*These estimates are based on the UIC student body composition in 2003. It is also possible that one person may have experienced multiple forms of interpersonal violence either in different incidents or within the same incident.
**For an executive summary of the full 2002 NCHA UIC survey visit: http://tigger.uic.edu/~jimd/UICExecSummary.pdf
Rates of Victimization
Nearly one-third of American women (31 percent) report being physically or sexually abused by a husband or boyfriend at some point in their lives. Commonwealth Fund survey, 1998
It is estimated that 503,485 women are stalked by an intimate partner each year in the United States . National Institute of Justice, July 2000
Estimates range from 960,000 incidents of violence against a current or former spouse, boyfriend, or girlfriend each year to 4 million women who are physically abused by their husbands or live-in partners each year. Violence by Intimates: Analysis of Data on Crimes by Current or Former Spouses, Boyfriends, and Girlfriends, U.S. Department of Justice, March, 1998
The Gendered Nature of Domestic Violence
While women are less likely than men to be victims of violent crimes overall, women are 5 to 8 times more likely than men to be victimized by an intimate partner. Violence by Intimates: Analysis of Data on Crimes by Current or Former Spouses, Boyfriends, and Girlfriends, U.S. Department of Justice, March, 1998
Violence by an intimate partner accounts for about 21% of violent crime experienced by women and about 2% of the violence experienced by men. Violence by Intimates: Analysis of Data on Crimes by Current or Former Spouses, Boyfriends, and Girlfriends, U.S. Department of Justice, March, 1998
In 92% of all domestic violence incidents, crimes are committed by men against women. Violence Against Women, Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice, January, 1994
78% of stalking victims are female and 87% of stalking perpetrators are male. - National Institute of Justice 1998. Stalking in America : Finding from the National Violence Against Women Survey.
Current or former spouses, boyfriends and other intimate partners were responsible for 20% of nonfatal violence against females 12 and older in 2001. Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2001
Homicide and Domestic Violence
In 1996, among all female murder victims in the U.S. , 30% were slain by their husbands or boyfriends. Uniform Crime Reports of the U.S. 1996, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1999
31,260 women were murdered by an intimate partner from 1976-1996. Violence by Intimates: Analysis of Data on Crimes by Current or Former Spouses, Boyfriends, and Girlfriends, U.S. Department of Justice, March, 1998
Costs of Domestic Violence to Society
Family violence costs the nation from $5 to $10 billion annually in medical expenses, police and court costs, shelters and foster care, sick leave, absenteeism, and non-productivity. Medical News, American Medical Association, January, 1992
Females accounted for 39% of the hospital emergency department visits for violence-related injuries in 1994 but 84% of the persons treated for injuries inflicted by intimates . Violence by Intimates: Analysis of Data on Crimes by Current or Former Spouses, Boyfriends, and Girlfriends, U.S. Department of Justice, March, 1998
Husbands and boyfriends commit 13,000 acts of violence against women in the workplace every year . Violence and Theft in the Workplace, U.S. Department of Justice, July, 1994
The majority of welfare recipients have experienced domestic abuse in their adult lives and a high percentage are currently abused. Trapped by Poverty, Trapped by Abuse: New Evidence Documenting the Relationship Between Domestic Violence and Welfare, The Taylor Institute, April, 1997
Effect of Domestic Violence on Children
Studies show that child abuse occurs in 30-60% of family violence cases that involve families with children. "The overlap between child maltreatment and woman battering." J.L. Edleson, Violence Against Women, February, 1999
A child's exposure to the father abusing the mother is the strongest risk factor for transmitting violent behavior from one generation to the next. Report of the American Psychological Association Presidential Task Force on Violence and the Family, APA, 1996
Teen Dating Violence
Forty percent of teenage girls age 14 to 17 report knowing someone their age who has been hit or beaten by a boyfriend. Children Now/Kaiser Permanente poll, December, 1995
One in five female high school students reports being physically or sexually abused by a dating partner. Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), August 2001
Approximately 1 out of every 3 high school and college students has experienced sexual, physical, verbal, or emotional violence in dating relationships. Mitchell, Anita. (1996). "Teen Dating Violence." Protecting Sexually Active Youth, Vol. 4(1), March, 1996.
Estimates of the prevalence of teen dating violence range from 9 to 60 percent, including verbal, physical, and sexual violence. Female teens cause more minor injuries than male teens, but are also likely to receive more significant physical injuries and are more likely to be sexually victimized. Cohall, Alwyn; Cohall, Renee; Bannister, Hope; Northridge, Mary. (1999). "Love Shouldn't Hurt: Strategies for Heath Care Providers to Address Adolescent Dating Violence." Journal of the American Medical Women's Association, 54(3), Summer 1999.
A study of over 1,000 high school students found that 45% of females, and 43% of males reported being the recipient of violence from dating partners at least once. O'Keefe, M.; Trester, L. (1998). "Victims of Dating Violence Among High School Students." Violence Against Women, 4(2): 195-223.
