to the real topic because they have to counter these myths with truths.

The first part of the book is a selective review of the literature concerning AIDS prevention strategies in the United States. Ninety six references are reviewed. The second part consists of seven case histories: "Hartford Hispanic Health Council, Comunidad y Responsibilidad," "California Prostitutes Education Project," "Seattle--King County Department of Public Health MOD Project," "Gay Men's Health Crisis, Inc., Keep It Up!," "Service Employees International Union, AIDS Education Project," and "University of Illinois at Chicago, Adolescent AIDS Education Project." Each case history is described, including an evaluation and statements of lessons learned.

Part three contains six program profiles: "Girls Incorporated, Keeping Healthy, Keeping Safe," "Cleveland Catholic Counseling Center, AIDS Prevention Program for Latino Youth and Families," "Westchester County Department of Health, Intimate Realities," "Los Angeles County Public Health Foundation, Condom Promotion and Distribution Project," "Southeast Network for Youth and Family Services, AIDS Prevention for Runaway Youth," and "Delmarva Rural Ministries, AIDS Prevention for Farm Workers." These are six very different programs that illustrate how certain areas or populations can be targeted with fairly good results. The final part of the book contains four lessons that have been learned from the first decade of AIDS: "Factors Influencing the Success of AIDS Prevention Programs," "Organizational Contributions and Barriers to Effective AIDS Prevention Programs," "Evaluating Community-Based AIDS Prevention Programs," and "The Role of Community Organizations in Public Health Practice: The Lessons from AIDS Prevention." An appendix describes three methodologies--the case study design, the survey design, and the pilot study.

This is an excellent book that will provide researchers and data collectors much information on what works and what does not work. The following three quotes sum up what must be kept in mind: "There is lots of resistance and distrust on the part of many communities toward people coming in and telling them how to live their lives....You must develop the program with the community in mind from the very start," "The primary objectives...are to provide skills to prevent people from being infected or from infecting others with HIV and to foster compassion for those who do have AIDS," and "Programming must be offered in harmony with ethnic or behavioral values, norms, and traditions common to a particular subculture." With that in mind, this is a highly recommended book for all academic, medical, and research libraries.

630.Golden Age of Promiscuity, by Brad Gooch. 1996. Alfred A. Knopf, 201 E. 15th St., New York, NY 10022. 301p. ISBN 0-679-44708-3. $24.00. (Descriptors: Gay Men, New York, NY, Sexual Behavior, Fiction)

It is no secret that gays were extremely promiscuous during the seventies. What was happening would shock many individuals and, unfortunately, has resulted in much finger pointing after the AIDS crisis came into full swing. Life for gay men in the seventies was wild and wooly with countless numbers of games, codes, emotions, and excesses. This book describes this wild decade as it was lived in New York City. The book centers around Sean Devlin, who, at twenty, drops out of Columbia University to live on the wild side and discover who he was. He has in the back of his mind, the idea of becoming a famous filmmaker, documenting everything he saw.

Devlin was drawn to the famous hangouts in New York--Studio 54, Flamingo, Ramrod, Anvil, and the notorious Mineshaft where every conceivable sexual fantasy could be experienced with hundreds of participants. The book is extremely well written with much detail that leaves nothing to the imagination. Not a book for the weak-minded but a book that documents a past era that will probably never happen again, at least as openly as it did in the seventies. Although this is not a book about AIDS in particular, it does give the reader an idea of what health advocates screamed about during the eighties, resulting in the closing down of most of these establishments or running them underground. Stopping the spread of AIDS was the published reason for closing such establishments, but some look at this as a way to stop the gay lifestyle. It did, close the establishments, for how long, we do not know. It did not stop the gay lifestyle. This is a very interesting novel that should be in the library of those who experienced the seventies and the wild club scenes of that time. Academic libraries will find it a useful account of what gay life was in the clubs of New York City.

