THE BLACK HILLS: DOCUMENTS FOR THE INVESTIGATION


Overview
Intro: The Black Hills and the Great Plains
GIS 1: Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851
GIS 2: Red Cloud's War
GIS 3: The Transcontinental Railroad
GIS 4: Black Hills Gold
GIS 5: The Dawes Act and Assimilation
Epilogue: The Ghost Dance and Wounded Knee
Conclusion: The Lakota Today


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Overview

Native American Culture and the Black Hills (in 7 parts)
http://www.blackhillsvisitor.com/main.asp?id=14&cat_id=30118&open_id=71
A very thorough overview of Sioux culture and history in the 19th century and beyond.  In seven parts, these pages could be used to supplement or replace the textbook for this unit. 

Events in the
West Timeline and Short Summary from PBS
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/events/
Thorough summaries of major events in the West, including but not limited to events related to the Sioux tribes of the Dakotas.  Good for placing the Sioux Lands Case Study in context with the rest of the West.    

The West: People
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/index.htm
Profiles of major players in the 19th century American West, both Native and white.  See especially Sherman, Sheridan, Custer, Miles, Terry, Crook, Reno, Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, Gall, Big Foot, Red Cloud, Wovoka, Black Elk, and Alice Cunningham Fletcher. 

Gold Rushes in American History
http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/rcah/html/ah_037200_goldrushes.htm
A narrative of the various major gold rushes in US history, from 1849-1899.

Atlas of the Sioux Wars
http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/sioux/sioux.asp
An exciting document from the Combined Arms Research Library at Fort Leavenworth, detailing a play-by-play analysis (with maps) of every armed encounter between natives and government troops during the Sioux Wars of 1862, 1866-68, and 1876-77.
 
Indian Land Cessions library
http://www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/maps/cessions/
Sixty-seven maps from the 1899 publication of Indian Land Cessions in the United States. 
 
Indian Land Cessions in the United States, 1784-1894
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/lwss-ilc.html
A digital reproduction of the complete 1899 document, with maps and descriptions of the land cessions made by the Indian Nations throughout the US from 1784-1894. 


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The Black Hills and the Great Plains

Basic Documents:

Primary Source Photograph: Custer's Expedition into the Black Hills
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/six/66_01.htm
George Armstrong Custer (left center in light clothing) leads a military expedition into the Black Hills of Dakota Territory in 1874. Custer's incursion violated the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 and laid the groundwork for war between the Lakota and the United States when he announced that gold had been discovered in this most sacred of the Lakota's lands. Photograph by William H. Illingworth.

"The Heart of Everything"
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/program/episodes/two/hearteverything.htm
A brief introductory text on the significance of the Black Hills to Lakota culture and spirituality.
 
Stephen H. Long Quotation and Map
http://www.uic.edu/educ/bctpi/historyGIS/blackhills_1wk/bhdocs/LongQuote.html
A full quote and image of Long's original map, designating the West as "The Great American Desert."


Supplementary Documents:

"The Great American Desert"
http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/weblect/lec03/03_02.htm
A brief introductory text on the significance of The Great American Desert to American culture and mythology.  Best if used in combination with the basic document, "Stephen H. Long Quotation and Map".

The Black Hills and the Lakota:

Mr. Amos Bad Heart Bull's Map
http:// ???
An illustration and explanation of the Lakota's mental map of the Black Hills.  Best if used in combination with the basic document, "The Heart of Everything."

Lakota Nation: Creation Myth
http://www.crystalinks.com/lakota1.html
Read a version of the Lakota creation myth, in which the Sioux emerge from Wind Cave, in the Black Hills. 

Lakota EthnoAstronomy
http://www.fiu.edu/~mizrachs/lakota.htm
A research paper on what the Lakota paid attention to in the heavens.

Lakota Politics:

Political Organization of the Oceti Sakowin
http://www.sdhistory.org/arc/aig/arc_aig3.htm
A chart showing the three linguistic groups constituting a loose confederation of siouan-speaking peoples called the Oceti Sakowin, or Sevin Council Fires.

