Lightning Injuries by Category

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1.0 Lightning Injuries - medical effects

1.1 Books

1.1 Andrews,C.J., Cooper,M.A., Darveniza,M., and Mackerras,D., Medical Aspects of Lightning Injury, CRC Press, Florida, 197pp, 1992.

1.1 Spencer, H.A., Lightning Stroke and its Treatment, Ball.Tind.Cox, Lond., 1934.

1.2 Reviews and Expositions

1.2.1 Reviews or Comprehensive Examination

1.2.1 Andrews,C.J.,Darveniza,M., and Mackerras,D., The Medical Effects of Lightning Strikes, Proc Int. Conf. Lightn. Stat. Elec., Pub. by NOAA Nat Sev Storms Lab, Oklahoma, April 1988.

1.2.1 Andrews, C.J.,Darveniza, M.,Mackerras, D., Lightning Injury A Review of Clinical Aspects, Pathophysiology and Treatment, Advances in Trauma, 4:241-287, YBMP, Ill. USA, 1989.

1.2.1 Andrews, C.J., Chapter 17. Electric Shock, Electrocution, and Lightning Strike, in Pearn, J., et al., eds., The Science of First Aid: Theory in Practice of the Art and Science of pre hospital emergency care, St John Ambulance, Australia, 1995, in press.

1.2.1 Andrews, C.J., Cooper, M.A., and ten Duis, H.J., Lightning and Electrical Injuries - Medical and Legal Considerations, Chapter 23a in Wecht, C., (ed.) Forensic Sciences, 4 vols, Bender, USA, 1995.

1.2.1 Andrews, C.J., Cooper, M.A., and ten Duis, H.J., Lightning and Electrical Injuries - Medical and Legal Considerations, Chapter 23a in Wecht, C., (ed.) Forensic Sciences, 4 vols, Bender, USA, 2000.

1.2.1 Auerbach, P., Lightning Stroke, Top.Emerg.Med., 2:129, 1980.

1.2.1 Blount, B.W., Lightning Injuries, AFP, 42(2):405-15, 1990.

1.2.1 Browne, B.J., and Gaasch, W.R., Electrical Injuries and Lightning, Emerg Med Clin N Am, 10(2):211-29, 1992.

1.2.1 Cabane J.[Multisystemic consequences of lightning strikes in humans].Rev Med Interne. 1998;19 Suppl 2:239s 242s. French.

1.2.1 Clore, E.R., and House, M.A., Prevention and Treatment of Lightning Injuries, Nurs. Pract., 12(12):37 45, 1987.

1.2.1 Conrad, L., Clinical Update on Lightning Injuries, J Wild Env Med., 9:217-22, 1998.

1.2.1 Cooper, M.A., Lightning Injuries, Chapter 18, pp. 500 521, in Auerbach, P., et al., Management of Wilderness and Environmental Emergencies, ed.2., McMillan, N.Y., 1983b.

1.2.1 Cooper, M.A., Lightning Injuries, Em.Med.Clin.N.Am., 1(3):639, 1983a.

1.2.1 Cooper, M.A., and Andrews, C.J., Electrical and Lightning Injuries, in Auerbach, P., Management of Wilderness and Environmental Emergencies, 3rd edn., C.V. Mosby, USA, 1995.

1.2.1 Cooper, M.A., and Andrews, C.J., Electrical and Lightning Injuries, in Auerbach, P., Management of Wilderness and Environmental Emergencies, 4th edn., C.V. Mosby, USA, 1995.

1.2.1 Cooper, M.A., Andrews, C.J., Lightning Injuries, Disease-a-Month, Dec 1997, 871-892.

1.2.1 Golde, R.H., and Lee, W.R., Death by Lightning, Proc. IEE, 123(1OR): 1163 1180, 1976.


1.2.1 Hiestand, D., Colice, G., Lightning Strike Injury, J Int Care Med., 3:303-14, 1988.

1.2.1 Gourbiere, E., Lightning Injuries to Humans in France, Proc 11th Int Conf on Atm. Elec., NASA/CP 1999 209261, Lake Guntersville, Ala., June 1999.

1.2.1 Howard, J.R., Effects of Lightning and Simulated Lightning on Tissues of Animals, PhD. Thesis, Iowa State University, 1966, quoted in Golde (1976).

1.2.1 Holle, R, Medical References to Lightning Strike Effects, (ed: A chronological Bibliography), NOAA NSSL, 1996, personal communication.

1.2.1 Jex Blake, A.J., Goulstonian Lectures : Death by Electric Currents and by Lightning, Brit. Med. J; pp 425 430, 492 498, 548 552, 601 603; Mar. 1, 8, 15, 22, 1913.

1.2.1 Karaboth, H., Der Blitzunfall, Verl Ger Witz., 1975, ISBN 3-87921-048-9

1.2.1 Lee, W., Lightning Injuries and Death, in Golde, R., and Lee, W., Lightning Protection, Ac Press, N.Y., 1977.

1.2.1 Lynch, M., and Shorthouse, P.H., Injuries and Death from Lightning, Lancet, 1:473, 1949.

1.2.1 Nield LS, Kamat D. Long term sequelae of lightning strike in a child: a case report and review. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2004 Jul Aug;43(6):563 7.

1.2.1 O'Keefe Gatewood M, Zane RD. Lightning injuries. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2004 May;22(2):369 403.

1.2.1 Patten, B., Lightning and Electrical Injuries, Neurol Clin, 10(4):1047-58, 1992.

1.2.1 Simpson, G.C., Lightning, Nature (supp), 124:801-812, 1929.

1.2.1 Tribble, C., Persing, J., Morgan, R., et al., Lightning Injuries, Comprehen. Ther., 11(2):32-40, 1985.

1.2.1 ten Duis, H., Hij die het onweer hoort, is niet door de bliksem getroffen, Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 138(37):1855-9, 1994.

1.2.1 Wollinsky, K., Mehrkens, H., Unfalle durch elektrischen Strom und Blitzschlag, Deutsche Krankenpflegezeitschrift, 46(6):397-403, 1993.

1.2.2 Consideration of Multiple Systems less comprehensive than 1.2.1

1.2.2 Amy, B.W., McManus, W., Boodwin, C.W., and Pruitt, B.A., Lightning Injury with Survival in Five Patients, JAMA, 253(2):243, 1985.

1.2.2 Andrews, C.J., An Update on Lightning Injuries, Aust Anaesth, ANZCA, Melbourne, Australia, 1994.

1.2.2 Andrews, C.J., Lightning and Electrical Injuries, Ch 8.5.7 in Oxford Textbook of Medicine, Oxf, UK, 2001 and 2006/7.

1.2.2 Apfelberg, D.B., Masters, F.W., and Robinson, D.W., Pathophysiology of Treatment of Lightning Injuries, J. Trauma, 14(6): 453, 1974.

1.2.2 Arden, G.P., Harrison, S.H., Lister, J., and Maudsley, R.H., Lightning Accident at Ascot, B.M.J., 1:1453, 1956.

1.2.2 Aslar AK, Soran A, Yildiz Y, Isik Y. Epidemiology, morbidity, mortality and treatment of lightning injuries in a Turkish burns units. Int J Clin Pract. 2001 Oct;55(8):502 4.

1.2.2 Baptiste, O., Girer, A., Foray, J., Marsigny, B., Les Accidents de Fulguration en Haute montagne, A propos de 29 cas, Chir., 116(1):60-4, 1990.

1.2.2 Bains N, et al Before lightning strikes.CMAJ. 1998 Jul 28;159(2):163.

1.2.2 Berger, K., et al., Uber die Wahrscheinlichkeit und den Mechanismus des Todes bei Bitzeinwirkungen, Bull des SEV/VSE, 69(8):361, 1978.

1.2.2 Conrad, L, Clinical update on lightning injuries.Wilderness Environ Med., 1998 Winter; 9(4): 217 22

1.2.2 Cooper, M.A., Lightning Injuries: Don't be Confused, J Int Care Med, 3(6):287-9, 1988.

1.2.2 Craig, S.R. When lightning strikes. Pathophysiology and treatment of lightning injuries, Postgrad Med 79(4):109 12, 121 4, 1986.

1.2.2 Cwinn, A.A., and Cantrill, S.V., Lightning injuries, J Emerg Med :2(5): 379 88, 1985.

1.2.2 Dixon, G., The evaluation and management of electrical injuries, Crit. Care Med., 11(5):384-7, 1983.

1.2.2 Epperley, E., Stewart, J., The Physical Effects of Lightning Injury, J. Fam Prac., 29(3):267-72, 1989.

1.2.2 Fahmy, F., Brinsden, M., Smith, J., Frame, J., Lightning: The Multisystem Group Injuries, J Trauma, 46(5):937-40, 1999.

1.2.2 Fish, R.M., Electric Injury, Part III, Cardiac Monitoring Indications, The Pregnant Patient, and Lightning., J Emerg Med., 18(2) 181-7, 2000.

1.2.2 Fontanarosa, P., Electric Shock and Lightning Strike, Ann Emerg Med., 22(2 Pt 2):378-87, 1993.

1.2.2 Hegner, C.F., Lightning some of its Effects, Ann. Surg., 65(4):401 409, 1917.

1.2.2 Isler C., Don't act thunderstruck: save victims of lightning:., RN. 39(8):37 9, 1976 Aug.

1.2.2 Iranyi, J., Das Blitztrauma in Neuer Sicht, Munch Med Woch, 104:1496-1500, 1964.

1.2.2 Irvine, J., Electric Shock and Associated Injuries, The Pract., 233:1454-7, 1989.

1.2.2 Jain, S; Bandi, V, Electrical and lightning injuries.,Crit Care Clin. 1999 Apr; 15(2): 319-31

1.2.2 Jellinek,S., Wien Klin Wschr., 45:37, 1932a, quoted in Lynch, et al., op cit.

1.2.2 Jellinek,S., Electrische Verletzungen, Leipzig, 1932b, quoted in Lynch, et al., op cit.

1.2.2 Jepsen, D., How to Manage a Patient with Lightning Injury, AJN, pp39-42, Aug 1992.

1.2.2 Krob, M.J., and Cram, A.E., Lightning Injuries: A Multisystem Trauma, J. Iowa. Med. Soc., 73(6): 221, 1983.

1.2.2 Laskowski-Jones, L., Responding to Summer Emergencies, Nursing, 30(5):34-9, 2000.

1.2.2 Massello, W., Lightning Death, Med Led Bull., Ch. Med. Exam, Richmond, Va., 37(1), 1988.

1.2.2 Mermet, L., Villedieu-Poingnant, S., Vincent, J., Dupont, P., La Foudre: un phenomene redoute, des aspects cliniques souvent meconnus, Reanim Urgences, 9(5):367-73, 2000.

1.2.2 Moran, K.T., Thupari, J.N., and Munster, A.M., Lightning Injury, Physics, pathophysiology and clinical features, Ir. Med. J., 79(5):120 2, 1986 a.

1.2.2 Nunnelee JD. Lightning strikes. RN. 2005 May;68(5):44 6, 48 9; quiz 50.

1.2.2 Robinson, M., and Seward, P.N., electrical and Lightning Injuries in Children, Paed. Emerg. Care., 2(3):186 190, 1986.

1.2.2 Scheulen, J., Munster, A., The Lightning Injury, JBCR, Mar/April 1983: 101-5.


1.2.2 Taussig, H., 'Death' from lightning and the Possibility of Living Again, Ann.Int.Med., 68:1345, 1968.

1.2.2 Virenque C. Laguerre J., Les accidents de la fulguration, Anesthesie, Analgesie, Reanimation. 33(5):775 84, 1976 Sep Oct.

1.2.3 Editorial Comment and General Issues

1.2.3 Andrews, C.J., Keraunomedicine - A Discipline Come of Age, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Dallas, 25(4):543-545, 1995.

1.2.3 Anon., Lightning, Br Med J., p181, 26 Oct 1974.

1.2.3 Anon., Death by Lightning, Lancet, p230, 29 Jan 1979.

1.2.3 Campbell Hewson G, et al. Diagnosing death. Death after electric shock and lightning strike is more clear cut than suggested.BMJ. 1997 Feb 8;314(7078):442 3.

1.2.3 Chandran, M., Lightning Hazards to Human Beings, Proc Nat Sem Lghtn Haz to Men and Env., Reg Eng Coll, Calcutta, 1997.

1.2.3 Charlton, R., Diagnosing Death, BMJ, 313:956-7, 19 Oct 1996.

1.2.3 Cooper, M. A., and Andrews, C.J., Disability, not Death, is the Issue in Lightning Injury, Proc ICOLSE, Seattle, WA, Boeing, 2005.

1.2.3 Cox, R.A.F., Lightning and Electrical Injury, J. Roy. Soc. Med., 85:591-2, 1992.

1.2.3 Goldblatt D, Lightning., Semin Neurol. 1995 Dec; 15(4): 397 400.

1.2.3 Goldblatt D, A Doctor's Zeus story., Semin Neurol. 1995 Sep; 15(3): 317 9.

1.2.3 Gourbiere, E., Fulgura Frango, Reanimation Urgences, 9(5):319-322, 2000.

1.2.3 Karobath H. Redtenbacher M. Hofecker G. Walde I. Syre G., Zur Frage der Todesursache beim Blitzunfall, MMW Munchener Medizinische Wochenschrift. 119(1):29 32, 1977 Jan 7.