631.Immuno Biology: The Immune System in Health and Disease, 2nd edition by Charles A. Janeway, Jr., Paul Travers. 1996. Garland Publishing, 717 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10022. 1v., various paging, illus., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-8153-2044-2. $39.95. (Descriptors: Immunity, Immune System)

The first edition of this book was published in 1994 and reviewed in this journal as number 412, September, 1995. At that time it was highly recommended. It is still highly recommended. The field of immunobiology is moving at a rapid pace, resulting in much new material in this second edition. Every chapter has been updated. This book recognizes that the smallpox vaccination was discovered in 1796 by Edward Jenner and, now, 200 years later the disease has been officially eradicated. Let's hope that it does not take 200 years to eradicate AIDS or at least stop it in its tracks.

Part one--"An Introduction to Immunobiology"--contains two chapters: "Basic Concepts in Immunology" and "The Induction, Measurement, and Manipulation of the Immune Response." Part two--"The Recognition of Antigen"--covers "Structure of the Antibody Molecule and Immunoglobulin Genes" and "Antigen Recognition by T Lymphocytes"; part three--"The Development of Lymphocyte Repertoires"--includes "The development of B Lymphocytes" and "The Thymus and the Development of T Lymphocytes"; and part four--"The Adaptive Immune Response"--contains two chapters covering "T-Cell Mediated Immunity" and "The Humoral Immune Response." The last part--"The Immune System in Health and Disease"--provides excellent information about the immune system and HIV and other diseases: "Host Defense Against Infection," "Failures of Host Defense Mechanisms," "Immune Responses in the Absence of Infection," and "Control and Manipulation of the Immune Response."

The twelve pages devoted to AIDS are well-written, understandable for the layperson, but still useful for the researcher. It has excellent illustrations and a good selection of references. This is a must book for all medical and academic libraries and would be a useful addition to most large public libraries.

632.Fully Exposed: The Male Nude in Photography, 2nd edition by Emmanuel Cooper. 1995. Routledge, 29 West 35th St., New York, NY 10001. 296p., illus., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-415-03279-2, 0-415-03280-6pbk. $65.00, $25.00pbk. (Descriptors: Male Nudes)

The male nude has been photographed since 1840, providing functional photographs rather than artistic. To be artistic was a difficult task because of the taboos that were placed on exhibiting the male genitals. This very interesting book explores all aspects of photographing the male nude. There will be those who look at this book and will see only the photographs as medical history or scientific curiosity; others will see them as sexual objects; and still others will see only the artistic expression that the photographer is trying to portray. To photograph the male nude is to photograph reality, whereas the great painters and sculptors painted and created what they thought you wanted to see in the form of beauty.

Some will say "Why is this book in the AIDS Book Review Journal?" It is here because some of the most famous photographers of male nudes have died of AIDS, such as Mapplethorpe. They have left a legacy of photographic art that is both artistic and exciting to look at as well as being very erotic and controversial. AIDS has caused the male body to be an object of searching and soul seeking. Numerous male photography books have appeared over the last ten years. With so many young men dying of AIDS, it is almost as if photographers want to document their existence before they leave this earth. The male nude, when photographed with care, is a beautiful sight and can be a reinforcing power that soothes one when they are depressed. So, AIDS has produced an art form that has had a profound effect on gays. Also, in the last ten years, nudity has been used to promote television chat shows; and, women photographers of the male nude have increased.

This is an excellent book that gives a good historical account of photographing the nude through the nineties. The photographs are as good as the originals which were, at times, very poor in the early years of photography. A recommended book for all academic libraries. Public libraries will probably have difficulty in owning the book because of its content.