Geology and Ecology of the Black Hills and Great Plains:

Tourist Pages on the Black Hills:

Paha Sapa -- The Black Hills  http://www.blackhillsvisitor.com/main.asp?id=14&cat_id=30034
Bear Butte  http://www.blackhillsvisitor.com/main.asp?id=14&cat_id=30007
Black Hills and Badlands Geology  http://www.blackhillsvisitor.com/main.asp?id=14&cat_id=30111

Government Pages on Great Plains Ecosystems:
Black Hills Ecosystem  http://www.fs.fed.us/colormap/ecoreg1_provinces.conf?310,167
Other Great Plains Ecosystems
http://www.fs.fed.us/colormap/ecoreg1_provinces.conf?312,260
http://www.fs.fed.us/colormap/ecoreg1_provinces.conf?198,222
http://www.fs.fed.us/colorimagemap/images/332.html
http://www.fs.fed.us/colormap/ecoreg1_provinces.conf?369,343
http://www.fs.fed.us/colormap/ecoreg1_provinces.conf?369,343
http://www.fs.fed.us/colormap/ecoreg1_provinces.conf?397,391
http://www.fs.fed.us/colormap/ecoreg1_provinces.conf?397,391


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Fort Laramie Treaty, 1851

Basic Documents:

The Right of Conquest

http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/program/episodes/three/conquest.htm
An engaging and succint description of the context and aftermath of the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851.

Map Links:

Trails:

The California Trail
http://www.nps.gov/cali/
A brief description of the trail by the National Park Service.  Linked to the corresponding Trail segment inside the Sioux Lands mapview.

Forts:

Fort Laramie
http://www.nps.gov/fola/
A brief description of the fort by the National Park Service.  Linked to the corresponding Fort symbol inside the Sioux Lands mapview.

Treaties:

Primary Document: Treaty of Fort Laramie -- September 17, 1851
http://puffin.creighton.edu/lakota/1851_la.html
Full text of the first major treaty signed with the Indian tribes of the Northern Plains, purportedly a peace treaty designed to lessen infighting between the Natives. Linked to the corresponding Treaty shape inside the Sioux Lands mapview.
 
Primary Document: Fort Laramie Map, 1851
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/three/63_09.htm
Map drawn by Father Pierre de Smet to help clarify the division of lands negotiated in the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851.  Linked to the corresponding Treaty shape inside the Sioux Lands mapview.

Battles:

The Grattan Massacre
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grattan_Massacre
More detail about the Grattan Massacre.  Linked to the corresponding Battle symbol inside the Sioux Lands mapview.


Supplementary Documents:

Oregon Trail 101 (FAQs)
http://www.endoftheoregontrail.org/faq.html
Frequently asked questions about the Oregon Trail.

The California Gold Rush
http://www.pbs.org/goldrush/allabout.html
Learner-friendly pagtes about the California Gold Rush.


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Red Cloud's War

Basic Documents:

The Sioux War of 1862
http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/sioux/sioux.asp#The%20Sioux%20War%20of%201862
A summary by the U.S. Army of the Minnesota Sioux uprising.

Primary Document: Sioux testimonials on corrupt reservation system, 1865
http://www.stolaf.edu/people/fitz/COURSES/Siouxcomplaints.htm
Several speeches by Sioux leaders at the end of the Civil War to the visiting Congressmen complaining about a corrupt reservations system in Minnesota. 

Red Cloud
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/i_r/redcloud.htm
A biography of Red Cloud that focuses on his role in the Sioux War of 1866-68. 

The Sioux War of  1866-1868

http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/sioux/sioux.asp#The%20Sioux%20War%20of%201866-1868
A summary of Red Cloud's War and the conflict over the Bozeman Trail, by the U.S. Army.

Map Links:
  
Trails:

Bozeman Trail History
http://www.philkearny.vcn.com/bozemantrailhistory.htm
A brief history of the trail by the Fort Phil Kearny State Historic Site.  Linked to the corresponding Trail segment inside the Sioux Lands mapview.

