Florence Crittenton Anchorage Records
MSFCA_73

 An inventory of the collection at the University of Illinois at Chicago

Summary Information

Repository
Richard J. Daley Library Special Collections and University Archives
Creator
Florence Crittenton Anchorage (Chicago, Ill.).
Title
Florence Crittenton Anchorage records
ID
MSFCA_73
Date
1886-1974
Extent
11.5 Linear feet
Language
English
Abstract:
The Florence Crittenton Anchorage, a shelter for prostitutes, evolved to become a nation-wide network of shelters and later, maternity homes for unwed mothers.The records include annual reports, board minutes, Women's Christian Temperance Union minutes, audit reports, financial records, sample casework records, personnel records, correspondence, memos, legal records, general office files, manuals, scrapbooks, photographs, books, and miscellaneous publications.

Preferred Citation

Florence Crittenton Anchorage records, Special Collections and University Archives, University of Illinois at Chicago

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Administrative History

Charles N. Crittenton was a New York merchant who, after the death of his four-year-old daughter Florence, devoted himself to philanthropic works. His major accomplishment was establishing a nationwide network of shelters for prostitutes and other "women and vice." Centered mainly in large cities, these shelters evolved over time to become maternity homes for unwed mothers.

The history of Chicago's Florence Crittenton Anchorage begins with the Women's Christian Temperance Union's Board of Temple Trustees. Inn 1886, Frances Willard and other members of her organization opened a slum mission called Rehoboth ("there is room"), where "friendless women" could rest for a few hours, seek advice and comfort, and pray. Quickly growing out of its cramped quarters, the mission, known also as the "Anchorage", moved to a rented house at 125 Plymouth Place in a district rife with saloons and prostitution. For eight years, the home operated there, admitting about 400 women annually.

In 1893, the financially struggling home came to the attention of Charles Crittenton, who made a large financial contribution and formally dedicated the home, "The Florence Crittenton Anchorage." In 1895, the home moved again, this time to a rented house at 1349 Wabash Ave. With help from Mr. Crittenton, the Anchorage purchased an eighteen room houe at 2615 Indiana Avenue in 1903.

The building was condemned in 1943, and the home closed, only to reopen in 1949 at 2678 W. Washington, where the Anchorage remained until its demise in 1973.

Services offered by the Florence Crittenton Anchorage (FCA) changed considerably over the years. At its founding, the home served as a shelter for homeless and destitute women, as well as for prostitutes, unmarried pregnant women, and women with children who had been abandoned by husbands and boyfriends.

In these early years, the home sheltered not only the women themselves, but also, in the case of abandoned wives, their young children, and infants born to unmarried pregnant residents. In fact, one of the FCA's goals was to help mothers establish and maintain close ties with their children. In the face of social censure of unmarried mothers, the Anchorage advocated the practice of unwed mothers maintaining custody of their children.

Eventually, however, as clients became younger and more middle class, FCA's emphasis shifted to providing a temporary "hiding place" for the last months of a schoolgirl's or young working woman's pregnancy. Releasing infants for adoption became the favored solution to the problem of out-of-wedlock births.

The racial composition of residents served likewise reveals many shifts in the agency's practices and policies. The few pages of FCA case records that survive from the late nineteenth century indicate that women of virtually all ethnic, religious, and racial groups were sheltered. Early photographs show black and white residents taking homemaking and child care classes together. By the 1940s, however, as the Anchorage was preparing to move into new quarters at 2678 W. Washington Ave, the Board was forced by neighborhood pressure into a formal agreement not to accept black women as residents at the home. FCA was not integrated again until the 1960s.

Also in the 1960s, the Anchorage began restricting admittance to women eighteen years or older because of strict licensing requirements imposed by city and school officials on agencies caring for minors. This restriction led to a declining enrollment and subsequent financial problems that forced the FCA's Board of Trustees to close the home.

Of course, financial difficulties were not new to this private, non-profit organization. Since it's founding, the Anchorage was largely dependent on individual donations and bequests to survive. Its cooperation with the Community Fund of Chicago ensured necessary financial support, but FCA also relied on a full house of fee-paying residents to keep the Anchorage financially solvent. Throughout its history, the agency continually found itself hovering dangerously near insolvency.

The home was closed in 1943 after the building at Indiana Ave. was deemed unsound by local licensing boards. During this period, the Board of Trustees remained active, grappling with the problem of raising funds to locate and purchase a suitable building. In 1949, the home was finally reopened at the Washington Avenue address.