633.HIV/AIDS and the Older Adult, edited by Kathleen M. Nokes. 1996. Taylor & Francis, 1101 Vermont Ave., NW,. Ste 200, Washington, DC 20005-3521. 180p., bibliog., index. ISBN 1-56032-429-5, 1-5032-430-9pbk. $49.95, $24.95pbk. (Descriptors: Old Age, Health Care, Medical Issues, Social Aspects, Legal Issues) (Contributors: Gregory Anderson, Peter Aupperle, A. Widney Brown, Joe Catania, Kathleen Carver, Dorothy E. Hickey, Daphne Joslin, Barbara Kornhaber, Joan Levine-Perkell, Mary Ann Malone, Marie C. Nazon, Joanne Hanna Puleo, Karen Solomon, Ron Stall, Ann Wyatt)

AIDS affects more younger individuals that it does older adults. Unfortunately, however, when it does affect an older adult, the care and treatment is sometimes not as good. "This book sets out to explore many aspects of this epidemic while also revealing and identifying gaps in service to older people with HIV/AIDS." It brings together the shared experiences of clinicians who have cared for older persons with HIV/AIDS so that care and treatment can be improved.

The 11 chapters cover: "Scope of the Challenge"--an overview and education; "Health Care Needs"--prevention, testing, secondary prevention, and tertiary prevention; "Medical Issues"--prognosis, hazards, and differential diagnosis for dementia; "Psychosocial Issues"--risk factors, misconceptions, responses to diagnosis, help, personal reactions, outreach, and coping; "Creating a Support Group"--framework, facilitators, getting organized, issues, evaluation, and future; "The Older Gay Man"--the problem, identification, culture, risk factors, living with HIV/AIDS, and interventions; "Long-Term Care"--home care, housing, day care, nursing homes, and hospice care; "Legal and Ethical Issues"--discrimination, elder abuse, wills, and planning for health care; "Caregiving Issues"--elderly persons, elderly parents of persons with AIDS, grandparenting, relationships, and spirituality; "HIV/AIDS and Aging Networks"--why have one, values, health and human services, and building a network; and "Voices"--themes that emerged from agency-organization and individual interviews.

There needs to be more written on the topic of AIDS and the older adult. As AIDS moves into the chronic category, more and more individuals will be living to an older age before they need to have the specialized care. A plan has to be in place if we are to take care of these individuals. This book is a good beginning and is one that is highly recommended for all academic and medical libraries. It is well-written and well-documented.

634.Acting=Life, by Michael Kearns. 1996. Heinemann, 361 Hanover St., Portsmouth, NH 03801-3912. 145p. ISBN 0-435-08691-X. $15.95. (Descriptors: Acting)

Michael Kearns has put together another outstanding book, this one on teaching acting to mostly HIV positive students. He intertwines the real with the fantasy to provide the philosophy that in order to be accepted as an individual and in accepting oneself you have to be truly honest. "He argues that acting must be a form of self-expression, not escape--the process of integrating one's past into the present." His guide covers everything in short, to the point chapters that make you think and then react as an actor. The titles of his chapters more than adequately show what he trying to tell the students: "Diving Into Your Emotional Reservoir," "Celebrating Your Authenticity," "Moving Out of Your Head," "Learning to Play," "Using Your Body and Voice," "Turning Stage Fright into Stage Might," "Knowing What You Want," "Getting the Beats," "Studying the Words," "Putting It on Paper," "Enlivening Your Sensuality," "Getting Into Character," "Setting the Stakes," "Substituting and Acting As If," "Doing It for the First Time," "Detailing the Conditions," "Relating to Props," "Considering the Opposite," "Seeking Inspiration," "Integrating Androgyny," "Mastering the Monologue," "Connecting with Connecting," "Empathizing, Not Sympathizing," "Personalizing," "Trusting Your Instincts," "Loving to Listen," "Taking Your Time," "Accessing the Undesirable," "Being in and out of Control," "Avoiding Self-Sabotage," and "Honoring the Process."

If you look closely at these chapter headings you will quickly see how one could use this outside the stage and apply it to real life. Too many of us put on an act in public and do it poorly. With the guidance that Michael provides, life could be much more interesting and enjoyable, especially for those who are HIV positive and believe there is nothing to live for. A recommended book for all HIV positive individuals and for anyone else who wants to begin living an honest life and not a fantasy. Public, school, and academic libraries will want this book.