White Settlements:

Virginia City, Montana
http://www.virginiacitymt.com/discovery.html
A brief history of the settlement by the Virginia City Department of Commerce.  Linked to the corresponding Settlement symbol inside the Sioux Lands mapview.

Helena, Montana
http://www.bigskyfishing.com/Montana-Info/helena-mt-2.shtm
A brief history of the settlement by a Montana tourism site.  Linked to the corresponding Settlement symbol inside the Sioux Lands mapview.

Bozeman, Montana
http://www.bozemannet.com/area_info/history.php
A brief history of the settlement by a Montana tourism site.  Linked to the corresponding Settlement symbol inside the Sioux Lands mapview.

Forts:

Fort Ellis
http://www.billingsgazette.com/index.php?display=rednews/2005/03/06/build/magazine/20-ellis.inc
A brief history of the fort by the Billings Gazette.  Linked to the corresponding Fort symbol inside the Sioux Lands mapview.

Fort Reno
http://www.philkearny.vcn.com/fortreno.html
A brief history of the fort by the Fort Phil Kearny State Historic Site.  Linked to the corresponding Fort symbol inside the Sioux Lands mapview.

Fort Phil Kearny
http://www.philkearny.vcn.com/fortphilkearny.htm
A brief history of the fort by the Fort Phil Kearny State Historic Site.  Linked to the corresponding Fort symbol inside the Sioux Lands mapview.

Fort C.F. Smith
http://www.ultimatemontana.com/sectionpages/Section2/FortSmith/fortsmith.html
A brief history of the fort by a Montana tourism site.  Linked to the corresponding Fort symbol inside the Sioux Lands mapview.

Fort Fetterman
http://www.philkearny.vcn.com/fortfetterman.htm
A brief history of the fort by the Fort Phil Kearny State Historic Site.  Linked to the corresponding Trail segment inside the Sioux Lands mapview.

Battles:

The Fetterman Disaster
http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/sioux/sioux.asp#The%20Fetterman%20Disaster
A brief history of the battle by the U.S. Army.  Linked to the corresponding Battle symbol inside the Sioux Lands mapview.

The Wagon Box Fight
http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/sioux/sioux.asp#The%20Wagon%20Box%20Fight
A brief history of the battle by the U.S. Army.  Linked to the corresponding Battle symbol inside the Sioux Lands mapview.

Treaties:

Primary Document: Fort Laramie Treaty -- April 29, 1868
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/four/ftlaram.htm
The treaty in which the United States recognized the Black Hills as part of the Great Sioux Reservation -- set aside for exclusive use by the Sioux people -- and declared much of the Northern plains as "unceded Indian territory".  The treaty was broken in less than a decade after gold was discovered in the Black Hills.  Linked to corresponding Treaty shape inside the Sioux Lands mapview.

                               
Supplementary Documents:

Dakota (Sioux) Uprising
http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/history/oldmankato/1852-1900/siouxuprising.html
An alternate or complimentary summary of the Minnesota Sioux uprising (see basic document, "The Sioux War of 1862")

Minnesota Civil War Battles
http://www2.cr.nps.gov/abpp/battles/MNmap.htm
An interactive map with links to brief descriptions of battles fought between natives and Union troops during the Civil War, compiled by the Heritage Preservation Service.
 
North Dakota Civil War Battle Summaries
http://www2.cr.nps.gov/abpp/battles/NDmap.htm
An interactive map with links to brief descriptions of battles fought between natives and Union troops during the Civil War, compiled by the Heritage Preservation Service.

Historic Overview of Red Cloud's War
http://www.philkearny.vcn.com/overview.htm
An alternate or complimentary summary of Red Cloud's War and the conflict over the Bozeman Trail (see basic document, "The Sioux War of 1866-1868")       
         


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The Transcontinental Railroad

Basic Documents:

Summary and Images:

The Railroad's Impact on Plains Indians
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/tcrr/sfeature/sf_interview.html
A series of thoughtful responses by
Thomas Bowlus, Distinguished Professor of American Indian History and Director of the Center for Indigenous Nations Studies at the University of Kansas, in an interview about the West before white settlement, the impact of the railroad on Native American life, and the near-extinction of the American buffalo.