1.2.3 Leikin JB, et al Environmental injuries.Dis Mon. 1997 Dec;43(12):809 916. Review

1.2.3 Miller SF. The long term consequences of lightning injuries. Comment on Muehlberger T, Vogt PM, Munster AM, (Burns 2001;27:829 33). Burns. 2003 Feb;29(1):97.

1.2.3 Plueckhahn, V., Injury and Death Caused by Lightning, (Edtl.), M.J.Aust, 144:673, 1986.

1.2.3 Ramsey FK, et al. Diagnosis of lightning strike.J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1970 May 15;156(10):1472 4.

1.2.3 Rescorl D Environmental emergencies.Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 1995 Sep;7(3):445 56. Review.

1.2.3 Shannon D. Diagnosing death from lightning.Vet Rec. 1980 Jul 12;107(2):48.

1.2.3 Sharp D. Lightning strikes. Lancet. 2002 Aug 3;360(9330):354.

1.2.3 ten Duis, H.J., Lightning Strikes: danger overhead, Br J Sports Med, 32(4):276-8, 1998.

1.2.3 Smith, T., On Lightning, Br. Med. J., 303:1563, 1991.

1.2.3 Soran A. Lightning injuries. Letter. South Med J. 2003 Sep;96(9):942; author reply 942 3.

1.2.3 Whitcomb D, Martinez JA, Daberkow D. Lightning injuries. South Med J. 2002 Nov;95(11):1331 4.

1.2.3 [No authors listed] Lightning injury.Can Med Assoc J. 1983 Apr 15;128(8):893 4.

1.2.3 [No authors listed] Death by lightning [editorial].Lancet. 1977 Jan 29;1(8005):230.

1.3 Case Reports

1.3.1 Case Reports - pure, with minimal discussion, or limited literature review

1.3.1 Adekoya N, Nolte KB. Struck by lightning deaths in the United States. J Environ Health. 2005 May;67(9):45 50, 58.

1.3.1 Agnew, J., Lightning Injury, Proc. Div. Surg., Royal Bris. Hosp., 1986:61-63.

1.3.1 Akahane, T., and Okishio R., Lightning Injury: Report of Two Cases, Burns, 10:45, 1983.

1.3.1 Blanco Pampin JM, et al. An unusual case of death by lighting.J Forensic Sci. 1997 Sep;42(5):942 4.

1.3.1 Buechner, H.A., and Rothbaum, J.C., Lightning Stroke Injury A Report of Multiple Casualties from a Single Lightning Bolt, Milit.Med., 126:775, 1961.

1.3.1 Carte AE, Anderson RB, Cooper MA. A large group of children struck by lightning. Ann Emerg Med. 2002 Jun;39(6):665 70.

1.3.1 Cherington M; Mathys K, Deaths and injuries as a result of lightning strikes to aircraft., Aviat Space Environ Med. 1995 Jul; 66(7): 687 9

1.3.1 Cherington, M., and Vervalin, C., Lightning Injuries - Who is at Greatest Risk?, Phys Sports Med, 18(8):59-61, 1990.

1.3.1 Coleman, T., Death by Lightning, Gen.Pract., 37:81, 1968, quoted in Bergstrom (1974).

1.3.1 Cooper, M.A., Lightning Injuries: Prognostic Signs for Death, Ann. Emerg. Med., 9:134, 1980.

1.3.1 Cooper, M.A., Lightning Strikes, Ann. Emerg. Med., 12:113, 1983c.

1.3.1 Crawford, A.S., and Hoopes, B.F., The Surgical Aspects of Lightning Stroke, Surgery, 9:80, 1941.

1.3.1 Courtman SP, Wilson PM, Mok Q. Case report of a 13 year old struck by lightning. Paediatr Anaesth. 2003 Jan;13(1):76 9.

1.3.1 Darling, Pedlow and Frier, Lightning Stroke, Brit. Med. J., Dec. 9, 1905, pp. 1522 3.

1.3.1 Delaney JS, Drummond R. Mass casualties and triage at a sporting event. Br J Sports Med. 2002 Apr;36(2):85 8; discussion 88.

1.3.1 Dill, A.V., Notes on a case of death by lightning, BMJ, Oct 10 1942, p426.

1.3.1 Dowling, J., Byrne, K., Barry, O.C.C., Long, J.P., and Lennon, F., Lightning Injury, Ir.Med.J., 77(8):250, 1984.

1.3.1 Dunscombe Honnibal, O., Accidents and Injuries Caused by Lightning, Br. Med. J., May 12, 1900, 153 5.

1.3.1 Eaton, R.D.P., Lightning Injury, Can. Med. Assoc. J., 128(8):893 4, 1983.

1.3.1 Edwards, W., Injury Due to Lightning Striking a Wireless Aerial, Brit. Med. J., Aug. 25, 1925, p. 294.

1.3.1 Elwell, E.G., Non Fatal Lightning Burns, Br. Med. J., Oct. 27, 1934, p. 771.

1.3.1 Fulde, G., Marsden, StJ., Lightning Strikes, Med J. Aust., 153:496-7, 1990.

1.3.1 Gem, W., A Case of Lightning Stroke, followed by Recovery, Lancet, August 2, 1913.

1.3.1 Ghezzi, K., Lightning Injuries: A Unique Treatment Challenge, Post. Med., 85(8):197-208, 1989.

1.3.1 Graber J; Ummenhofer W; Herion H, Lightning accident with eight victims: case report and brief review of the literature., J Trauma. 1996 Feb; 40(2): 288 90

1.3.1 Harvey, E., Struck by Lightning, Nursing Times, Jul 11 1974, 1064-5.

1.3.1 Hey D. Rieder W., Erfolgreiche Laien Reanimation nach Blitzschlag., Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift. 108(31 32):1217 8, 1983 Aug 5.

1.3.1 James, T., Lightning and Electrical Injury, J. Roy. Soc. Med., 86:556, 1993

1.3.1 Junkins, E P, Kunkel, N, Lightning Strike to the Head of a Helmeted Motorcyclist, Am J EM Med, 17(2)213-4,1999.

1.3.1 Kandt, R.S., Rossitch, J., Trippett, T., et al., Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring as a guide to prognosis in a lightning injured comatose child, Ch. Nerv. Syst., 4(6):370-2, 1988.

1.3.1 Koeppen S., Personenschaden durch Blitzeinwirkung., Medizinische Klinik. 60(35):1390 3, 1965 Aug 27.

1.3.1 Krasnov, A.K., A Contribution to Case Histories on Lightning Injuries, For.Med.Ex., 10:45, 1967, quoted in Golde (1976).

1.3.1 Kravitz, H., Wasserman, M.J., Valaitis, J., et al., Lightning Injury, Am. J. Dis. Child., 131:413, 1977.

1.3.1 Krejci K. Luther M. Beltle M. Kramann B., Wiederbelebung nach todlichem Blitzschlag., MMW Munchener Medizinische Wochenschrift. 126(3):63 4, 1984 Jan 20.

1.3.1 Milzman, D., Moskowitz, L., Hardel, M., Lightning Strikes at a Mass Gathering, South Med J, 92(7):708-10, 1999.

1.3.1 Moollaor, P., Annoppetch, C., Lightning injury: a case report, Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 76(7):410-4, 1993.

1.3.1 Moran, K.T., Thupari, J.N., and Munster, A.M., Electric and Lightning Induced cardiac arrest reversed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (letter), JAMA, 255(16):2157, 1986 b.

1.3.1 Moser, M.Y., When Lightning Strikes, Am J Nurs:86(7): 802 3, 1986.

1.3.1 Msonge, B., and Evans, R.L., Lightning Stroke on Ukerewe Island, East Afr. Med. J., 53(6):350 1. 1976.

1.3.1 Myers, G.J., Colgan, M.T., and van Dyke, D.H., Lightning Disaster Among Children, JAMA, 238:1045, 1977.

1.3.1 Naess, C., Pillgram-Larsen, J., Personskader ved lynnedslag, Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 104(15):1031-3, 1984.

1.3.1 Nesmith, M.A., A Case of Lightning Stroke, J.Fla.Med.Assn., 58:36, 1971, quoted in Hanson (1973).

1.3.1 Peters, W.J., Lightning Injury, Can.Med.Ass.J., 128:148, 1983.

1.3.1 Ravitch, M.M., Lane, R., Safar, P., Steichen, F., and Knowles, P., Lightning Stroke, NEJM, 264(1): 36, 1961.

1.3.1 Roberts, C., On Lightning, Cent. Afr. J. Med., 13(7):167-8, 1967

1.3.1 Skan, D.A., Death from Lightning Stroke with Multiple Injuries, B.M.J., 1:666, 1949.

1.3.1 Slingerland, I., Lightning Stroke, Med. Soc. N.Y., 14(9):466, 1914.

1.3.1 Smith, J., Lightning Injuries, J.Em.Nurs., 9(5):248, 1983.

1.3.1 Spieth, M., Kimura, R., Schryer, T., Air traffic controller lightning strike, Journal of the National Medical Association, 86(9):713-5, 1994.

1.3.1 Strasser, E.J., Davis, R.M., and Menchey, M.J., Lightning Injuries, J.Trauma, 17:315, 1977.

1.3.1 Tseng, Y., Tsai, M., Wu, M., Lightning Injury: Report of a Case, J Formos Med Assn., 92(8):759-761, 1993.

1.3.1 Tveteras, K., Kristensen, S., Lynnedslagsulykker, Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 104(22):1413-4, 1984.

1.3.1 Tveteras, K., Kristensen, S., Clausen, I., Fatal Lynnedslagsulykker, Ugestr. Laeger, 146:1858-9, 1984.

1.3.1 Volinsky, J., Hanson, J., Lustig, J., Tunnessen, W., Jr., Clinical picture. Lightning burns., Archives of Family Medicine, 3(8):657-8, 1994.

1.3.1 Zafren, K., Presentation of Cases - Lightning Injuries, Wild Env Med 10(4):253-5, 1999.

1.3.2 General Treatment Strategies - tabulated from existing literature rather than new insight

1.3.2 Anon., Lightning Injuries Assessment and Prevention, Postg. Med., 83(8), 108-12, 1988.

1.3.2 Bains N, et al Before lightning strikes.CMAJ. 1998 Jul 28;159(2):163.

1.3.2 Brody, F., Lightning - It can strike you in a flash, Saf Tot Hlth Newsl, 5(7):1, 2000.

1.3.2 Cooper, M.A., Electrical and Lightning Injuries, Em.Med.Clin.N.Am., 2(3):489, 1984.

1.3.2 Critchley, M., Injuries from electricity and Lightning, Br. Med. J., Dec. 21, 1935, p217 8.

1.3.2 Foster, J D R, Norris, R L, Managing Lightning Injuries, Minn, State High School League, Bulletin, Fall 2000, 16-23.

1.3.2 Gibbs NF, Keel DM. Burns from out of the blue. Lightning strike. Postgrad Med. 2003 Jun;113(6):67 8, 85.

1.3.2 Hansen, G.C., and McIlwraith, G.R., Lightning Injury: Two Case Histories and a Review of Management, B.M.J., 4:271, 1973.

1.3.2 Jelen S., Blitztrauma: Soforthilfe., MMW Munchener Medizinische Wochenschrift. 121(25):839, 1979 Jun 22.

1.3.2 Lewis AM. Understanding the principles of lightning injuries.J Emerg Nurs. 1997 Dec;23(6):535 41. Review.

1.3.2 Matthews MS, et al Plastic surgical considerations in lighting injuries.Ann Plast Surg. 1997 Dec;39(6):561 5. Review.

1.3.2 Morikawa, S., and Steichen, F., Successful Resuscitation after 'Death' from Lightning. Anesthesiol, 21(2):222 4, 1960.

1.3.2 Morocutti, C., Spadaro, M., Amabile, C., TRH treatment in cerebellar ataxia following a lightning stroke, Ital. J. Neurol Sc., 10:531, 1989.

1.3.2 Pettinicchi TA Actionstat. Lighting strike.Nursing. 1998 Jul;28(7):33.

1.3.2 Rich, J. Lightning injury, Nursing, 16(6) : 25, 1986.

1.3.2 Robinson, M., and Seward, P.N., electrical and Lightning Injuries in Children, Paed. Emerg. Care., 2(3):186 190, 1986.

1.3.2 Smirnov, D., Zaplatin, Z., Kovyazin, V., et al., A Case of Successful Resuscitaion of a Patient Struck With Lightning, Anest Reanimat., 6:65, 1988.

1.3.3 Special Treatment Strategies

1.3.3 Cooper, M.A., Chronic Pain in a Lightning Victim, Proc. ICOLSE, Williamsburg, Va., Sept, 1995.

1.3.3 Hendler, N., et al., Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy and Causalgia, Chapter 39 in Tollison, C.D., et al., Handbook of Pain Management, Will & Wilk, 1994.

1.3.3 Hendler, N., Long, D., Wise, T., Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Pain, J Wright, Mass., 1982.

1.3.3 Hooshmand, H., Chronic Pain, CRC, 1993.

1.3.3 Raja, S. N., Sympathetically Maintained Pain, Curr Prac Anaesth, Mosby, 2:421-5, 1990.

1.3.3 Schwartzman, R.J., Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy, Arch Neurol, 44:555-561,1987.

1.3.3 Schwartzman, R., and Kerrigan, J., The Movement Dosorder of Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy, Neurol., 40:57-61, 1990.

1.3.3 Schwartzman, R.J., Causalgia and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy, in Feldmann, E., Current Diagnosis in Neurology, Mosby, 1994.