635.Gay Olympian: The Life and Death of Dr. Tom Waddell, by Tom Waddell, Dick Schaap. 1996. Alfred A. Knopf, 201 E. 15th St., New York, NY 10022. 240p. ISBN 0-394-57223-8. $23.00. (Descriptors: Gay Athletes, Biography, Gay Games)

This is the story of a great athlete, first-rate doctor, member of the 1968 U.S. Olympic Games, a leader in the gay and lesbian community, and a father. Tom Waddell was an individual who had difficulty coming out but never faltered in his career. He was the physician to the Saudi Arabian royal court for several years before practicing medicine in San Francisco. He organized the Gay Games in 1982 after the Olympic Festival stripped the word Olympics from Gay Olympics. He battled AIDS for five years and died in 1987. This is a story of a remarkable individual who could be a role model for all gay athletes. Greg Louganis states: "I am grateful to Tom for creating the Gay Games, because it was through the Games that I was emboldened to come out, through the Games that I met the people who encouraged me to tell the story of my life."

Tom's life is told by a well-known television reporter, Dick Schaap. He used Tom's journal that he wrote for his young daughter. He had wanted to write the book himself, but AIDS decided otherwise. This is a warm, sometimes funny, yet inspiring story that you will not be able to lay aside until you have reached the last page. A recommended book for all libraries, an inspiration for all gays and lesbians.

636.Under the Rainbow: Growing Up Gay, by Arnie Kantrowitz. 1996. St. Martin's Press, 175 5th Ave., New York, NY 10010. 217p. ISBN 0-312-14439-3. $12.95. (Descriptors: Gay Men, Biography)

Growing up gay can be a horrific experience or it can be enlightening. AIDS has created this myth that gays are the cause of the disease. Yet, at the time Kantrowitz wrote this book, originally published in 1977, being gay was a disease in itself. This book is included here only because the editor wants to show everyone how difficult it was to be gay before Stonewall and immediately after. Gays today are harassed for other reasons; being gay is not a disease, instead it is the cause of a disease in the eyes of many. This is a must book for anyone to read, gay or straight. It is in a niche all its own, an important book on gay history. Recommended for all libraries.

637.Sex, Disease, and Society: A Comparative History of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS in Asia and the Pacific, edited by Milton Lewis, Scott Bamber, Michael Waugh. 1997. Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. 290p., index. (Contributions in Medical Studies, no.43). ISBN 0-313-29442-9. $69.50. (Descriptors: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Asia, History, Pacific Area) (Contributors: Milton Lewis, Scott Bamber, David Arnold, Kevin Hewison, Peter Underwood, Frank Dikotter, Kerrie L. Macpherson, Ken DeBevoise, Annick Guenel, Brendan O'Keefe, Brenda S. A. Yeoh, Anke Van Der Sterren, Alison Murray, Terry Hull, Jenny Hughes)

This very important book provides an insight into the complexities of discussing the intertwining of cultural, social, economic, and political behaviors with sexually transmitted diseases in Asia and the Pacific. In many of the countries in this region of the world discussing anything sexually is taboo. The research had as a western boundary, India and the eastern boundary, China and Hong Kong. Other Asian countries included are Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia. The research went back 150 to 200 years. It then brought everything into the modern era of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. In studying this comparison of STDS and HIV/AIDS several factors come into play: "colonialism (including internal colonization of ethnic communities); economic growth; urbanization; migration of labor; gender and economic inequality; religion and sexual morality; war; permeability of borders; nationalism and xenophobia; and economic and political barriers to effective health services."