Expansion Images
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/five/
Beautiful and revealing images of the awe-inspiring, untamed West and the men who pioneered its exploration and development.

Railroad Expansion and Homesteading:

The Pacific Railway Act 1862
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/five/railact.htm
An Act to aid in the Construction of a Railroad and Telegraph Line from the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean.
 
Homestead Act 1862
http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/statutes/homestead_act.htm
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/five/homestd.htm
An Act to Secure Homesteads to Actual Settlers on the Public Domain.
 
Homesteading Maps and Fliers, Great Plains
http://autry-museum.org/explore/exhibits/sod/history.html#desert
Electronic images of original maps and fliers promoting the settlement of “the great American desert.”

Bison:

North American Bison Fact Sheet
http://www.hww.ca/hww2.asp?pid=1&cid=8&id=97
A well-written fact sheet on the North American bison, including descriptions of habitat, range, and conservation.

Bison History: Where the Buffalo Roam
http://www.bisoncentral.com/history/history.asp
A brief but interesting page on herd size and decline of the North American bison, with links to a before-and-after map of bison range, and a list of how different parts of the bison were used in Plains Indian culture. 

Buffalo and the Black Hills Region
http://www.blackhillsvisitor.com/main.asp?id=14&cat_id=30165&open_id=71
A brief history of Bison in the Black Hills region.

Map Link:

The Race to Utah!
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/tcrr/sfeature/sf_map.html
An interactive map of the transcontinental railroad's constructionl by PBS.  Linked to the corresponding Railroad segment inside the Sioux Lands mapview.

Supplementary Documents:

The Homestead Act: Description
http://users.rcn.com/deeds/homestead.htm
A brief background of the act and the people who became “homesteaders.”

The Buffalo Harvest
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/five/buffalo.htm
The life and times of a "buffalo runner" in the 1870's. 

Buffalo Hunt, 1846
http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/buffalo.htm
Historian Francis Parkman gives an eyewitness account of a buffalo hunt.


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Black Hills Gold

Basic Documents:

The Discovery of Gold in the Black Hills:

Primary Source Photograph: Custer's Expedition into the Black Hills

http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/six/66_01.htm
George Armstrong Custer (left center in light clothing) leads a military expedition into the Black Hills of Dakota Territory in 1874. Custer's incursion violated the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 and laid the groundwork for war between the Lakota and the United States when he announced that gold had been discovered in this most sacred of the Lakota's lands. Photograph by William H. Illingworth.

The 1874 Custer Expedition to the Black Hills
http://www.blackhillsvisitor.com/main.asp?id=14&cat_id=30136
A description of the circumstances surrounding Custer's illegal expedition to the Black Hills.

Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs: November 1, 1874
http://www.csusm.edu/nadp/r874001a.htm
A government report detailing the problems and possible solutions to “the Sioux problem,” notable for its dismissal of the amount of gold in the Black Hills as having been “exaggerated.”  

Letter from General Custer: Gold in the Black Hills
http://monroe.lib.mi.us/hs_special_collections_custer_news_black_hills.htm
An indignant response to the Commissioner's Report, written by General Custer.  Fascinating for its strange mixture of sympathy and harshness towards Indians.

Little Bighorn/Greasy Grass:

"A Good Day to Die"
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/program/episodes/six/tatanka.htm
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/program/episodes/six/goodday.htm
Transcripts from the episode of PBS 'The West', discussing The Battle of Little Big Horn with a focus on Sitting Bull. 

Custer’s Last Stand: An Eyewitness Account
http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/custer.htm
George Herendon told his eyewitness story to a reporter about the battle at Little Bighorn River.
 
The Battle of Little Bighorn: An Eyewitness Account by Lakota Chief Red Horse
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/six/bighorn.htm
Lakota Chief Red Horse tells his own version of the Battle of Little Bighorn five years later in 1881. 