1.3.3 C, Special Resuscitation Situations, JAMA, 268(16):2242-50, 1992.

1.4 Regarding Specific Systems

1.4.1 Cardiovascular
1.4.1 ------- Guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiac care. Emergency Cardiac Care Committee and Subcommittees, American Heart Association. Part IV. Special resuscitation situations [see comments], JAMA. 1992 Oct 28; 268(16): 2242 50

1.4.1 [No authors listed] Part 8: advanced challenges in resuscitation. Section 3: special challenges in ECC. 3G: electric shock and lightning strikes. European Resuscitation Council. Resuscitation. 2000 Aug 23;46(1 3):297 9.

1.4.1 Alyan O, Ozdemir O, Tufekcioglu O, Geyik B, Aras D, Demirkan D. Myocardial injury due to lightning strike a case report. Angiology. 2006 Mar Apr;57(2):219 23.

1.4.1 Andrews,C.J., and Colquhoun,D., Prolongation of the QT Interval in Lightning Injury with Implications for the `Cessation of Metabolism' Hypothesis, 4th Int. Conf Lightn. Stat. Elec., Proc. Publ. NASA, Cocoa Beach Florida, 1991.

1.4.1 Andrews, C.J., and Colquhoun, D., and Darveniza, M., The QT interval in lightning injury with implications for the `Cessation of Metabolism' hypothesis, J. Wildern. Med, 4:155-166, 1993.

1.4.1 Auer, J., Images in Cardiology. Cardiac Involvement in Lightning Strike Injury. Clin Cardiol., 23(5):386, 2000.

1.4.1 Burda, C.A., Electrocardiographic Changes in Lightning Stroke, Am.Heart.J., 72:521, 1966.

1.4.1 Carleton SC. Cardiac problems associated with electrical injury. Cardiol Clin. 1995 May;13(2):263 6.

1.4.1 Cheng,T.O.,Lightning Injury Causing Prolongation of the QT Interval, Postgrad. Med. J., 64:335,1988.

1.4.1 Chia, B.L., Electrocardiographic Abnormalities and Congestive Cardiac Failure due to Lightning Stroke, Cardiol., 68:49 53, 1981.

1.4.1 Cooper, M.A., Lightning Injuries: Prognostic Signs for Death, Ann. Emerg. Med., 9:134, 1980.

1.4.1 Divakov, G.M., ECG Changes in Persons Struck by Lightning (title trans from Russian), Klin. Meditsima (Mosc.), 1966, 95.

1.4.1 du Pasquier,G., and Freeman,J., Le foudroiement, Ann. Fr. Anesth. Reanim., 5:601 4,1986.

1.4.1 Eber,B., Himmel,G., Schubert,B., et al., Myokardiale Schaedigung nach Blitzschlag, Z. Kardiol., 78:402 4, 1989.

1.4.1 Ekoe, J.M., Cunningham, M., Jacques, O., et al., Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation and Acute Myocardial Necrosis caused by Lightning, Int.Care.Med., 11:160, 1985.

1.4.1 Funiak,S., Hendrich,F., Drimal,J., Markuljak,I., and Funiakova, S., Srdcovy Infarkt Pri Poraneni Bleskom, Vnitrni lekarstvi, 30(11):1118 21,1984.

1.4.1 Gabrielli, L., Quadro Clinico Inconsueto Di Cofosi Intermittente In Soggeto Colpito Da Folgorazione, Oto-Rino-Lar. (Bologna), 31:79-90, 1962.

1.4.1 Grand A., Complications cardiques de l'electrocution. (A propos d'un cas d'infarctus myocardique aprs electrocution par la foudre., Archives des Maladies Professionnelles de Medecine du Travail et de Securite Sociale. 33(4):177 88, 1972 Apr May.

1.4.1 Gupta,G.B., Gupta,S.R., Somani,P.N., and Agrawal,B.V., Atrial Fibrillation with Inferior Wall Myocardial Ischaemia Following Lightning, J. Assoc. Phys. India, 36(5):354 5,1988.

1.4.1 Harwood, S.J., Catrou, R.G., and Cole, G.W., Creatine Phosphokinase Isoenzyme Fractions in the Serum of a Patient Struck by Lightning, Arch.Int.Med., 138:645, 1978.

1.4.1 Hayashi M, Yamada H, Agatsuma T, Nomura H, Kitahara O. A case of takotsubo shaped hypokinesis of the left ventricle caused by a lightning strike. Int Heart J. 2005 Sep;46(5):933 8.

1.4.1 Hunt, J.L., McManus, W.F., Haney, W.P. and Pruitt, B.A., Vascular Lesions in Acute Electric Injuries, J.Trauma, 14(6):461, 1974.

1.4.1 Imboden, L.E., and Newton, C.B., Myocardial Infarction following Electric Shock, US Armed Forces Med J., 3:497, 1952.

1.4.1 Jackson, S.H.D., and Parry, D.J., Lightning and the Heart, Br. Heart. J., 43:454, 1980.

1.4.1 Karaboth, H., Redtenbacher, M., Zur Frage der Todesursache beim Blitzunfall, MMW, 119(1):29-32, 1977.

1.4.1 Karobath H. Mensdorff Pouilly H., Uber elektrokardiographische Veranderungen nach einem Blitzschlagunfall., Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift. 84(26):428 31, 1972 Jun 30.

1.4.1 Kleiner, J.P. and Wilkin, J.H., Cardiac Effects of Lightning Stroke, JAMA 240:2757, 1978.

1.4.1 Kleinot, S., Klachki, D.M., and Keeley, K.J., The Cardiac Effects of Lightning Injury, S.Afr.Med.J., 40:1141, 1966.

1.4.1 Kotogal, S., Rawlings, C. A., Chen, S., Burris, G., and Nouri, S., Neurologic, Psychiatric and Cardiovascular Complications in Children Struck by Lightning, Paed, 70(2): 190, 1982.

1.4.1 Lossnitzer K. Faulhaber JD. Stauch M., Elektrokardiographische Fruhbeobachtungen in kurzzeitiger Folge nach Blitzschlag., Zeitschrift fur Kardiologie. 62(6):520 5, 1973 Jun.

1.4.1 Lichtenberg, R., Dries, D., Ward, K., et al., Cardiovascular Effects of Lightning Stroke, J Am Coll Card., 21(2):531-6, 1993.

1.4.1 Lick SD, et al. Heart donation after lightning strike.J Heart Lung Transplant. 1998 Oct;17(10):1034 5.

1.4.1 Lutalo, S., and Pratt, G., Acute Pulmonary Oedema Caused by Lightning, Cent. Afr. J. Med., 35(11):534-7,1989.

1.4.1 Morgan, Z.V., Headley, R.N., Alexander, E.A., Sawyer, C.G., Atrial Fibrillation and Epidural Haematoma associated with Lightning Stroke, New Eng. J. Med., 259(20):956 9, 1958.

1.4.1 Palmer, A.B.D., Lightning Injury causing prolongation of the Q T internal, Post. med. J., 63 891 4, 1987.

1.4.1 Read, J.M. Man Struck by Lightning Reveals Marked ECG Changes Hours Later, Med. Trib., March 28, 1966, p3.

1.4.1 Schmidt,W., Gruetzner,A., and Schoen,H.R., Beobachtungen bei Blitzschlagverletzungen unter Beruecksichtigung von EKG and EEG, Deutsches Arch. Klin. Med., 204:307 24, 1957.

1.4.1 Schwab, M., Wiegand, H., Bentsen, P., and Hochrein, H., Infarkt EKG nach Blitzunfall, Z Kardiol, 78:611-4, 1989.

1.4.1 Sinha, A.K., Lightning Induced Myocardial Injury A Case Report With Management, Angiol, 36(5):327, 1985.

1.4.1 Subramanian, N., Somasundaram, B., and Periasamy, J.K. Cardiac Injury Due to Lightning Report of a Survivor, Indian Heart J., 37(1):72, 1985.

1.4.1 Terranova,S., Su un Caso di Infarto Miocardico da Elettrocuzione Atmosferica, Rif. Med., 71(4):93 96,1957.

1.4.1 Zeana, C.D., Acute Transient Myocardial Ischaemia After Lightning Injury, Int.J.Cardiol., 5:207, 1984.

1.4.1 Zack F, et al Myocardial injury due to lightning.Int J Legal Med. 1997;110(6):326 8.

1.4.2 Respiratory

1.4.2 Hayashi, Y., Aihara, T., Takano, H., et al., Unilateral Perihilar Opacification Caused by Lightning, Ped Radiol, 23:559-60, 1993.

1.4.2 Halldorsson A, Couch MH. Pneumomediastinum caused by a lightning strike. J Trauma. 2004 Jul;57(1):196 7.

1.4.2 Lutalo, S., and Pratt, G., Acute Pulmonary Oedema Caused by Lightning, Cent. Afr. J. Med., 35(11):534-7,1989.

1.4.2 Soltermann, B., Frutiger, A., Kuhn, M., Lightning Injury with Lung Bleeding in a Tracheotomized Patient, Chest, 99:240-2, 1991.

1.4.3 Neurological

1.4.3 Arboix, A., Massons, J., Oliveras, M., Titus, y F., Mielopatia secundaria a un traumatismo electrico por rayo, Medicina Clinica, 99(3):117-8, 1992.

1.4.3 Aslan S, Yilmaz S, Karcioglu O. Lightning: an unusual cause of cerebellar infarction. Emerg Med J. 2004 Nov;21(6):750 1.

1.4.3 Baker, R., Paraplegia as a Result of Lightning Injury, B.M.J, 2: 1464, 1978.

1.4.3 Belsole, R.J., Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy: 'gate' closed by lightning, J. Hand Surg., 15(3):523, 1990.

1.4.3 Bedenice D, Hoffman AM, Parrott B, McDonnel J. Vestibular signs associated with suspected lightning strike in two horses. Vet Rec. 2001 Oct 27;149(17):519 22.

1.4.3 Blake Pritchard, E.A., Changes in the Central Nervous System Due to Electrocution, Lancet, 1:1163, 1934.

1.4.3 Carrera Izquierdo E, Moran Sanchez JC, Carrera Izquierdo M, Jimenez Corral C, Rodriguez Recio FJ, Ocastegui Candial JL. [Intracranial haemorrhage secondary to a lightning strike: a case report] Revista de Neurol. 2004 Sep 16 30;39(6):530 2.

1.4.3 Cherington, M., and Vervalin, C., Lightning Injuries - Who is at Greatest Risk?, Phys Sports Med, 18(8):59-61, 1990.

1.4.3 Cherington, M., Yarnell, P., Todd, H., Lightning injury and glioma, Injury, 25(10):687-8, 1994.

1.4.3 Cherington, M., Lightning Injuries, Ann Emerg Med, 25:516-9, 1995.

1.4.3 Cherington, M., Yarnell, P., and Hallmark, D., MRI in Lightning Encephalopathy, Neurology, 43(7):1437-8, 1993.

1.4.3 Cherington M More on MRI of lightning injury.J Okla State Med Assoc. 1997 Feb;90(2):74.

1.4.3 Cherington, M., Yarnell, P., Lammereste, D., Lightning Strikes: Nature of Neurological Damage in Patients Evaluated in Hospital Emergancy Departments, Ann Emerg Med, 21(5):575-8, 1992.

1.4.3 Cherington M, Central nervous system complications of lightning and electrical injuries., Semin Neurol. 1995 Sep; 15(3): 233 40.

1.4.3 Cherington M; Yarnell PR; London SF, Neurologic complications of lightning injuries., West J Med. 1995 May; 162(5): 413 7

1.4.3 Cherington M, et al A bolt from the blue: lightning strike to the head.Neurology. 1997 Mar;48(3):683 6.

1.4.3 Cherington, M., Neurological Manifestations of Lightning Strikes, Neurology, 60(2):185, 2003.

1.4.3 Cherington M. Spectrum of neurologic complications of lightning injuries. NeuroRehabilitation. 2005;20(1):3 8.

1.4.3 Cherington M. Neurorehabilitation of the multifaceted and complicated neurologic problems associated with lightning and electrical injuries. NeuroRehabilitation. 2005;20(1):1 2.

1.4.3 Christensen, J.A., Sherman, R.T., Balis, G.A., and Waumett, J.D., Delayed Neurological Injury Secondary to high voltage Current, with Recovery, J. Trauma, 20(2):166 8, 1980.

1.4.3 Cohen JA, Autonomic nervous system disorders and reflex sympathetic dystrophy in lightning and electrical injuries., Semin Neurol. 1995 Dec; 15(4): 387 90.

1.4.3 Cherington M, Yarnell PR. Ball lightning encephalopathy. J Burn Care Rehabil. 2003 May Jun;24(3):175.

1.4.3 Critchley, M., Neurological Effects of Lightning and of Electricity, Lancet, 1:68, 1934.

1.4.3 Critchley, M., The Effects of Lightning with Especial Reference to the Nervous System, Bristol Med.Chir.J., 49:285, 1932.

1.4.3 Davidson, G., and Deck, J., Delayed Myelopathy following Lightning Strike: a demyelinating process, Acta Neuropath, 77:104-8, 1988.

1.4.3 Draper, P.A., Neuropsychiatric Effects of Electric Trauma, Col. Med., Sept. '37, 650 3.

1.4.3 Freeman CB, Goyal M, Bourque PR. MR imaging findings in delayed reversible myelopathy from lightning strike. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2004 May;25(5):851 3.