In 1972, in the face of declining enrollment and mounting financial pressure, certain members of the Board of Trustees moved to close the home and dissolve the Board. These members argued that a changed social climate, including the availability of legalized abortion and the increased social acceptance of unwed mothers, made continued operation of maternity homes unnecessary. A small group of Board members, led by black community service leader Irene King, resisted shutting down the home. Mrs. King and other dissenters agreed to take over management of the home. They accepted the resignation of Board members who had voted to close the agency, and accepted the resignations of Board members who had voted to close the agency, and appointed new Board members committed to keeping the home's doors open.

The new Board, headed by Irene King, was highly motivated, and exhibited a burst of energy directed at revitalizing the agency. An ambitious fundraising campaign was established, and the FCA underwent remodeling. The new board, however, had inherited a large deficit, and the problem of low enrollment was never resolved. On June 29, 1973, the Board reluctantly voted to close the agency. Its final project was to resolve its outstanding financial debt. Correspondence reveals that this became a point of honor in defeat for the remaining Board members. On August 15, 1974, the Board dissolved itself after clearing its books of all financial liability.

References:

Fifty Years of Work with Girls, 1883-1933: A Story of the Florence Crittenton Homes. Alexandria, Virginia: The National Florence Crittenton Mission, 1933

Edholm, Charlton. Traffic in Girls and Florence Crittenton Missions. Chicago: Women's Temperance Publishing Association, c. 1893

National Florence Crittenton Mission. Report of the National Florence Crittenton Mission and its Affiliated Branches, 1914.

Crittenton, Charles N. "The Traffic in Girls" in Fighting the Traffic in Young Girls. Ed. Ernest A. Bell. Chicago, 1911.

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Scope and Contents

The records include annual reports, board minutes, Women's Christian Temperance Union minutes, audit reports, financial records, sample casework records, personnel records, correspondence, memos, legal records, general office files, manuals, scrapbooks, photographs, books, and miscellaneous publications.

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Administrative Information

Publication Information

Richard J. Daley Library Special Collections and University Archives 2006-06-23

801 S. Morgan Street
Chicago, Illinois, 60607
312.996.2742

Restrictions on Access

Some folders are restricted as indicated in the finding aid.

Restrictions on Use

Some folders are restricted as indicated in the finding aid.

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Controlled Access Headings

Corporate Name(s)

  • Florence Crittenton Anchorage (Chicago, Ill.). -- Archives

Subject(s)

  • Midwest Women's History.
  • Women's shelters -- Illinois -- Chicago.

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Collection Inventory

Series I: Board of Trustees records 

Box Folder

Annual reports, 1902-1932 

1 1

Annual reports (use copies), 1902-1932 

1 2

Annual reports, 1947-1965 

1 3

Board of Trustees membership, 1957-1974 

1 4

Bylaws, 1972 

1 5

Directors reports, 1930-1972 

1 6

Minutes, 1902-1910 

1 7

Minutes, 1917-1918 

2 8

Minutes, 1920-1924 

2 9

Minutes, 1925-1928 

2 10

Minutes, 1929-1933 

2 11

Minutes, 1934-1935 

2 12

Minutes, 1936-1937 

2 13

Minutes, 1938-1939 

2 14

Minutes, 1840-1941 

2 15

Minutes, 1942-1943 

3 16

Minutes, 1944-1949 

3 17

Minutes, 1950-1953 

3 18

Minutes, 1954-1957 

3 19

Minutes, 1958-1960 

3 20

Minutes, 1961-1963 

3 21

Minutes, 1964-1965 

3 22

Minutes, 1966-1967 

4 23

Minutes, 1968-1970 

4 24

Minutes, 1970-1971 

4 25

Minutes, 1971-1974 

4 26

Women's Christian Temperance Union - Board of Temple Trustees, 1893 1905 

4 27

Women's Christian Temperance Union - Board of Temple Trustees - minutes, 1892-1899 

4 28

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Series II: Financial Records 