There is an overriding belief that the Orient is "a breeding ground for sexually transmitted disease." Movies and novels glorify this but "behind this misleading picture lies a complex pattern of disease and illness that is closely linked to significant social, economic, political, and cultural factors affecting the population of the region." After an introductory chapter there are eleven extensively researched chapters: "Sex, State, and Society: Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS in Modern India," "Dangerous Liaisons: A History of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Thailand," "A History of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in China," "Conspiracy of Silence: A History of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS in Hong Kong," "A History of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS in the Philippines," "Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Vietnam and Cambodia since the French Colonial Period," "Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Malaysia," "Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Late Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Singapore," "A History of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the Indonesian Archipelago since 1811," "A History of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Papua New Guinea," and "Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Australia from the Late Eighteenth to the Late Twentieth Century."

This is a must book for history of medicine collections. It is extremely well researched and documented. Historians in general will find this a fascinating book providing a look into the historical taboos of sexually transmitted diseases. Recommended for all medical and academic libraries as well as large public libraries, especially those who serve large numbers of Asians.

639.Kampala Women Getting By: Wellbeing in the Time of AIDS, by Sandra Wallman. 1996. Ohio University Press, Scott Quadrangle, Athens, OH 45701. 246p., illus., bibliog., index. (Eastern African Studies). ISBN 0-8214-1158-6, 0-8214-1159-4pbk. $39.95, $17.95pbk. (Descriptors: Self-Care, Health Self-Care, Africa, Health Behavior, Health and Hygiene, Sociological Aspects) (Contributors: Grace Bantebya-Kyomuhendo, Valdo Pons, Jessica Jitta, Frank Kaharuza, Jessica Ogden, Solveig Freudenthal)

"The research on which this book is based was supported by a grant from the Overseas Development Administration (UK), covering the period from November 1992 to October 1994." Kampala is the capital of Uganda. This book discusses "the informal economy of health as it affects treatment-seeking and health-care decisions of women in a densely populated urban setting in Africa." Four problem areas are examined--the disadvantagedness of women; the at risk factor for children under five; endemic STD in Africa that has caused chronic morbidity, reproductive incapacity and social stress; and the inaccessibility of social processes. It is no secret that Uganda has now and will have in the future a difficult time to overcome these problems without massive changes in the political and social thinking of it leaders. This is a book about wellbeing where treatment seeking has to focus on security, self-esteem and reputation instead of the hard facts of life.

After an introduction that describes the area and its people there are chapters that cover community life, household wellbeing, treatment options, home treatment, children's illnesses, and private disease. Chapter ten presents the individual accounts by six women on treatment seeking. Treating AIDS in any Third World country is a challenge. The contributors to this book have provided some excellent background on how to approach the area of wellbeing and AIDS which could be applied to other areas of the world. A recommended book for all medical and academic libraries.

640.Unholy Ghosts, by Richard Zimler. 1996. Gay Men's Press/InBook, 1436 W. Randolph St., Chicago, IL 60607. 255p. ISBN 0-85449-233-X. $14.95. (Fiction)

Testing HIV positive is difficult to accept for anyone. Many become very depressed and want to stop living. Fortunately, today there are many combinations of drugs that can prolong life and maybe make being HIV positive a chronic condition that can be controlled with medication. Richard Zimler has written a moving and sometime funny story about a gay, Jewish, American classical guitar teacher who leaves Greenwich village after so many of his friends have died of AIDS. He moves to Portugal where he teaches Guitar. One of his star students, Antonio, tests HIV positive and threatens to end his life. The Professor takes Antonio under his wings and proceeds to show him that to continue living is difficult but the only route to follow. He takes Antonio and Antonio's estranged father on a car trip to Paris so that Antonio can prepare for a concert career as a classical guitarist.

The story is about the trip where the three of them get to know each other like they have never known before. It is a story of coming out, of being afraid of sex, of love, of desire, of violence, and of confession. This is a delightful gay novel that will catch your attention and keep you reading from beginning to end. It is a story for those who are HIV positive and say, "Why continue?". Antonio sees that living is the only way. A recommended book for public and academic libraries and for those school libraries that are liberal enough to have gay novels.