1.4.3 Frayne, J., and Gilligan, B.S., Neurological Sequelae of Lightning Stroke, Clin Exp Neurol., 24:195 200, 1988.

1.4.3 Gathier, J.C. Neurological Changes in a Soldier Struck by Lightning, Psych,. Neurol. Neurochirurg., 63 195 200, 1988.

1.4.3 Ghosh, D., Gupta, A., Kohli., Electrical Injury: Cervical Myelopathy with Late Onset Progressive Motor Neuron Disease, Aust NZ J Med., 25:263-4, 1995.

1.4.3 Gilbert, G., Lightning-induced robotic speech [letter; comment; with author's reply], Comment on: Cherington, et al., Neurology 1993 Jul;43(7):1437-8, Neurology, 44(5):991-2, 1994.

1.4.3 Girard, P., Jacquot, A., Polynevro-radiculite de type Guillain-Barre a forme acrodynique survenue dans les suites d'une fulguration, Lyon Med., 191:209-214, 1954.

1.4.3 Hawkes, C., and Thorpe, J., Acute Polyneuropathy due to Lightning Injury, J Neurol Neurosurg Psych, 55:388-90, 1992.

1.4.3 Hendler, N., Overlooked Diagnoses in Chronic Pain: Analysis of Survivors of Electric Shock and Lightning Strike, J Occup and Env Med., 47:796-805, 2005.

1.4.3 Jafari H, Couratier P, Camu W. Motor neuron disease after electric injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001 Aug;71(2):265 7.

1.4.3 Janus TJ; Barrash J, Neurologic and neurobehavioral effects of electric and lightning injuries., J Burn Care Rehabil. 1996 Sep Oct; 17(5): 409 15

1.4.3 Jost WH, Schonrock LM, Cherington M. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in lightning and electrical injuries. NeuroRehabilitation. 2005;20(1):19-23.

1.4.3 Kandt, R.S., Rossitch, J., Trippett, T., et al., Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring as a guide to prognosis in a lightning injured comatose child, Ch. Nerv. Syst., 4(6):370-2, 1988.

1.4..3 Kint PA, Stroy JP, Parizel PM. Basal ganglia hemorrhage secondary to lightning stroke. JBR BTR. 1999 Jun;82(3):113.

1.4.3 Kleinschmidt DeMasters BK, Neuropathology of lightning strike injuries., Semin Neurol. 1995 Dec; 15(4): 323 8.

1.4.3 Kotogal, S., Rawlings, C. A., Chen, S., Burris, G., and Nouri, S., Neurologic, Psychiatric and Cardiovascular Complications in Children Struck by Lightning, Paed, 70(2): 190, 1982.

1.4.3 Kruse R., Aussergewohnlicher EEG Befund nach cerebralem Blitztrauma beim Kind. Ein Fall von latenter Epilepsie., Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Nervenheilkunde. 188(1):53 61, 1966 Jan 12.

1.4.3 Lammertse DP. Neurorehabilitation of spinal cord injuries following lightning and electrical trauma. NeuroRehabilitation. 2005;20(1):9-14.

1.4.3 Lehman, L., Successful Management of an Adult Lightning Victim Using Intracranial Pressure Monitoring, Neurosurg., 28(6):907-10, 1991.

1.4.3 Mann, H., Kozic, Z., and Boulos, M., CT of Lightning Injury, Am. J. Neuroradiol, 4:976,1983.

1.4.3 Milton WJ; Hal O'Dell R; Warner EG, MRI of lightning injury: early white matter changes associated with cerebral dysfunction., J Okla State Med Assoc. 1996 Mar; 89(3):93-4.

1.4.3 Morgan, Z.V., Headley, R.N., Alexander, E.A., Sawyer, C.G., Atrial Fibrillation and Epidural Haematoma associated with Lightning Stroke, New Eng. J. Med., 259(20):956 9, 1958.

1.4.3 O'Brien CF, Involuntary movement disorders following lightning and electrical injuries., Semin Neurol. 1995 Sep; 15(3): 263 7.

1.4.3 Ozgun B; Castillo M, Basal ganglia hemorrhage related to lightning strike., AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1995 Jun Jul; 16(6): 1370 1

1.4.3 Paterson, J.H., et al., Lightning and the Central Nervous System, J. Roy. Arm. Med. Corps., 82:73, 1944.

1.4.3 Poulsen, P., and Knudstrup, P., Lightning caused Inner Ear Damage and Intracranial Haematoma, J. Laryng, Otol., 100:1067 1070, 1986.

1.4.3 Richards, A., Traumatic Facial Palsy, Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., 66:28 29, 1973.

1.4.3 Saddler, M., Thomas, J., Temporary Bulbar Palsy following Lightning Strike, Cent Afr J Med., 36(6):161-2, 1990.

1.4.3 Schmidt,W., Gruetzner,A., and Schoen,H.R., Beobachtungen bei Blitzschlagverletzungen unter Beruecksichtigung von EKG and EEG, Deutsches Arch. Klin. Med., 204:307 24, 1957.

1.4.3 Sharma, Paraplegia as a Result of Lightning Injury, B.M.J., 25 Nov. 1978, p. 1464.

1.4.3 Shaw, D., and York Moore, M., Neuropsychiatric Sequelae of Lightning Stroke. Brit. Med. J., 2:1152 5, 1957.

1.4.3 Silbergleit,A., Trenkner, S., Dysphagia following Lightning Strike, Dysphagia, 2:228-9, 1988.

1.4.3 Sommer LK, Lund Andersen H. Skin burn, bilateral iridocyclitis and amnesia following a lightning injury. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2004 Oct;82(5):596 8.

1.4.3 Stanley, L.D., and Suss, R.A., Intracerebral Haematoma Secondary to Lightning Stroke: Case Report and Review of Literature, Neurosurg., 16(5):686, 1985.

1.4.3 Steinbaum, S., Harveil, J., Jaffin, J., Jordan, M., Lightning Strike to the Head: Case Report, J. Trauma, 36(1):113-5, 1994.

1.4.3 Suri, M.L., and Vijayan, G.P., Neurological Sequelae of Lightning, J. Assoc. Phys. Ind., 26 : 209 212, 1978.

1.4.3 Sweeney PJ A bolt from the blue: lightning strike to the head.Neurology. 1998 Mar;50(3):830.

1.4.3 Thomas, M., Pillai, M., Das, K., Intracranial Haematoma Resulting from Lightning Strike, JAPI, 39(5):421-2, 1991.

1.4.3 van Zomeren AH, et al Lightning stroke and neuropsychological impairment: cases and questions.J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1998 Jun;64(6):763 9

1.4.3 Wakasugi, C., and Masui,M., Secondary Brain Hemorrhages Associated with Lightning Stroke: Report of a Case, Jpn. J. Legal Med., 40(1):42 6, 1986.

1.4.3 Weeramanthri, T., Puddey, I., Beilen, L., Lightning Strike and Autonomic Failure - Coincidence or Causally Related, J. Roy. Soc. Med., 84:687-8, 1991.

1.4.3 Wilbourn AJ, Peripheral nerve disorders in electrical and lightning injuries., Semin Neurol. 1995 Sep; 15(3): 241 55.

1.4.3 Woods, J., Spinal Atrophic Paralysis Following Lightning Strike, S A Med J, 26:92 -3, 1952.

1.4.3 Wright, J.W., and Silk, K.L., Acoustic and Vestibular Defects in Lightning Survivors, Laryngoscope, 84:1378 1387, 1974.

1.4.3 Yarnell PR. Neurorehabilitation of cerebral disorders following lightning and electrical trauma. NeuroRehabilitation. 2005;20(1):15-8.

1.4.3 Yarnell PR; Lammertse DP, Neurorehabilitation of lightning and electrical injuries., Semin Neurol. 1995 Dec; 15(4): 391 6.

1.4.4 Gastrointestinal

1.4.4 Alcock, R., and Fletcher Jones, H.C., Abdominal Injury from Lightning. Lancet, 1:823 5, 1949.

1.4.4 Aslan S, Aydinli B, Ocak T, Akcay M. Lightning: an unusual etiology of gastrointestinal perforation. Burns. 2005 Mar;31(2):237 9.

1.4.4 Britt RC, Gannon T, Collins JN, Cole FJ, Weireter LJ, Britt LD. Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome: risk factors and outcomes. Am Surg. 2005 Nov;71(11):982 5.

1.4.4 Milward, J.M., Prolonged Gastric Dilatation as a Complication of Lightning Injury, Burns, 1(2):175 8, 1975.

1.4.4 Moulson, A.M., Blast Injury of the Lungs due to Lightning, B.M.J., 289:1270, 1984.

1.4.4 Silbergleit,A., Trenkner, S., Dysphagia following Lightning Strike, Dysphagia, 2:228-9, 1988.

1.4.5 Genitourinary

1.4.5 Bouchard O, Derradji M, Queyrel V, Morand P, Buisson M, Bosseray A, Quirin N, Gavazzi G, Leclercq P, Micoud M. [A flash of lightning that makes one anuric] Rev Med Interne. 1999;20 Suppl 2:294s 296s. French.

1.4.5 Okafor UV. Lightning injuries and acute renal failure: a review. Ren Fail. 2005;27(2):129 34.

1.4.5 Yost, J.W., and Holmes, F.F., Myoglobinuria Following Lightning Stroke, JAMA, 228:1147, 1974.

1.4.6 Skin Integument Musculoskeletal

1.4.6 Ashby, H.T., Loss of Hair due to Lightning, Br. Med. J., 1:307, 1919.

1.4.6 Baker, R., Paraplegia as a Result of Lightning Injury, B.M.J, 2: 1464, 1978.

1.4.6 Bartholome, C.W., Jacoby, D., and Ramchand, S., Cutaneous Manifestations of Lightning Injury, Arch. Dermatol, 111:1466 8, 1975.

1.4.6 Celikoz B, Isik S, Turegun M, Selmanpakoglu N. An unusual case of lightning strike: full thickness burns of the cranial bones. Burns. 1996 Aug;22(5):417 9.

1.4.6 Cherington M, Olson S, Yarnell PR. Lightning and Lichtenberg figures. Injury. 2003 May;34(5):367 71.

1.4.6 Cohen MA. Clinical pearls: struck by lightning. Cutaneous manifestation of lightning strike ("splash"). Acad Emerg Med. 2001 Sep;8(9):893, 929 31.

1.4.6 Crawford, A.S., and Hoopes, B.F., The Surgical Aspects of Lightning Stroke, Surgery, 9:80, 1941.

1.4.6 Domart Y, Garet E. Images in clinical medicine. Lichtenberg figures due to a lightning strike. N Engl J Med. 2000 Nov 23;343(21):1536.

1.4.6 Ehsan, M., Waxman, J., and Finley, J.M., Delayed Gangrene After Lightning Strike, AFP, 24:117 9, 1981.

1.4.6 Heilbronner, R.L., Rehabilitation of the Neuropsychological Sequelae Associated with Electrical Trauma, Ann N Y Ac Sc., 720:224-229, 1994.

1.4.6 Jellinek, S., Death by Lightning (Letter), Brit. Med. J., Dec. 12, 1942, p714.

1.4.6 Jonas L, Fulda G, Nizze H, Zimmermann R, Gross G, Zack F, Kroning G, Holzhuter G, Haas HJ. Detection of gold particles in the neck skin after lightning stroke with evaporation of an ornamental chain. Ultrastruct Pathol. 2002 May Jun;26(3):153 9.

1.4.6 Lim JK, Lee EH, Chhem RK. Physeal injury in a lightning strike survivor. J Pediatr Orthop. 2001 Sep Oct;21(5):608 12.

1.4.6 Kannan RY, Chester DL, Titley OG. Combined Bennett's fracture subluxation and scapho trapezio trapezoidal dislocation secondary to lightning strike. J Trauma. 2004 Dec;57(6):1351 3.

1.4.6 Muehlberger T, Vogt PM, Munster AM. The long term consequences of lightning injuries. Burns. 2001 Dec;27(8):829 33.

1.4.6 Muto, T., Ohashi, M., Fujishiro, Y., et al., Mark of lightning on the skin - clinical observations and its experimental simulation, Keio Igaku, 49:51-9, 1972.

1.4.6 Resnik, B., Capland, L., Discrete keloids in a lightning strike, Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 30(6):1039-40, 1994.

1.4.6 Resnik BI, Wetli CV. Lichtenberg figures. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1996 Jun;17(2):99 102.

1.4.6 Ross, C., Lichen Planus after Lightning Stroke, Br. J. Derm., 72(12):448, 1960.

1.4.6 Selvaggi G, Monstrey S, von Heimburg D, Hamdi M, Van Landuyt K, Blondeel P. Ball lightning burn. Ann Plast Surg. 2003 May;50(5):541 4.

1.4.6 Simon, S., Silver, C., Litchman, H., Lightning Shock with Recurrent Fractures of the 5th Metacarpal Bone, Clin. Orthop. Rel. Rsch., 32:100-9, 1964.

1.4.6 Sommer LK, Lund Andersen H. Skin burn, bilateral iridocyclitis and amnesia following a lightning injury. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2004 Oct;82(5):596 8.

1.4.6 ten Duis, H.J., Klasen, H.J., and Reenalda, P.E., Keraunoparalysis, a 'specific' lightning injury. Burns Incl Therm Inj; 12(1):54 7, 1985.