Box Folder

Accounting detail, 1969 

5 29

Accounting worksheets, 1970-1971 

5 30

Accounting worksheets, 1972-1973 

5 31

Audit reports, 1909-1922 

5 32

Audit reports, 1923-1930 

5 33

Audit reports, 1931-1937 

5 34

Audit reports, 1938-1944 

5 35

Audit reports, 1945-1950 

6 36

Audit reports, 1951-1957 

6 37

Audit reports, 1959-1967 

6 38

Audit reports, 1968-1973 

6 39

Audit reports - correspondence, 1970-1974 

6 40

Ava W. Farwell Trust for Fallen Women, 1955-1973 

6 41

Commonwealth Edison correspondence, 1971-1972 

6 42

Correspondence with FCA creditors, 1971-1973 

7 43

Financial records book, 1972-1973 

7 44

Financial summary, 1968 

7 45

Financial summary, 1968 

7 46

Fundraising - benefit breakfast, 1972-1973 

7 47

Fundraising - Ella Fitzgerald Show, 1973 

7 48

Fundraising - People's Gas Co., 1972 

7 49

Fundraising - receipts, 1973 

7 50

Fundraising - receipts, 1973 

7 51

Fundraising Committee, 1971-1972 

7 52

Fundraising and contributions - correspondence, 1943-1960 

7 53

Fundraising and contributions - correspondence, 1961-1971 

7 54

Fundraising and contributions - correspondence, 1972-1974 

7 55

Fundraising and contributions - Ravinia tickets, 1970-1971 

7 56

General ledger, 1972 

8 57

General ledger, 1973 

8 58

Harris Bank, 1968-1973 

8 59

Harris Bank Investment Fund, 1970 

8 60

Insurance, 1960-1969 

8 61

Insurance, 1970 

8 62

Insurance, 1971 

8 63

Insurance, 1972 

8 64

Insurance, 1973-1974 

8 65

Insurance, 1970-1973 

8 66

Insurance, 1970-1973 

8 67

Internal Revenue Service, 1934-1974 

8 68

Monthly Financial Statements, 1971-1974 

9 69

Operating Budget, 1972-1974 

9 70

Payroll Reports, 1970 

9 71

Payroll Reports, 1971 

9 72

Payroll Reports, 1972 

9 73

Payroll Reports, 1973 

9 74

Payroll Worksheets, 1972-1973 

9 75

Payroll problems, 1973 

9 76

State of Illinois - Department of Revenue, 1967-1973 

9 77

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Series III: Organizations 

Box Folder

Chicago Association for Commerce and Industry, 1962-1971 

9 78

Chicago Community Trust - correspondence, 1950-1961 

9 79

Chicago Community Trust - correspondence, 1962-1963 

10 80

Community Fund of Chicago - budget, 1969 

10 81

Community Fund of Chicago - budget, 1970 

10 82

Community Fund of Chicago - budget, 1971 

10 83

Community Fund of Chicago - budget, 1971 

10 84

Community Fund of Chicago - budget, 1971 

10 85

Community Fund of Chicago - budget, 1972 

10 86

Community Fund of Chicago - budget, 1973 

10 87

Community Fund of Chicago - budget, 1973 

11 88

Community Fund of Chicago - correspondence, 1965-1971 

11 89

Community Fund of Chicago - correspondence, 1972 

11 90

Community Fund of Chicago - correspondence, 1973-1974 

11 91

Community Fund of Chicago - printed material, 1972-1973 

11 92

Community Fund of Chicago - printed material, 1972-1973 

12 93

Cook County Department of Public Aid, 1972-1973 

12 94

Council for Community Services in Metropolitan Chicago - bulletins, 1973 

12 95

Council for Community Services in Metropolitan Chicago - bulletins, 1973 

12 96

Council for Community Services in Metropolitan Chicago - correspondence, 1970-1974 

12 97

Florence Crittenton Association of America - memos, 1971 

12 98

Florence Crittenton Association of America - memos, 1972 

12 99

Florence Crittenton Association of America - memos, 1972 

13 100

Florence Crittenton Association of America - memos, 1972 

13 101

Florence Crittenton Association of America - memos, 1970-1974 

13 102

Florence Crittenton Association of America - printed material, 1970-1973 

13 103

Florence Crittenton Association of America - report, 1914 

13 104

Florence Crittenton Association of America - publications, 1954-1971 

13 105

Illinois Children's Home and Aid Society - correspondence, 1972 

13 106

Other organizations - correspondence, 1969-1973 

13 107

Other organizations - newsletters, 1972-1973 

13 108

Welfare Council of Metropolitan Chicago - correspondence and printed material, 1971-1973 

14 109

Welfare Council of Metropolitan Chicago - correspondence and printed material, 1971-1973 

14 110

Youth Guidance - correspondence and printed material, 1971-1972 

14 111

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Series IV: State of Illinois 

