Born in Germany, Hitzig first studied law and then went on to medicine. Eventually he was appointed as Professor of Psychiatry and later Director of the Neuropsychiatric Clinic in Halle. Numerous neurologists of the time include Romberg in neurology, Virchow in pathology and Griesenger and Westpliol encourage him in his neurologic pursuits. His monumental studies on electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. He carefully defined the limits of the motor area in the cerebral cortex of dogs and monkeys. But he also brought into focus the importance of psychiatry at a much higher level in the management of mental illness. He emphasized that the brain was the instrument of the mind.

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