1.4.6 ten Duis, H.J., Klasen, H.J., and Nijsten, N.W.N., et al., Superficial Lightning Injuries their 'fractal' shape and Origin, Burns, 13(2):141 6, 1987.

1.4.6 Tibesar RJ, Roy S, Hom DB. Bilateral Le Fort I fracture from a lightning strike injury to the face. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2000 Nov;123(5):647 9.

1.4.6 Vega LA, de Quevedo Garcia JA, Santamaria CT, Porras MC. Clinical picture: An unwanted tattoo. Lancet. 2001 Nov 17;358(9294):1681.

1.4.6 Webb J; Srinivasan J; Fahmy F; Frame JD, Unusual skin injury from lightning [letter], Lancet. 1996 Feb 3; 347(8997): 321

1.4.7 Endocrine

1.4.7 Weeramanthri, T., Puddey, I., Beilen, L., Lightning Strike and Autonomic Failure - Coincidence or Causally Related, J. Roy. Soc. Med., 84:687-8, 1991.

1.4.8 Ocular

1.4.8 Abt, J.L. The Pupillary Responses After Being Struck by Lightning, JAMA, 254(23):3312, 1985.

1.4.8 Alexandridis A. Fotiou F. Dimitriadis A. Tsitsopoulos P. Stefani FH., Neuropathia nervi optici nach Blitzschlagunfall elektrophysiologische und computertomographische Befunde. , Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde. 190(1):56 8, 1987 Jan.

1.4.8 Augustin AJ, Koch F, Boker T. Macular damage following lightning strikes. Ger J Ophthalmol. 1995 Jul;4(4):214 6.

1.4.8 Biro, Z., Pamer, Z., Electrical cataract and optic neuropathy, International Ophthalmology, 18(1):43-7, 1994.

1.4.8 Buettner H, Lightning induced ocular injury [letter; comment], Arch Ophthalmol. 1996 Apr; 114(4): 501 2

1.4.8 Campo, R.V., and Lewis, R.S., Lightning Induced Macular Hole, Am.J. Oph., 97(6): 792, 1984.

1.4.8 Cankaya H, Egeli E, Evliyaoglu Z. Hearing loss caused by lightning strike: case report and review of the literature. J Otolaryngol. 2002 Jun;31(3):181 3.

1.4.8 Cazabon S, Dabbs TR. Lightning induced cataract. Eye. 2000 Dec;14(Pt 6):903 4.

1.4.8 Connole, J.V., Lightning and Electric Cataract, Pa. Med. J., 38:93942, 1935.

1.4.8 Dinakaran, S.,et al., Telephone Mediated Lightning Injury Causing Cataract, Injury, 29(8):645-6, 1998.

1.4.8 Dinakaran S, Desai SP, Elsom DM. Ophthalmic manifestations of lightening strikes. Surv Ophthalmol. 2002 May Jun;47(3):292; discussion 292 3.

1.4.8 Dinakaran S, Desai SP, Elsom DM. Lightning induced cataract. Eye. 2001 Oct;15(Pt 5):690.

1.4.8 Espaillat, A., Janigian, R., To, K., Cataracts, Bilateral Macular Holes, and Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Induced by Lightning, Am J Ophth, 127(2):216-7, 1999.

1.4.8 Frauenfelder, F., and Hanna, C., Electric Cataract, I. Sequential Changes, Unusual and Prognostic Findings, Arch. Ophthalmol. 87:179, 1972.

1.4.8 Gehrke G., Psychogene Amaurose nach Blitzschlag., Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde. 148(3):430 3, 1966.

1.4.8 Grover S; Goodwin J, Lightning and electrical injuries: neuro ophthalmologic aspects., Semin Neurol. 1995 Dec; 15(4): 335 41.

1.4.8 Handa, J., Jaffe, G., Lightning maculopathy. A case report, Retina. 14(2):169-72, 1994.

1.4.8 Hanna, C., and Frauenfelder, F.T., Electric Cataracts II. Ultrastructural Lens Changes, Arch. Ophthal., 87:184 191, 1972.

1.4.8 Hunt L. Ocular injuries induced by lightning. Insight. 2000 Apr Jun;25(2):59 60.

1.4.8 Lagreze WD; Bomer TG; Aiello LP, Lightning induced ocular injury [see comments], Arch Ophthalmol. 1995 Aug; 113(8): 1076 7

1.4.8 Lea, J.A., Paresis of Accommodation following Injury by Lightning, Brit. J. Opth., 4:417, 1920.

1.4.8 Lee MS, Gunton KB, Fischer DH, Brucker AJ. Ocular manifestations of remote lightning strike. Retina. 2002 Dec;22(6):808 10.

1.4.8 Lin CJ, Yang CH, Yang CM, Chang KP. Abnormal electroretinogram and abnormal electrooculogram after lightning induced ocular injury. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002 Apr;133(4):578 9.

1.4.8 Moon SJ, Kim JE, Han DP. Lightning induced maculopathy. Retina. 2005 Apr May;25(3):380 2.

1.4.8 Moore, M.C., Ocular Injury from Lightning Current and Lightning Flash, Trans. Oph. Soc. Aust., 16:87 92, 1956.

1.4.8 Mournier Kuhn, P., Clinical Study of Lesions of the Auditory Apparatus Caused by Electricity, Rev. Otoneuroophthal, 35:165, 1963.

1.4.8 Noel, L.P. Clarke, W.N., and Addison, D., Ocular Complications of Lightning, J.Paed.Opth., 17:245, 1980.

1.4.8 Norman, M., Younge, B.R., Association of high dose methylprednisolone with reversal of blindness from lightning in two patients, Ophth., 106(4):743-5, 1999.

1.4.8 Norman ME, Albertson D, Younge BR. Ophthalmic manifestations of lightning strike. Surv Ophthalmol. 2001 Jul Aug;46(1):19 24.

1.4.8 Raymond, L.F., Specific Treatment of Uveitis, Lightning Induced: An Autoimmune Disease, Ann.Allerg., 27:242, 1967.

1.4.8 Shapiro, M.B., Lightning Cataracts, Wisc.Med.J., 83:23, 1984.

1.4.8 Sommer LK, Lund Andersen H. Skin burn, bilateral iridocyclitis and amnesia following a lightning injury. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2004 Oct;82(5):596 8.

1.4.8 Yi C, Liang Y, Jiexiong O, Yan H. Lightning induced cataract and neuroretinopathy. Retina. 2001;21(5):526 8.

1.4.9 Otological

1.4.9 Alonso-Treceno, J., and Sanchez-Navarro, J., Lesiones oticas por rayo. A proposito de un caso., Acta Otorrinolaring. Esp., 41(6):423-425, 1990.

1.4.9 Bellucci, R.J., Traumatic Injuries of the Middle Ear, Otolar. Clin. N. Am., 16(3):633, 1983.

1.4.9 Bergstrom, L., Some Pathologies of Sensory and Neural Hearing Loss, Can.J. Otolaryngol., 4(2) Supp 2, 1975.

1.4.9 Bergstrom, L., Neblett, L.M., Sando, I., Hemenway, W.G., and Harrison, G.E., The Lightning Damaged Ear, Arch. Otolaryngol., 100:117, 1974.

1.4.9 Cudennec, Y., de Rotalier, P., Aubert, C., et al., Fulguration D'Orielle, Ann. Oto-Laryng., 103:343-9, 1986.

1.4.9 Gjulev A. Simov B. Stamatov G., Uber die wirkung von Blitz und Donner auf die Gehor und Vestibularanalysatoren., Folia Medica. 14(2):79 85, 1972.

1.4.9 Gluncic I, Roje Z, Gluncic V, Poljak K. Ear injuries caused by lightning: report of 18 cases. J Laryngol Otol. 2001 Jan;115(1):4 8.

1.4.9 Gordon, M., Silverstein, H., Willcox, T., Rosenberg, S., Lightning Injury of the Tympanic Membrane, Am J Otol, 16(3):373-6, 1995.

1.4.9 Griffin, W., A Retrospective Stidy of Traumatic Tympanic Membrane Perforations in a Clinical Practice, The Laryngosc., 89(2 pt 2):261-82, 1979.

1.4.9 Gusakov, A.D., and Zaiko, N.G., Lesion of the Human Middle Ear Caused by Lightning, Zhurnal Ushnykh Nosovykh Gorlovykh Bolexnei, 5:67 8, 1979. (translated)

1.4.9 Haroldsson, P., Medvetsloeshet och Kvarstaende tinnitus foeljden av blixt i oerat vid telefonering, Lakartidningen (Stockh.), 80:2024, 1983.

1.4.9 Jemmi., A., Lesioni Coclo-Vestibolari Da Energia Elettrics, Otorh. Ital. Bologn., 34:232-65, 1965.

1.4.9 Jones, D., Ogren, F., Roh, L., Moore, G., Lightning and its Effects on the Auditory System, Laryng., 101:830-4, 1991.

1.4.9 Just T, Kramp B, Pau HW. [Lightning induced injury of the air. Lightning induced tympanic membrane perforation left with subsequent temporary pancochlear inner ear hearing loss as well as left sided tinnitus] HNO. 2002 Feb;50(2):170 1. German.

1.4.9 Kobayashi, T., Aural Trauma Caused by Electric Shock by Lightning, Otolaryngol., Tokyo, ( Jibi Inkoka Tokelbu Geka), 40(7):525-529, 1968.

1.4.9 Krasheminnikov, V.F., Lightning Injuries of the Ear, Zh. Ushn. Nos. Gorl. Bolez, 25:75, 1965.

1.4.9 Kristensen, S., and Tveteras, K., Lightning Induced Acoustic Rupture of the Tympanic Membrane, J.Laryng.Otol., 99:711, 1985.

1.4.9 Leveille-Nizorelle, Lintzer, J-P, Berezin, A., Consequences auriculaires d'un coup de foudre, Ann Oto-Laryng. (Paris), 95(10-11):695-702, 1978.

1.4.9 Mora Magana I; Collado Corona MA; Toral Martinon R; Cano A, Acoustic trauma caused by lightning., Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1996 Mar; 35(1): 59 69

1.4.9 Miszke, A., Otolaryngol Polska, 16:527-34, 1962 (see 5.2)

1.4.9 Montalto M, Ancarani F, Manna R, Gasbarrini G. Globus pharyngis: was it a stroke of lightning? Am J Gastroenterol. 2003 Apr;98(4):938 9.

1.4.9 Ogren FP; Edmunds AL, Neuro otologic findings in the lightning injured patient., Semin Neurol. 1995 Sep; 15(3): 256 62.

1.4.9 Poulsen, P., and Knudstrup, P., Lightning caused Inner Ear Damage and Intracranial Haematoma, J. Laryng, Otol., 100:1067 1070, 1986.

1.4.9 Redleaf, M., and McCabe, B., Lightning injury of the tympanic membrane, An Otol Rhinol Laryngol 102:867-9, 1993.

1.4.9 Silverman, N.M., Unilateral Deafness as Sequel to Non Fatal Lightning Stroke, J.Indiana Med. A., 29:530, 1936, quoted in Ravitch (1961).

1.4.9 Soni, U., Mistry, B., Mallya, S., Grewal, D., Varadkar, S., Acoustic effects of lightning, Auris, Nasus, Larynx, 20(4):285-9, 1993.

1.4.9 Spirov, A., Damage of the Ear by Thunderbolt, Vojnosanit. Pregl., 25(12):648, 1968.

1.4.9 Struzewski, B., and Struzewski, P., Lightning Discharge not causing Death as a Significant Hazard for Human Hearing Organ, 18th Int. Conf. on Lightn. Protn, Munich, VDE Verlag GmbH, pp. 439 447, 1985. (Paper 6.8)

1.4.9 Sun GH, Simons JP, Mandell DL. Bilateral perilymphatic fistulas from a lightning strike: a case report. Laryngoscope. 2006 Jun;116(6):1039-42.

1.4.9 Tandberg, D., Brown, M., Destruction of Hearing Aid by Lightning Strike, Am J Emerg Med., 8(4):326-8, 1990.

1.4.9 Tibesar RJ, Roy S, Hom DB. Bilateral Le Fort I fracture from a lightning strike injury to the face. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2000 Nov;123(5):647 9.

1.4.9 Todd, D., An unusual otolaryngologic manifestation of lightning strike, Otolar. - Head and Neck Surg., 110(1):126-9, 1994.

1.4.9 Weiss, K.S., Otological Lightning Bolts, Am. J. Otolaryngol, 1(4):334 7, 1980.

1.4.9 West, G., Lightning as a cause of Hearing Loss, Md. State. Med. J., 4(1):35 7, 1955.

1.4.9 Wright, J.W., and Silk, K.L., Acoustic and Vestibular Defects in Lightning Survivors, Laryngoscope, 84:1378 1387, 1974.

1.4.9 Youngs, R., Deck, J., Kwok, P., Hawke, M., Severe Sensorineural Hearing Loss Caused by Lightning, Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 114:1184-7, 1988.

1.4.a Haematological

1.4.a Ekoe, J.M., Cunningham, M., Jacques, O., et al., Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation and Acute Myocardial Necrosis caused by Lightning, Int.Care.Med., 11:160, 1985.

1.4.a Eng, L., and Sinnadurai, C., Syndrome of Erythemia di Guglielmo after Lightning Injury with Autoimmune Antibodies and Terminating in Acute Monocytic Leukaemia, Blood, 25(5):845, 1965.