641.Immunology of HIV Infection, edited by Sudhir Gupta. 1996. Plenum, 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013. 612p., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-306-45255-3. $95.00. (Descriptors: Immunology, Lymphocyte, Immunity, Cytokine, Lymphoma, Vaccines, Gene Therapy) (Contributors: Henri Atlan, Brigitte Autran, Ewa Bjorling, Dani P. Bolognesi, Benjamin Bonavida, Christopher B. Buck, Ying-Hua Chen, Mario Clerici, Irun R. Cohen, Manfred P. Dierich, Anthony S. Fauci, Gwendolyn Anne Fyfe, Robert C. Gallo, Enrico Garaci, Janis V. Giorgi, David W. Golde, Allan L. Goldstein, Sudhir Gupta, John W. Hadden, Laura P. Hale, Barton F. Haynes, Harry R. Hill, Anahid Jewett, Stella C. Knight, Prasad Koka, H. Clifford Lane, Jeffrey A. Ledbetter, Linda B. Ludwig, Jerry R. McGhee, Michael S. McGrath, Jean E. Merrill, Richard Morgan, Madhavan P. N. Nair, Peter L. Nara, Valerie L. Ng, Erling Norrby, Jan M. Orenstein, Naoki Oyaizu, Savita Pahwa, Dhavalkumar D. Patel, Guido Poli, Lee Ratner, Felipe Samaniego, Prem S. Sarin, Arif R. Sarwari, David T. Scadden, Stanley A. Schwartz, Gene M. Shearer, Shyh-Dar Shyur, Robert F. Siliciano, Phillip D. Smith, Herman F. Staats, Heribert Stoiber, Charles S. Via, Sharon M. Wahl)

Much progress has been made in the past five years in understanding the immunopathogenesis of HIV infection. Research has been reported in numerous journals and chapters of books. "The purpose of this book is to present the most comprehensive and up-to-date information regarding the immunology of HIV infection, contributed by a group of experts." The book is intended to be a text on immunology of HIV for scientists and clinical researchers as well as internists, pediatricians, immunologists, and infectious disease specialists. It is a formidable book that is technical and well documented. Judging from the extensive bibliographies, the information is current up through 1995.

The first section--"Basic Mechanisms"--provides the background to understanding the immunopathogenesis of HIV infection. The four chapters in this section cover: "Genetic Organization of HIV," "T-Cell Epitopes of HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein," "B-Cell Sites in the HIV Glycoproteins," and "Lymphocyte Adhesion Coreceptors and Their Roles in HIV-1 Replication." The next section--"Immunopathogenesis"--is the meat of the book and the longest. The topics covered include: "HIV in Lymph Node and Thymus," "Effects of HIV-1 and HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins on Signaling Pathways in Human T Lymphocytes," "Lymphocyte Apoptosis in HIV Infection," "Biological Activities of HIV-Specific Peptides," "Phenotype and Function of T Cells in HIV Disease," "Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Responses to HIV From Primary Infection to AIDS," "Type 1 and Type 2 Responses in HIV Infection and Exposure," "Humoral Immunity to HIV-1: Lethal Force or Trojan Horse?", "Autoimmunity in HIV," "Cytokine Cascades in HIV Infection," "Macrophage Functions in HIV-1 Infection," "Dendritic Cell Functions in HIV Infection," "Natural Killer Cells in HIV Infection," "HIV and Complement," "Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Function in HIV," "Mucosal Immunity in HIV Infection," "The Putative Role of HIV-1 Envelope Proteins in the Neuroimmunology and Neuropathology of CNS AIDS," "Immunopathogenesis of Kaposi's Scarcoma," and "Pathogenesis of HIV-Associated Lymphoma."

The last section--"Immune-Based Therapy"--discusses the various treatments that have been proposed and are being developed. It covers: "The Immunotherapy of HIV Infection with Drugs," "Biologic Response Modifiers (Interleukins and Interferons)," "Thymic Hormones in the Treatment of AIDS and other Infectious Diseases," "Growth Factors in the Treatment of HIV Disease," "T-Cell Vaccination for HIV-Seropositive Patients," "HIV Vaccines," and "Gene Therapy."