Box Folder

Attorney General, 1962-1974 

14 112

Department of Children and Family Services - correspondence, 1967-1971 

14 113

Department of Children and Family Services - correspondence, 1971-1973 

14 114

Department of Children and Family Services - forms, 1967-1972 

14 115

Department of Children and Family Services - printed material, 1970-1972 

14 116

Department of Children and Family Services - vouchers, 1970-1971 

14 117

Department of Labor, 1969-1971 

15 118

Secretary of State, 1902-1974 

15 119

Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1969-1972 

15 120

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Series V: Facilities 

Box Folder

Inventory, 1973 

15 121

Property - correspondence and memos, 1943-1949 

15 122

Property - 2619 Indiana, 1907-1932 

15 123

Property - 2670 W. Washington, 1968 

15 124

Property - 2678 W. Washington, 1949-1973 

15 125

Property - 2708 W. Washington, 1962-1974 

15 126

Property - 2716-30 W. Washington, 1969 

15 127

Property - remodeling, 1971 

15 128

Property - remodeling, 1972-1973 

15 129

Property - Wilmette, Illinois, 1960-1964 

16 130

Supplies - brochures and pamphlets, 1970 

16 131

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Series VI: General Office Files 

Box Folder

Activities program, 1951-1960 

16 132

Adoption information, 1970-1972 

16 133

Auxiliary, 1967-1972 

16 134

Case records - sample intake cards, 1910-1922 

16 135

Caseworker reports, 1969-1970 

16 136

Consultant study and recommendations, 1970-1971 

16 137

Correspondence - general, 1968-1974 

16 138

Education, 1971-1973 

16 139

Education - Chicago Board of Education Ad Hoc Committee on Programs for Pregnant Girls, 1972-1973 

16 140

Expansion of Services, 1973 

17 141

Films - catalogs and listings, undated 

17 142

Group Workers report, 1964 

17 143

Licenses and Licensing information - local, 1956-1973 

17 144

Mailing lists, undated 

17 145

Manual of organization, undated 

17 146

Manual of organization, undated 

17 147

Manual of orientation, 1970 

17 148

Notes re: FCA daily operations, 1971 

17 149

Photographs, undated 

17 150

Photographs, 1950-1960 

17 151

Photographs, 1963 

17 152

Policies, Procedures, Services, 1938-1972 

17 153

Presbyterian St. Luke's Hospital, 1970-1971 

17 154

Publications - brochures and pamphlets, 1920-1970 

17 155

Publications - "Our Girls", 1906 

17 156

Publicity, 1951-1973 

17 157

Publicity - photographs, 1973 

17 158

Records management, 1973-1974 

17 159

Research Data - The Unwed Mother - clippings, 1972-1973 

17 160

Resident newspaper - "Pots Anonymous", 1965-1966 

18 161

Residents - potential - correspondence, 1970-1971 

18 162

Residents rule manual, 1958-1973 

18 163

Termination of services - intra-agency correspondence, 1972-1973 

18 164

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Series VII: Personnel Records 

Box Folder

Employment applications - Restricted, 1970 

18 165

Employment applications - Restricted, 1971 

18 166

Employment applications - restricted, 1972-1973 

18 167

Job descriptions, 1958-1973 

18 168

Manual - caseworkers, 1968 

18 169

Manual - group workers, undated 

18 170

Personnel benefits, 1970 

18 171

Personnel benefits, 1971-1973 

18 172

Personnel Committee, 1970-1972 

18 173

Personnel, General, 1970-1973 

18 174

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 175

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 176

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 177

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 178

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 179

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 180

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 181

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 182

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 183

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 184

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 185

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 186

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 187

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 188

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 189

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 190

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 191

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 192

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 193

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 194

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 195

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 196

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 197

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 198

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 199

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 200

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 201

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 202

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 203

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 204

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 205

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 206

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 207

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 208

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 209

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 210

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 211

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 212

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 213

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 214

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 215

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 216

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 217

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 218

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 219

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 220

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 221

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 222

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 223

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 224

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 225

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 226

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 227

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 228

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 229

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 230

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 231

Employment Records - restricted, 1968-1973 

19 232

Employment Records - restricted 1968-1973 

19 233

Employment Records - restricted 1968-1973 

19 234

Employment Records - restricted 1968-1973 

19 235

Employment Records - restricted 1968-1973 

19 236

Employment Records - restricted 1968-1973 

19 237

Employment Records - restricted 1968-1973 

19 238

Employment Records - restricted 1968-1973 

19 239

Employment Records - restricted 1968-1973 

19 240

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Oversized Material 

Oversize

Accounting worksheets - restricted, 1970 

Folder 241

Case records - sample pages, 1886-1894 

Folder 242

Citation for Outstanding Participation, 1973 

Folder 243

Scrapbook, undated 

Folder 244

Scrapbook, 1958-1959 

Folder 245

Unwed Mothers Service Report, National Statistics, 1969 

Folder 246

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