Map Links:

Gold Rush:

Mining in South Dakota
http://www.newberry.org/k12maps/module_08/index.html
An interactive feature
based on a map that accompanied mining engineers' reports to the Caledonia Gold Mining Company. Through analysis of the reports and the three views shown on the map, students will learn about the various changes to the landscape brought about by mining operations.  Linked to the corresponding Gold Rush symbol inside the Sioux Lands mapview.

White Settlements:

Deadwood
http://adamsmuseumandhouse.org/answers/deadexists.html
A brief history of the settlement by the Adams Museum.  Linked to the corresponding Settlement symbol inside the Sioux Lands mapview.

Rapid City
http://www.rapidcitycvb.com/pg/dc/profile/history.html
A brief history of the settlement by a tourism site.  Linked to the corresponding Settlement symbol inside the Sioux Lands mapview.

Forts:

Fort Buford
http://www.state.nd.us/hist/buford/buford.htm
A brief history of the fort by the North Dakota State Historical Society.  Linked to the corresponding Fort symbol inside the Sioux Lands mapview.

Fort Abraham Lincoln
http://www.ndparks.com/Parks/lincoln/History.htm
A brief history of the fort by the North Dakota Parks and Recreation Department.  Linked to the corresponding Fort symbol inside the Sioux Lands mapview.

Battles:

The Sioux War of 1876-77
http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/sioux/sioux.asp#The%20Sioux%20War%20of%201876-1877
In depth, play-by-play analysis of "the Sioux War" of 1876-77, written from the perspective of the US Army.  Linked to the corresponding Battle symbols inside the Sioux Lands mapview.

Treaties:

Document: Acts of Forty-Fourth Congress: Feb 28, 1877
http://www.usd.edu/iais/siouxnation/1877act.html
The “treaty” document that was signed after the final defeat of the Sioux, ordering the removal of all Sioux to Indian Territory.  Linked to corresponding Treaty shape inside the Sioux Lands mapview.


Supplementary Documents: Biographies

Sitting Bull
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/s_z/sittingbull.htm

Crazy Horse
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/a_c/crazyhorse.htm

Gall
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/d_h/gall.htm

George Armstrong Custer
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/a_c/custer.htm

Reno
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/i_r/reno.htm

Terry
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/s_z/terry.htm

Crook
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/a_c/crook.htm


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Aftermath: The Dawes Act and Assimilation

Basic Documents:

Indian Policy Reform 1881

http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/seven/indpol.htm
An excerpt from President Chester Arthur’s first Annual Report to Congress in which he encourages, in effect, the forced assimilation of Indian tribes to American culture. 
 
"The Outcome of Our Earnest Endeavors"
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/program/episodes/eight/ourearnest.htm
Read about Alice Cunningham Fletcher's well meaning but misguided efforts to help Native Americans through the Dawes Act.

Dawes Act: 1887
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/eight/dawes.htm
http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/statutes/native/dawes.htm
Authorized the President of the United States to survey Indian tribal land and divide the arable area into allotments for the individual Indian.

Map Link:

Act of 1889
http://www.sioux.org/act_of_1889.html
An act to further divide the reservations of the Sioux.  Linked to corresponding Treaty shape inside the Sioux Lands mapview.


Supplementary Documents:

Camping with the Sioux
http://www.nmnh.si.edu/naa/fletcher/fletcher.htm
A very well-designed presentation of the diary of Alice Cunningham Fletcher, a white ethnologist who lived with Sioux women for over six weeks and wrote copious diary entries about what she observed.  Includes a photo gallery and a library of folktales recorded by Fletcher.  Highly recommended.   
 
Wikipedia.com Dawes Act Summary
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawes_Act
An encyclopedia background and summary of the Dawes Act. 

Unratified Agreement: 1882
http://puffin.creighton.edu/lakota/1882_v.html
This agreement, unratified by Congress, concerns the further division of Lakota lands.


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Document Investigation: The Ghost Dance and Wounded Knee

Summaries & Images:

Wounded Knee: TV News
http://www.msnbc.com/onair/msnbc/timeandagain/archive/wknee/default.asp
A companion site to a television special linking the Massacre of Wounded Knee of 1890 to the Siege of Wounded Knee in 1973.