1.4.a McCarthy, L.J., and Parker, C., Positive Antiglobulin Tests in a Boy Struck by Lightning, NEJM, 305(5):283.

1.4.a Yost, J.W., and Holmes, F.F., Myoglobinuria Following Lightning Stroke, JAMA, 228:1147, 1974.

1.5 Related Effects

1.5.1 Psychiatric Effects

1.5.1 Cooper, M.A., Andrews, C.J., and ten Duis, H.J., Psychological Aspects of Lightning Injury, in Borisenkov, E., Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Atmosph. Elec., June 15-19, 1992, A.I. Voeikov Main Geoplys Observ., St. Petersburg, pIII-858.

1.5.1 Critchley, M., The Effects of Lightning with Especial Reference to the Nervous System, Bristol Med.Chir.J., 49:285, 1932.

1.5.1 Dollinger, S., and Cramer, P., Children's Defensive Responses and Emotional Upset Following a Disaster: A Projective Assessment, J. Pers. Assess., 54(1,2):116-27, 1990.

1.5.1 Dollinger, S., O'Donnell, J.P., and Staley, A.A., Lightning Strike Disaster : Effects on children's Fears and Worries, J. Cons. Clin, Psych., 52(6):1028 1038, 1984.

1.5.1 Draper, P.A., Neuropsychiatric Effects of Electric Trauma, Col. Med., Sept. '37, 650 3.

1.5.1 Engelstatter, G., Psychological Effects of Lightning Strike and Electric Shock Injuries, Proc. 3rd. Ann Conf. Light. Str. And Elec. Shock Victims Assn., Author: Car. Psych Hlth Serv., Jacksonville, NC., May 1993.

1.5.1 Hann., von J., Symptomatische Psychose schizophrener Praegung nach Blitzschlagverletzung, Nervenarzt, 28(3):127-9, 1957.

1.5.1 Hendler, N., Overlooked Diagnoses in Chronic Pain: Analysis of Survivors of Electric Shock and Lightning Strike, J Occup and Env Med., 47:796-805, 2005.

1.5.1 Janus TJ; Barrash J, Neurologic and neurobehavioral effects of electric and lightning injuries., J Burn Care Rehabil. 1996 Sep Oct; 17(5): 409 15

1.5.1 Kotogal, S., Rawlings, C. A., Chen, S., Burris, G., and Nouri, S., Neurologic, Psychiatric and Cardiovascular Complications in Children Struck by Lightning, Paed, 70(2): 190, 1982.

1.5.1 Milton WJ; Hal O'Dell R; Warner EG, MRI of lightning injury: early white matter changes associated with cerebral dysfunction., J Okla State Med Assoc. 1996 Mar; 89(3):93-4.

1.5.1 Muehlberger T, Vogt PM, Munster AM. The long term consequences of lightning injuries. Burns. 2001 Dec;27(8):829 33.

1.5.1 Ost, L.G., Behavioural Treatment of Thunder and Lightning Phobias, Behav.Res.Ther., 16:197, 1978.

1.5.1 Pliskin, N., et al., Neuropsychological changes following electrical injury, J Int Neuropsych Soc, 12:17-23, 2006.

1.5.1 Primeau M; Engelstatter GH; Bares KK, Behavioral consequences of lightning and electrical injury., Semin Neurol. 1995 Sep; 15(3): 279 85.

1.5.1 Primeau, M., Engelstatter, G., Cooper, M.A., Psychological Sequelae of Lightning Injury, Proc. ICOLSE, Williamsburg, Va., Sept, 1995.

1.5.1 Primeau M. Neurorehabilitation of behavioral disorders following lightning and electrical trauma. NeuroRehabilitation. 2005;20(1):25 33.

1.5.1 Reisner, A., A case of Lightning Injury with delayed-onset psychiatric and cognitive symptoms, Brain Inj., 20(10):1093-7, 2006

1.5.1 Shaw, D., and York Moore, M., Neuropsychiatric Sequelae of Lightning Stroke. Brit. Med. J., 2:1152 5, 1957.

1.5.1 Sheppard, L.B., Report of an Eye Injured by Lightning, Am.J.Ophth., 28:195, 1945.

1.5.1 van Zomeren AH, et al Lightning stroke and neuropsychological impairment: cases and questions.J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1998 Jun;64(6):763 9

1.5.2 Burns

1.5.2 Amy, B.W., McManus, W., Boodwin, C.W., and Pruitt, B.A., Lightning Injury with Survival in Five Patients, JAMA, 253(2):243, 1985.

1.5.2 Cherington M, Olson S, Yarnell PR. Lightning and Lichtenberg figures. Injury. 2003 May;34(5):367 71.

1.5.2 Critchley, M., The Effects of Lightning with Especial Reference to the Nervous System, Bristol Med.Chir.J., 49:285, 1932.

1.5.2 Harrison, S.H., Lightning Burns, Br. J. Plast. Surg. 8:154 157, 1955.

1.5.2 Herrero F; Garcia Morato V; Salinas V; Alonso S, An unusual case of lightning injury: a melted silver necklace causing a full thickness linear burn., Burns. 1995 Jun 21(4) 308-9

1.5.2 Matthews MS, et al Plastic surgical considerations in lighting injuries.Ann Plast Surg. 1997 Dec;39(6):561 5. Review.

1.5.2 McKrady Kahn, V.L., and Kahn, A.m., Lightning Burns, West, J. Bed., 134(3):215 9, 1981.

1.5.2 Selvaggi G, Monstrey S, Van Landuyt K, Hamdi M, Blondeel P. Rehabilitation of burn injured patients following lightning and electrical trauma, NeuroRehabilitation. 20:2005.

1.5.2 Selvaggi G, Monstrey S, von Heimburg D, Hamdi M, Van Landuyt K, Blondeel P. Ball lightning burn. Ann Plast Surg. 2003 May;50(5):541 4.

1.5.2 ten Duis HJ, Acute electrical burns., Semin Neurol. 1995 Dec; 15(4): 381 6.

1.5.2 Volinsky, J., Hanson, J., Lustig J., Picture of the month. Lightning burns. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 148(5):529-30, 1994.

1.5.2 Wehe, W., Report of a Case of Burns from Lightning, Int. J. Surg., June 1918, pp. 191 194.

1.5.2 Zehender, M., Images in clinical medicine. Struck by lightning., New England Journal of Medicine. 330(21):1492, 1994.

1.5.3 Keraunoparalysis

1.5.3 Currens, J.H., Arterial Spasm and Transient Paralysis from Lightning Striking an Aeroplane, Aerospace Med., Fmly Aviation Med., 16:275, 1945.

1.5.3 ten Duis, H.J., Klasen, H.J., and Reenalda, P.E., Keraunoparalysis, a 'specific' lightning injury. Burns Incl Therm Inj; 12(1):54 7, 1985.

1.5.4 Pathology including Forensic Pathology

1.5.4 Andrews,C.J., and Darveniza,M., Effects of Lightning on Mammalian Tissue, Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Lightn. Stat. Elec., Bath Sept 89, Publ ERA Technol., Leatherhead, Surrey, UK.

1.5.4 Andrews, C.J., and Darveniza, M., Functional and Structural Changes after Lightning Strike with Emphasis on Possible Portals of Entry, Proc. APERI Conf. on Lightning and Mountains, Chamonix-Mont Blanc, APERI, Paris France, 1994.

1.5.4 Andrews, C.J., and Darveniza, M., Further Study of the Functional and Structural Changes after Lightning Strike with Special Emphasis on Special Sense Orifices as Portals of Entry, in Borisenkov, E., Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Atmosph. Elec., June 15-19, 1992, A.I. Voeikov Main Geoplys Observ., St. Petersburg, pIII-860.

1.5.4 Andrews, C.J., Structural Changes After Lightning Strike with Special Emphasis on Special Sense Orifices as Portals of Entry, Seminars in Neurology, Special Issue on Lightning Injuries, 1995, in press.

1.5.4 Blumenthal R. Lightning fatalities on the South African Highveld: a retrospective descriptive study for the period 1997 to 2000. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2005 Mar;26(1):66 9.

1.5.4 Blumenthal R. When thunder roars go indoors! S Afr Med J. 2006 Jan;96(1):38 9.

1.5.4 Eriksson, A., Ornehult, L., Death by Lightning, Am. J. For. Path., 9(4):295-300, 1988.

1.5.4 Jellinek, S., Death by Lightning (Letter), Brit. Med. J., Dec. 12, 1942, p714.

1.5.4 Jumbelic MI, Forensic perspectives of electrical and lightning injuries., Semin Neurol. 1995 Dec; 15(4): 342 50.

1.5.4 Jonas L, Fulda G, Nizze H, Zimmermann R, Gross G, Zack F, Kroning G, Holzhuter G, Haas HJ. Detection of gold particles in the neck skin after lightning stroke with evaporation of an ornamental chain. Ultrastruct Pathol. 2002 May Jun;26(3):153 9.

1.5.4 Koshima, I., Moriguchi, T., Soeda, S., Murashita, T., High Voltage Electrical Injury: Electron Microscopic Findings of Injured Vessel Nerve and Muscle, Ann Plast Surg, 26:587-91, 1991.

1.5.4 Lifschultz, B., Donoghue, E., Deaths Caused by Lightning, J. For. Sc., 38(2):353-8, 1993.

1.5.4 Schmidt, G., Versicherungsmedizin im rechtsmedizinischen Alltag, Versicherungsmedizin. 46(1):2-7, 1994.

1.5.4 Stanley Turner, H.M., Death by Lightning (letter), B.M.J., Oct 24, 1942, p503.

1.5.4 Wetli CV. Keraunopathology. An analysis of 45 fatalities. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1996 Jun;17(2):89 98.

1.6 Epidemiology

1.6 [No authors listed] Lightning associated deaths United States 1980 1995. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1998 May 22;47(19):391 4.

1.6 Adekoya N, Nolte KB. Struck by lightning deaths in the United States. J Environ Health. 2005 May;67(9):45 50, 58.

1.6 Anttonen O. Palomaki P., Salama ja sydan., Duodecim. 105(13 14):1266 8, 1989.

1.6 Andrews, C.J., Studies in Aspects of Lightning Injuries, PhD thesis, Univ Qld, Australia, 1993.

1.6 Bernstein, T., Lightning Deaths and Injury in the United States 1968-81, unpublished data, 1982.

1.6 Blumenthal R. Lightning fatalities on the South African Highveld: a retrospective descriptive study for the period 1997 to 2000. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2005 Mar;26(1):66 9.

1.6 Castle, W., and Kreft, J., A Survey of Deaths in Rhodesia Caused By Lightning, Cent. Afr. J. Med., 20(5):93-5, 1974.

1.6 Chao, T.C., et al., A Study of Lightning Deaths in Singapore, Singapore Med.J., 22(3): 150 157, 1981.

1.6 Cherington, M., and Vervalin, C., Lightning Injuries - Who is at Greatest Risk?, Phys Sports Med, 18(8):59-61, 1990.

1.6 Cherington, M., Lightning Injuries, Ann Emerg Med, 25:516-9, 1995.

1.6 Coates, L, Blong, R, Siciliano, Lightning Fatalities in Australia, 1824-1991, Nat Haz, 8:217-33, 1993.

1.6 Cooper, M.A., Lightning Injuries: Prognostic Signs for Death, Ann. Emerg. Med., 9:134, 1980.

1.6 Curran, B., Holle, R., and Lopez, R., Lightning Fatalities, Injuries and Damage Reports in the United States, 1959-1994, NOAA Tech Memor. NWS SR-193.

1.6 Duclos, P., and Sanderson, L., An Epidemiological Description of Lightning Related Deaths in the United States, Int J Epidem, 19(3):673-9, 1990.

1.6 Duclos, P., Sanderson, L., Klontz, K., Lightning Related Mortality and Morbidity in Florida, Pub. Hlth. Rep., 105(3):276-282, 1990.

1.6 Elsom, D., Deaths Caused by Lightning in England and Wales, 1852-1990, Weather, 48:83-90, 1993.

1.6 Eriksson, A., Ornehult, L., Death by Lightning, Am. J. For. Path., 9(4):295-300, 1988.

1.6 Ferret, R., and Ojala, C., The Lightning Hazard in Michigan,.Mich Academ., XXIV:427-441, 1992.

1.6 Holle, R., Lopez, R., Arnold, L., Endres, J., Insured Property Damage from Lightning in Colorado Utah and Wyoming, NOAA Tech Mem ERL NSSL-104, Norman OK, 1995.

1.6 Holle, R., Lopez, R., Ortiz, A., et al., Cloud-toGround Lightning Related to Deaths Injuries and Property Damage in Central Florida, Proc. 1992 ICLSE, Atlantic City, 1992, proc. publ FAA as DOT/FAA/CT-92/20.

1.6 Holle, R., Lopez, R., Howard, K., Vavrek, R., and Allsop, J., Lightning Hazard Education, Earth Scientist, Fall 1995.

1.6 Holle, R., Lopez, R., Vavrek, R., Howard, K., Educating Individuals about Lightning, 7th Symp. Educ., Phoenix, Arizona, 11-16 Jan 1998, Am Meteorol Soc., paper 1.10.

1.6 Holle, R., Lopez, R., Vavrek, R., and Allsop, J., Newspaper Accounts of Lightning from 1891 to 1895, Earth Scientist, Summer 1997

1.6 Holle, R., Lopez, R., Curran, B., Distribution of Lightning Caused Casualties and Damages Since 1959 in the United States, 11 Conf Appl Climatology, Am. Meteorol. Soc., Dallas Texas, 10-15 Jan 1999, paper 10.2.