This is a must book for AIDS researchers. The various presentations are extremely well written and usually contain a summary or conclusion at the end. In the chapter on HIV vaccines it is pointed out that vaccines are not yet in sight. In fact the private sector is backing away from research on vaccines. The authors stress that there will have to be an effective partnership between government, academia, and industry in order to maintain the impetus to create an effective HIV vaccine. A highly recommended book for all medical libraries.

642.AIDS Education: Reaching Diverse Populations, edited by Melinda K. Moore, Martin L. Forst. 1996. Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. 237p., bibliog., index. ISBN 0-275-94904-4. $55.00. (Descriptors: Prevention, Cross-Cultural Studies, Community Health Services) (Contributors: Robert L. Barret, Mary Bentley, Brian T. Byrnes, Elizabeth R. Cocina, James F. Duffield, Martin L. Forst, Kathryn Herr, James M. Holmes, Steven Humes, Mary K. Irvine, Michael Jang, Meredith Larson, Lillian Lioeanjie, Melinda K. Moore, Adam Robinson, Chris Sandoval, Melissa Schatz, Cassandra R. Thomas, Susana Hennessey Toure, Cassandra Hernandez Vives)

Individuals are still becoming HIV positive, even though we have tried to provide the right education. Unfortunately not all populations are heeding the education. There has to be another approach to educating our young people from all ethnic and diverse backgrounds. A cure for AIDS is still not reachable, controlling AIDS is reachable through medication, but convincing young people that they should do everything possible so as to not become infected is the challenge. This year more non-whites are becoming infected than whites. African Americans and women are increasingly becoming infected. Targeting AIDS education is expensive and federal, state, and local governments have increasingly cut funding for this purpose. "We must begin to realize that prevention education does not take place within a vacuum; that there are social, political, and cultural barriers that also impact health educators' abilities to function effectively, many of which are beyond the control of health educators but continue to inhibit the efficacy of prevention education in the United States." The book points out some of the problems: insufficient emphasis on risk assessments, insufficient emphasis on skills development with those at highest risk, lack of understanding of cultural determinants affecting HIV prevention and care, categorical funding streams, competition for funding, and a lack of communication and collaboration between academic researchers and prevention educators.

This book is intended to get the attention of health educators, researchers, and policymakers. It is meant to challenge what is currently being done. What works now is included in the book. Behavior modification is one way but it also presents many problems. Currently, the high-risk groups are gay men, IDUs, prostitutes, people who have multiple sexual partners, and sexual partners of those in high-risk groups. Each segment of society has its own unique problems and educational needs. The 14 chapters cover: "Introduction: Targeting AIDS Education and Prevention Programs," "Successes and Failures in the Gay Community," "Building a Proud Gay Identity," "Targeting Education for Women Who Have Sex with Women," "Red Clay and Rednecks: HIV Prevention in Rural Southern Communities," "HIV/AIDS Education and Prevention in the Asian American and Pacific Islander Communities," "Evolution of a Model of Popular Health Education for Environmental Change in the Latino Community," "HIV Prevention Strategies with Homeless and Street Youth," "AIDS Education: Innovative Methods for Adolescents in New Orleans," "Contextualizing the Development of Adolescent Girls," "HIV Education and the Sexual Assault Survivor," "Reaching IN: The Challenge for HIV/AIDS Educators in the criminal Justice System," "MAESTRO: A Cross-Cultural HIV/AIDS Training Curriculum for Diverse Disciplines and Communities," and "Effective Program Evaluation."

This is a book that presents the facts, without going into a great amount of detail. AIDS educators will find it extremely useful and policymakers will find it interesting and maybe disturbing. Hopefully they will see the need to increase funding for AIDS education. Highly recommended for all libraries.

[ AIDS BOOK REVIEW JOURNAL | UIC University Library ]

Last updated: 03/11/97
URL: http://www.uic.edu/depts/lib/aidsbkrv/