Campus Domestic/Dating Violence
In a study of college students, 13.3 percent of 442 women reported having been forced to have sex in a dating situation. Johnson, Ida M.; Sigler, Robert T. (2000). "Forced Sexual Intercourse Among Intimates." Journal of Family Violence, 15(1): 95-10
Every 21 hours there is a rape on a college campus in the U.S. (Campus Outreach Services)
Domestic Violence in Same-Sex Relationships
A review of studies on same-sex domestic violence performed by Renzetti and Miley found that 22 to 46 percent of all lesbians have been in a physically violent same-sex relationship. Renzetti, Claire M.; Miley, Charles Harvey. (1996), Violence in Gay and Lesbian Domestic Partnerships: 2.
Same-sex battering domestic violence occurs within same-sex relationships with the same statistical frequency as in heterosexual relationships.
The prevalence of domestic violence among gay and lesbian couples is approximately 25 - 33%. Barnes, It's Just a Quarrel', American Bar Association Journal, February 1998, p. 25.
Each year, between 50,000 and 100,000 lesbian women and as many as 500,000 gay men are battered. Murphy, Queer Justice: Equal Protection for Victims of Same-Sex Domestic Violence, 30 Val. U. L. Rev. 335 (1995).
While same-sex battering mirrors heterosexual battering both in type and prevalence, its victims receive fewer protections. Barnes, It's Just a Quarrel', American Bar Association Journal, February 1998, p. 24.
Seven states define domestic violence in a way that excludes same-sex victims; 21 states have sodomy laws that may require same-sex victims to confess to a crime in order to prove they are in a domestic relationship. Barnes, It's Just a Quarrel', American Bar Association Journal, February 1998, p. 24.
Same-sex batterers use forms of abuse similar to those of heterosexual batterers. They have an additional weapon in the threat of "outing" their partner to family, friends, employers or community. Lundy, Abuse That Dare Not Speak Its Name: Assisting Victims of Lesbian and Gay Domestic Violence in Massachusetts , 28 New Eng. L. Rev. 273 (Winter 1993).
Domestic Violence and Immigrant Women
A battered woman who is not a legal resident, or whose immigration status depends on her partner, is isolated by cultural dynamics which may prevent her from leaving her husband or seeking assistance from the legal system. These factors contribute to the higher incidence of abuse among immigrant women. Orloff et al., With No Place to Turn: Improving Advocacy for Battered Immigrant Women, Family Law Quarterly, vol. 29, no. 2, 313 (Summer 1995).
Some obstacles faced by battered immigrant women include: a distrust of the legal system arising from their experiences with the system in their native countries; cultural and language barriers; and fear of deportation. Orloff et al., With No Place to Turn: Improving Advocacy for Battered Immigrant Women, Family Law Quarterly, vol. 29, no. 2, 313 (Summer 1995).
A battered immigrant woman may not understand that she can personally tell her story in court, or that a judge will believe her. Based on her experience in her native country, she may believe that only those who are wealthy or have ties to the government will prevail in court. batterers often manipulate these beliefs by convincing the victim he will prevail in court because he is a male, a citizen or that he has more money. Orloff et al., With No Place to Turn: Improving Advocacy for Battered Immigrant Women, Family Law Quarterly, vol. 29, no. 2, 313 (Summer 1995).
Although a victim may be in the country legally by virtue of her marriage to the batterer, their status may be conditional; in this situation it is common for a batterer to exert his control over his wife's immigration status in order to force her to remain in the relationship. Jang, Caught in a Web: Immigrant Women and Domestic Violence, National Clearinghouse (Special Issue 1994), p. 400.
Undocumented women may be reported to Immigration and Naturalization Services by law enforcement or social services personnel from whom they may seek assistance. Jang, Caught in a Web: Immigrant Women and Domestic Violence, National Clearinghouse (Special Issue 1994), p. 397-399.
A battered immigrant woman is often trapped in an abusive relationship by economics. She may have legal or practical impediments to obtaining employment or public assistance. Jang, Caught in a Web: Immigrant Women and Domestic Violence, National Clearinghouse (Special Issue 1994), p. 403.
Battered immigrant women who attempt to flee may have no access to bilingual shelters, financial assistance or food. It is unlikely that she will have the assistance of a certified interpreter in court, when reporting complaints to police or a 911 operator, or even in acquiring information about her rights and the legal system. Orloff et al., With No Place to Turn: Improving Advocacy for Battered Immigrant Women, Family Law Quarterly, vol. 29, no. 2, 313 (Summer 1995).
Domestic Violence and People with Disabilities
Sixty-two percent of a national sample of women with physical disabilities reported having experienced emotional, physical, or sexual abuse. The same percentage of a comparison group of women without disabilities reported abuse, but the women with disabilities had experienced abuse for longer periods of time. - Center for Research on Women with Disabilities (1997)
The most common perpetrators of abuse were husbands and parents for both women with and without disabilities. Women with disabilities, however, were significantly more likely to experience emotional and sexual abuse by attendants and health care workers. -Center for Research on Women with Disabilities (1997)
In addition to the types of abuse experienced by all women, women with physical disabilities are sometimes abused by withholding needed orthotic equipment (wheelchairs, braces), medications, transportation, or essential assistance with personal tasks, such as dressing or getting out of bed. - Center for Research on Women with Disabilities (1997)
Male Victims of Domestic Violence
In 1993 and 1998 men were the victims of about 160,000 violent crimes by an intimate partner (current or former spouse, boyfriend or girlfriend). Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey (2000 report)
3% of all male victims of violence were attacked by an intimate partner. Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey (2000 report)