1.6 Holle, R., and Lopez, R., Lightning - Impacts and Safety, Bull. World Met. Assn, 47(2):148-55, 1998.

1.6 Holle, R., Lopez, R., Arnold, L., Endres, J., Insured Lightning-Caused Property Damage in Three Western States, J. App. Meteorol., 35(8):1344-51, 1996.

1.6 Holle, R, Lopez, R, Navarro, B, US Lightning Deaths, Injuries, and Damages in the 1890s Compared to 1990s, NOAA Tech Mem, OAR NSSL-106, 2001.

1.6 Langley, R., Dunn, K., Esinhart, J., Lightning Fatalities in North Carolina 1972-88, NCMJ, 52(6):281-284.

1.6 Lopez, R., Holle, R., and Heitkamp, T., Lightning Casualties and Property Damage in Colorado from 1950 to 1991 Based on Storm Data, Weather and Forecasting, 10(1):114-126, 1995.

1.6 Lopez, R., Holle, R., and Heitkamp, T., Deaths Injuries and Property Damage Due to Lightning in Colorado from 1950 to 1991 Based on Storm Data, NOAA Tech. Mem. ERL NSSL-103, 1994.

1.6 Lopez, R., Holle, R., Heitkamp, T., et al., The Underreporting of Lightning Injuries and Deaths in Colorado, Bull. Am Met. Soc., 74(11):2171-2178, 1993.

1.6 Lopez RE; Holle RL, Demographics of lightning casualties., Semin Neurol. 1995 Sep; 15(3): 286 95.

1.6 Lopez, R., and Holle, R.L., Climate Related Trends in the Number of Lightning Deaths During the Twentieth Century, 11 Conf Appl Climatology, Am. Meteorol. Soc., Dallas Texas, 10-15 Jan 1999, paper 10.3.

1.6 Lopez, R., and Holle, R.L., Fluctuations of Lightning Casulaties in the United States: 1959-1990, J. Climate, Mar 1996.

1.6 Lopez, R., and Holle, R.L., The Distance Between Subsequent Lightning Flashes, NOAA NSSL Tech Memor. ERL NSSL-105, 1999.

1.6 Lopez, R., and Holle, R.L., Changes in the Number of Lightning Deaths in the United States during the Twentieth Century, J. Climate, 11:2070-7, 1998.

1.6 Nguyen BH, MacKay M, Bailey B, Klassen TP. Epidemiology of electrical and lightning related deaths and injuries among Canadian children and youth. Inj Prev. 2004 Apr;10(2):122 4.

1.6 Prentice, S.A., Lightning Fatalities in Australia, EE Trans. I.E.Aust., EE8(2):55, 1972.

1.6 Rush, M., and Glasser, J., Lightning Risk, Rev. Eng. Health, 3(3):301 13, 1981.

1.6 Sarma, B., Sarma, N., Epidemiology, morbidity, mortality and treatment of burn injuries--a study in a peripheral industrial hospital, Burns. 20(3):253-5, 1994.

1.6 Telecom Aust., Customer Protection Against Lightning Injury, Report on All States Conference, Melbourne, Sept. 1985.
including:
Customer Lightning Incidents Legal Aspects.
Bassett, P., Analysis of Lightning Incidents.
Schmidtchen, P.J., Analysis of Customer Lightning Incidents.

1.6 Vigansky, H., General Summary of Lightning 1985, Storm Data, 27(12):37-44, 1985.

1.6 Zegel, F., Lightning Deaths in the United States: A Seven Year Survey from 1959 to 1965, Weatherwise, Aug 1967, pp168-173 and 179.

1.6 C, Lightning Associated Deaths - United States, 1980-1995, MMWR, 47(19):391-4.

1.6 [No authors listed] Lightning associated injuries and deaths among military personnel United States, 1998 2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002 Sep 27;51(38):859 62.

1.7 Lightning and Lightning Injury History

1.7 Bernstein, T., Protecting the Royal Navy from Lightning - William Snow Harris and His Struggle with the British Admiralty for Fixed Lightning Conductors, IEEE Trans. Educ., E21(1):7-14, 1978

1.7 Bullock, J., Was Saint Paul struck blind and converted by lightning?, Survey of Ophthalmology. 39(2):151-60, 1994.

1.7 Bullock, J., The Blindness of St Paul, Ophth AAOO, 85:1044-1053, 1978.

1.7 Buck, E., Mbane. African Lightning, Nurs. RSA Verpl., 5(1):17-8,1990.

1.7 Cannel, H., Struck by Lightning The Effects upon the Men and Ships of HM Navy, J. Roy. Nav. Med. Serv., 65:165 170, 1979.

1.7 Cherington, M., Yarnell, P., Cherington, C., Lightning, Leyden jar, and the historic beginnings of electrophysiology, Muscle & Nerve, 17(8):951-2, 1994.

1.7 Cherington, M., Sherlock Holmes: Neurologist?, Neurol., 37:824-5, 1987.

1.7 Cherington M. James Parkinson: links to Charcot, Lichtenbergh, and lightning. Arch Neurol. 2004 Jun;61(6):977.

1.7 Cooper MA, Myths, miracles, and mirages., Semin Neurol. 1995 Dec; 15(4): 358 61.

1.7 Gourbiere, E., Lightning Injuries and Death, Proc ICLD Tucson, Az, GAI, 2000.

1.7 Heyneman, M., Angels of rain and lightning (the many and the one), Parabola - The magazine of myth and tradition, 20(1): 84-90, 1995.

1.7 Knaggs RH. Unusual injuries caused by lightning stroke. 1894 [classical article Wilderness Environ Med. 2002 Summer;13(2):162; discussion 158 60.

1.7 Takahashi, Y., Two Hundred Years of Lichtenberg Figures, J. Electrostat., 6:1-13, 1979.

1.8 Animal Observations

1.8 Andrews, C.J., Studies in Aspects of Lightning Injuries, PhD thesis, Univ Qld, Australia, 1993.

1.8 Andrews, C.J., and Darveniza, M., Further Study of the Functional and Structural Changes after Lightning Strike with Special Emphasis on Special Sense Orifices as Portals of Entry, in Borisenkov, E., Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Atmosph. Elec., June 15-19, 1992, A.I. Voeikov Main Geoplys Observ., St. Petersburg, pIII-860.

1.8 Andrews,C.J., and Darveniza,M., Effects of Lightning on Mammalian Tissue, Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Lightn. Stat. Elec., Bath Sept 89, Publ ERA Technol., Leatherhead, Surrey, UK.

1.8 Andrews C, Structural changes after lightning strike, with special emphasis on special sense orifices as.portals of entry., Semin Neurol. 1995 Sep; 15(3): 296 303.

1.8 Appel, von G., Todesfalle bei Schweinen durch Blitzschlag im Stall, Dtsch tierartz Wschr., 98:187-90, 1991.

1.8 Barlow, A.M., 'Broken Backs' in koi carp following lightning strike, Vet. Rec., 133:503, 1993.

1.8 Bedenice D, Hoffman AM, Parrott B, McDonnel J. Vestibular signs associated with suspected lightning strike in two horses. Vet Rec. 2001 Oct 27;149(17):519 22.

1.8 Blackwell JG.Lightning incriminated in the sudden death of 18 steers.Vet Med Small Anim Clin. 1976 Oct;71(10):1375 7.

1.8 Howard, J.R., Effects of Lightning and Simulated Lightning on Tissues of Animals, PhD. Thesis, Iowa State University, 1966, quoted in Golde (1976).

1.8 Nagai,Y., Ishikawa,T., Ohashi,M., Kitagawa,N., Study of Lethal Effects of Multiple Stroke Flash Lethal Effects oh Rabbits subjected to 3 successive Voltage Impulses Simulating Multiple Stroke Flash (sic), Res. Lett. Atm. Phys., 2:87, 1982.

1.9 Special Circumstances

1.9.1 Telephone Related Injury

1.9.1 Andrews, C.J., and Darveniza, M., Determination of the Acoustic Insult in Telephone Mediated Lightning Strike, in Borisenkov, E., Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Atmosph. Elec., June 15-19, 1992, A.I. Voeikov Main Geoplys Observ., St. Petersburg, pIII-861.

1.9.1 Andrews, C.J., Darveniza,M., Further Identification and Treatment Modalities in Telephone Mediated Lightning Strike, Proc. 4th Int Conf Lightn Stat Elec., publ. NASA, Cocoa Beach Florida, 1991.

1.9.1 Andrews, C.J., Darveniza, M., Telephone Mediated Lightning Injury An Australian Survey, J.Trauma, 29(5):665 71, Will. Wilk, 1989.

1.9.1 Andrews, C.J., Telephone Related Lightning Injury, Med. J. Aust., 157(11/12):823-5, 1992.

1.9.1 Andrews,C.J., Darveniza,M., Mackerras,D.,A Retrospective Study of the Injuries Sustained in Telephone Mediated Lightning Strike., Proc Int. Conf. Lightn. Stat. Elec., Pub by NOAA Nat Sev Storms Lab, Oklahoma, April 1988.

1.9.1 Andrews, C.J., and Darveniza, M., Determination of the Acoustic Insult in Telephone Mediated Lightning Strike, Proc. APERI Conf. on Lightning and Mountains, Chamonix-Mont Blanc, APERI, Paris France, 1994.

1.9.1 Andrews,C.J., Darveniza, M., Categorisation of Telephone Mediated Lightning Injury Syndromes, Proc. 2nd Int Conf Emerg Med, SAEM, Brisbane Oct 1988.

1.9.1 Andrews, C.J., Studies in Aspects of Lightning Injuries, PhD thesis, Univ Qld, Australia, 1993.

1.9.1 Anon., Telephonists and Thunderstorms, Aust. Min. Std., p257, 28 Sept 1899, Univ Qld Microfiche 6473.

1.9.1 Matsumoto, Y., et al., Measurement of Lightning Surges on Test Transmission Line Equipped with Arrestors Struck by Natural and Triggered Lightning, IEEE/PES Summer Meeting, 1995.

1.9.1 Dinakaran, S.,et al., Telephone Mediated Ligytning Injury Causing Cataract, Injury, 29(8):645-6, 1998.

1.9.1 Johnstone, B.R., Harding, D.L., Hocking, B., Telephone Related Lightning Injury, Med. J. Aust., 144 706 709, 1986.

1.9.1 Qureshi NH, Indirect lightning strike via telephone wire., Injury. 1995 Nov; 26(9): 629 30

1.9.1 Schneider, R., Blitzschlag als Telefonunfall, Med. Klinik, 51:2208, 1956.

1.9.1 Singleton, G.T., Keim, R.J., Whitaker, D.L., and Kemker, F.J., Cordless Telephone : A Threat to Hearing, Ann. Otol. Rhino Laryngol, 93:565 568, 1984.

1.9.1 Shantha, T., Causalgia Caused by Telephone Mediated Lightning Electrical Injury and Treated by Intrapleural Block, Anesth Analg, 73:502-10, 1991.

1.9.1 Spencer, S., Telephone Related Lightning Injury -(Comment on Andrews, C.J., Med J. Aust, 157:823-6, 1992), Med J. Aust., 158:435, 1993, with author's reply.

1.9.2 Boating

1.9.2 Anon., Lightning and Boats, Mich Sea Grant College Prog., pamphlet 8pp, funded by NOAA, Dept Commerce State of Michigan.

1.9.2 Bernstein, T., Protecting the Royal Navy from Lightning - William Snow Harris and His Struggle with the British Admiralty for Fixed Lightning Conductors, IEEE Trans. Educ., E21(1):7-14, 1978

1.9.3 Bush Walking and Mountaineering

1.9.3 Baptiste, O., Girer, A., Foray, J., Marsigny, B., Les Accidents de Fulguration en Haute montagne, A propos de 29 cas, Chir., 116(1):60-4, 1990.

1.9.3 Cherington M, Kurtzman R, Krider EP, Yarnell PR. Mountain medical mystery. Unwitnessed death of a healthy young man, caused by lightning. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2001 Sep;22(3):296 8.

1.9.3 Junkins, E P Jr; Kunkel, N C; Kriskovich, M D, Lightning strike to the head of a helmeted motorcyclist., Am J Emerg Med. 1999 Mar; 17(2): 213-4

1.9.3 Marsigny, B., Lecoq-Jammes, F., Cauchy, E., Medical Rescue in the Mont Blanc Massive, Wild Env Med., 10(3):152-6, 1999.

1.9.4 Pregnancy

1.9.4 Chan, Y., and Sivasamboo, R., Lightning Accidents in Pregnancy, J.O.G. Br. Comm., 79:761 1, 1972.

1.9.4 Flannery, D.B., and Wiles, H., Followup of a Survivor of Intrauterine Lightning Exposure, Am. J. Obstet, Gynecol., 142(2):238, 1982.

1.9.4 Garcia Gutierrez JJ, Melendez J, Torrero JV, Obregon O, Uceda M, Gabilondo FJ. Lightning injuries in a pregnant woman: a case report and review of the literature. Burns. 2005 Dec;31(8):1045 9. Epub 2005 Apr 1.

1.9.4 Guha Ray, D.K., Fetal Death at Term due to Lightning, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 134 (1):103 5, 1979.