Like Grass Before the Sickle
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/program/episodes/eight/likegrass.htm
An in-depth account of the Ghost Dance and Wounded Knee, peppered with eye-witness quotations.

Ghost Dance/Wounded Knee Images
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/eight/

The Ghost Dance Source Documents:

Wovoka, The Messiah Letter (1890)
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/eight/gdmessg.htm
The message that sparked the Ghost Dance movement.

Harper’s Weekly on the Ghost Dance, 1890
http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/HarChie.html
A very disparaging Anglo view of the “dangerous” Ghost Dance, published in Harper’s Weekly in 1890, and accusing spiritual leaders such as Sitting Bull of being delusional troublemakers
 
White Settler's Reactions to the Ghost Dance
http://www.msnbc.com/onair/msnbc/timeandagain/archive/wknee/telegrams.asp
Assorted telegrams and newspaper accounts written by white settlers regarding the Ghost Dance.

Secondary Documents

The Ghost Dance Among the Lakota, 1890
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/eight/gddescrp.htm
An eyewitness account by Mrs. Z.A. Parker of the Ghost Dance at Pine Ridge Reservations
 
The Indian Ghost Dance and War, 1890
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/eight/wkballad.htm
A barracks ballad by a member of the Ninth Cavalry.

Wounded Knee Source Documents:

Eyewitness to the Massacre: Wounded Knee, 1890
http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/knee.htm
A mixed-blood Sioux who served as an interpreter for the Army later recounted what he saw that Monday morning.
 
An Account of Sitting Bull’s Death, 1891
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/eight/sbarrest.htm
By the Indian Agent who ordered Sitting Bull’s arrest.
 
Lakota Accounts of the massacre at Wounded Knee (1891)
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/eight/wklakota.htm
The survivors speak.
 
Perspectives on Wounded Knee
http://www.msnbc.com/onair/msnbc/timeandagain/archive/wknee/ownwords.asp
Quotations from various witnesses, both Native and Anglo American.

General Miles on the Sioux Outbreak, 1891
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/eight/wkmiles.htm
A commander's view of the last Indian uprising.


Supplementary Documents: Biographies:

Sitting Bull
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/s_z/sittingbull.htm

Big Foot
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/a_c/bigfoot.htm

Wovoka
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/s_z/wovoka.htm

Sherman
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/s_z/sherman.htm

Sheridan
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/s_z/sheridan.htm

Miles
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/i_r/miles.htm

U.S. Grant the President
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/presidents/18_grant/index.html
A brief biographical sketch, with a link to the full American Experience website about the 18th President, Ulysses S. Grant.


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The Lakota Today

Tribe Websites:

Lakota Home Page
http://puffin.creighton.edu/lakota/
The Lakota tribe has its own website…

Official Tribe Websites
http://puffin.creighton.edu/lakota/index_tribes.html
…as do a number of other Sioux tribes.
 
Tourism:

Visitor Etiquette in American Indian Communities
http://www.travelsd.com/history/sioux/etiquette.asp
Advice for respectful visitor etiquette on reservations.

Great Sioux Nation
http://www.blackhillsbadlands.com/go.asp?ID=102
http://www.travelsd.com/history/sioux/index.asp
Two tourism websites highlighting the Great Sioux Nation as an attraction.
 
Sioux Tribes
http://www.travelsd.com/history/sioux/tribes.asp
Informative descriptions of the modern-day reservations of the Sioux, tribe-by-tribe.
 
Crazy Horse Memorial        
http://www.blackhillsbadlands.com/external.asp?url=www.crazyhorse.org/
Official website of the controversial Native counterpart to Mount Rushmore, the Crazy Horse Memorial.  
 
Government Agencies:

Bureau of Indian Affairs
http://www.doi.gov/bureau-indian-affairs.html
Site for the government agency responsible for the administration and management of 55.7 million acres of land held in trust by the United States for American Indians, Indian tribes, and Alaska Natives