1.9.4 Pierce, M., Henderson, R., Mitchell, J., Cardiopulmonary Arrest Secondary to Lightning Injury in a Pregnant Woman, Ann. Emerg. Med., 15(5):597-9, 1986.

1.9.4 Rees, W.D., Pregnant Woman Struck by Lightning, Br. Med. J., 1:104 4, 1965.

1.9.4 Weinstein, L., Lightning : A Rare Cause of Intrauterine Death with Maternal Survival, S. Med. J., 72(5):632 3, 1979.

1.9.5 Sports Related

1.9.5 Cherington, M, Lightning Injuries in Sports, Sports Med, 31(4):301-8, 2001.

1.9.5 Cherington, M., Martorano, F., Siebuhr L., Stieg R., Yarnell, P., Childhood lightning injuries on the playing field. Journal of Emergency Medicine, 12(1):39-41, 1994.

1.9.5 Cherington, M., Breed, D., Tarnell, P., Smith, W., Lightning Injuries during snowy conditions, Br J Sports Med, 32(4):333-5, 1998.

1.9.5 Bennett, B., Lightning Saety, The First Aider, Cramer Sports Med Solns, www.cramersportsmed.com, Spring 2000.

1.9.5 Delaney JS, Drummond R. Mass casualties and triage at a sporting event. Br J Sports Med. 2002 Apr;36(2):85 -8; discussion 88.

1.9.5 Milzman, D., Moskowitz, L., Hardel, M., Lightning Strikes at a Mass Gathering, South Med J, 92(7):708-10, 1999.

1.9.5 Makdissi M, Brukner P. Recommendations for lightning protection in sport. Med J Aust. 2002 Jul 1;177(1):35 7.

1.9.5 Walsh, KM, Hanley, MS, et al., A Survey of Lightning Policy in Selected Division I Colleges, J Athl Trg, 32(3):206-253, 1997.

1.9.5 Vivian D. Recommendations for lightning protection in sport. Med J Aust. 2002 Oct 21;177(8):463 4. (Discussion on Makdissi et al., 1.9.5)

1.9.6 Emergency Management

1.9.6 [No authors listed] Staying safe in the great outdoors. Dimens Crit Care Nurs. 2000 Jul Aug;19(4):12.

1.9.6 Cooper MA, Emergent care of lightning and electrical injuries., Semin Neurol. 1995 Sep; 15(3): 268 78.

1.9.6 Cherington M, Lightning and transportation., Semin Neurol. 1995 Dec; 15(4): 362 6.

1.9.6 Day MW. Lightning strike. Nursing. 2003 Jun;33(6):104.

1.9.6 Holstege CP. Images in emergency medicine. Lightning strike. Ann Emerg Med. 2005 Apr;45(4):354, 362.

1.9.6 Lederer, W., Wiedermann, F.J., Cerchiari, E., Baubin, M.A., Electricity Associated Injuries II, Outdoor Management of Lightning-Induced Casualties, Resusc., 43(2):89-93, 2000.

1.9.6 Marcus MA, et al A prolonged but successful resuscitation of a patient struck by lightning. Eur J Emerg Med. 1994 Dec;1(4):199 202

1.9.7 Diagnosis of Death

1.9.7 Campbell Hewson G, et al. Diagnosing death. Death after electric shock and lightning strike is more clear cut than suggested. BMJ. 1997 Feb 8;314(7078):442 3.

1.9.7 Charlton, R., Diagnosing Death, BMJ, 313:956-7, 19 Oct 1996.

1.9.7 Charlton, R., Author=s Reply to Correspondence on Diagnosing Death, BMJ, 314:443, 1997.

1.9.7 English, T., Death of the Brain Stem Means Death of the Individual, BMJ, 314:443, 1997.

1.9.7 Mardel, S., Thomas, C., Diagnosing Death, BMJ, 314:442, 1997

1.9.7 Shannon D. Diagnosing death from lightning.Vet Rec. 1980 Jul 12;107(2):48.

1.9.8 Other

1.9.8 Spieth ME; Kimura RL; Schryer TD, Air traffic controller lightning strike., J Natl Med Assoc. 1994 Sep; 86(9): 713-5

1.9.8 Cherington M, Yarnell PR, Lane J, Anderson L, Lines G. Lightning induced injury on an airplane: coronal discharge and ball lightning. J Trauma. 2002 Mar;52(3):579 81.

1.9.8 Cherington M, Yarnell PR. Re: ball lightning injuries. Ann Plast Surg. 2003 Nov;51(5):525; author reply 525 6.

1.9.8 Cherington M. Hazards of bicycling: from handlebars to lightning. Semin Neurol. 2000;20(2):247 53.

1.9.8 Cherington M, Yarnell PR. Ball lightning encephalopathy. J Burn Care Rehabil. 2003 May Jun;24(3):175.

1.10 Medical Matters of Relevance

1.10 Hendler, N., Depression Caused by Chronic Pain, J Clin Psych, 45:30-36, 1984

1.10 Hendler, N., et al., Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy and Causalgia, Chapter 39 in Tollison, C.D., et al., Handbook of Pain Management, Will & Wilk, 1994.

1.10 Stratman, H.G., and Kennedy, H.L., Torsade de Pointes associated with drigs and toxins: Recognition and Treatment, Am Heart J., p 1481, June 1987.

1.10 [No authors listed] Recreation. Summertime and the living is risky. Harv Health Lett. 2001 Jun;26(8):7.

2.0 Lightning Injuries - Technical Aspects

2.1 Mechanisms of Injury

2.1.1 Direct "in the field" Strike

2.1.1 Alcock, R., and Fletcher Jones, H.C., Abdominal Injury from Lightning. Lancet, 1:823 5, 1949.

2.1.1 Anderson, R B, Does a fifth mechanism exist to explain lightning injuries?,IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag. 2001 Jan Feb; 20(1): 105 -13

2.1.1 Anderson, R B, Jandrell, I R, Nematswerani, H E, The upward streamer mechanism versus step potentials as a cause of injuries from close lightning discharges, Trans SA Inst Elec Eng, March 2002, pp33-43, 2002.

2.1.1 Andrews, C.J., and Darveniza, M., Further Study of the Functional and Structural Changes after Lightning Strike with Special Emphasis on Special Sense Orifices as Portals of Entry, in Borisenkov, E., Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Atmosph. Elec., June 15-19, 1992, A.I. Voeikov Main Geoplys Observ., St. Petersburg, pIII-860.

2.1.1 Andrews, C.J., and Darveniza, M., Updated Electrical Models of the Body Subject to Electrical Insult in Lightning Strike, Proc. APERI Conf. on Lightning and Mountains, Chamonix-Mont Blanc, APERI, Paris France, 1994.

2.1.1 Andrews, C.J., and Darveniza, M., Functional and Structural Changes after Lightning Strike with Emphasis on Possible Portals of Entry, Proc. APERI Conf. on Lightning and Mountains, Chamonix-Mont Blanc, APERI, Paris France, 1994.

2.1.1 Andrews, C.J., Studies in Aspects of Lightning Injuries, PhD thesis, Univ Qld, Australia, 1993.

2.1.1 Bernstein, T., Effects of Electricity and Lightning on Man and Animals, J.For.Sci., 18(1), 1973.

2.1.1 Blake Pritchard, E.A., Changes in the Central Nervous System Due to Electrocution, Lancet, 1:1163, 1934.

2.1.1 Cherington M, et al Could lightning injury be magnetically induced?Lancet. 1998 Jun 13;351(9118):1788.

2.1.1 Cooper MA. A fifth mechanism of lightning injury. Acad Emerg Med. 2002 Feb;9(2):172 4.

2.1.1 Cudennec, Y., de Rotalier, P., Aubert, C., et al., Fulguration D'Orielle, Ann. Oto-Laryng., 103:343-9, 1986.

2.1.1 Flisowski, Z., and Mazzetti, C., An Approximate Method of Assessment of the Electric Shock Hazard by Lightning Strike, 18th Int. conf. on Lightn. Protn. Munich, VDE Verlag GMbH, pp. 449 453, 1985. (paper 6.9)

2.1.1 Ishikawa, T., Ohashi, M., Kitagawa, N., Nagai, Y., Miyazawa, T., Experimental Study on the Lethal Threshold Value of Multiple Successive Voltage Impulses to Rabbits Simulating Multi strike Lightning Flash, Int, J. Biometeorol., 29(2):157 168, 1985.

2.1.1 Kett, R., Acoustic Shock Absorbers, Telecom Res. Labs. Rpt 4588, Clayton Vic, 1959.

2.1.1 Kitagawa, N., Turumi, S., Ishikawa, T., and Ohashi, M., The Nature of Lightning Discahrges on Human Bodies and the for Safety and Protection, Proc. 18th Int Conf Lightn. Prot., VDE Verlag GmBH, 1985.

2.1.1 Kitagawa, N., et al., Experimental Studies on Artificial Lightning Stroke with Dummies and Rabbits, Kagaku, 40:486-94, 1971.

2.1.1 Krider EP; Uman MA, Cloud to ground lightning: mechanisms of damage and methods of protection., Semin Neurol. 1995 Sep; 15(3): 227 32.

2.1.1 Mackerras, D., Observations of lightning caused surges in a telephone line for the period 1979-1983, Dept Res Rpt EE83/12, Univ. Qld., Dept. Elec. Eng., 1983.

2.1.1 Ohashi,M., Kitagawa,N., and Ishikawa,T., Lightning Injury Caused by Discharges Accompanying Flashovers a Clinical and Experimental Study of Death and Survival, Burns,12(7):496 501, 1986.

2.1.2 Telephone and Equipment Related Strike

2.1.2 Althaus CW. Injury from lightning strike while using mobile phone. Mobile phones are not lightning strike risk. BMJ. 2006 Jul 8;333(7558):96.

2.1.2 Andrews, C.J., Studies in Aspects of Lightning Injuries, PhD thesis, Univ Qld, Australia, 1993.

2.1.2 Andrews, C.J., and Darveniza, M., Determination of the Acoustic Insult in Telephone Mediated Lightning Strike, in Borisenkov, E., Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Atmosph. Elec., June 15-19, 1992, A.I. Voeikov Main Geoplys Observ., St. Petersburg, pIII-861.

2.1.2 Andrews, C.J., and Darveniza, M., Updated Electrical Models of the Body Subject to Electrical Insult in Lightning Strike, Proc. APERI Conf. on Lightning and Mountains, Chamonix-Mont Blanc, APERI, Paris France, 1994.

2.1.2 Bernstein, T., Lightning and Power Surge Damage to Appliances, IEEE Trans Ind. Appl., 1A20(6):1507-1512, 1984.

2.1.2 Bondarenko, E., and Clark, R., Electrical Stress on the Rural Cable Network, Telecom Aust. Res. Lab Rpt 7846, Clayton Vic, 1987.

2.1.2 Cudennec, Y., de Rotalier, P., Aubert, C., et al., Fulguration D'Orielle, Ann. Oto-Laryng., 103:343-9, 1986.

2.1.2 Esprit S, Kothari P, Dhillon R. Injury from lightning strike while using mobile phone. BMJ. 2006 Jun 24;332(7556):1513. (Multiple Responses also held)

2.1.2 Everett, B., Acoustic Shocks from Telephones., Proc. All States Conf. Telecom Australia, Melbourne Vic., 1981.

2.1.2 Faragher RM. Injury from lightning strike while using mobile phone. Statistics and physics do not suggest a link. BMJ. 2006 Jul 8;333(7558):96.

2.1.2 Martin Mardomingo MA, Perez Fernandez JL, Gonzalez Gonzalez F, Garcia Norniella B. [Lightning strike through the telephone wire] An Pediatr (Barc). 2004 Jul;61(1):85 6.

2.1.2 Telecom Aust., Customer Protection Against Lightning Injury, Report on All States Conference, Melbourne, Sept. 1985.
Containing, inter alia:
Customer Lightning Incidents Legal Aspects.
Bassett, P., Analysis of Lightning Incidents.
Schmidtchen, P.J., Analysis of Customer Lightning Incidents.

2.2 Electrical Aspects of the Strike

2.2 Anderson, R B, Does a Fifth Mechanism Exist to Explain Lightning Injuries, IEEE Eng Med Biol, Jan Feb, p105 et seq, 2001.

2.2 Andrews, C.J., and Darveniza, M., New Models of the Electrical Insult in Lightning Strike, in Borisenkov, E., Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Atmosph. Elec., June 15-19, 1992, A.I. Voeikov Main Geoplys Observ., St. Petersburg, pIII-859.

2.2 Bailey DM, Bartsch P, Cooper MA. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic evidence of increased free radical generation and selective damage to skeletal muscle following lightning injury. High Alt Med Biol. 2003 Fall;4(3):281 9.

2.2 Bier M, Chen W, Bodnar E, Lee RC. Biophysical injury mechanisms associated with lightning injury. NeuroRehabilitation. 2005;20(1):53 62.

2.2 Bourke, D., Harrison, C., Sprung, J., Direction of a lightning strike [letter; comment], Comment on: Zehender, N Engl J Med 1994 May 26;330(21):1492, New England Journal of Medicine. 331(14):953-4, 1994.

2.2 Cooper, M A, A Fifth Mechanism of Lightning Injury, Proc ICLD, Tucson Az, 2001.

2.2 Dalziel, C.F., and Lee, W.R., Reevaluation of Lethal Electric Currents,, IEEE Trans. Indust. Gen. Applic, IGA4:467-476, 1968.

2.2 Dalziel, C.F., A Study of the Hazards of Impulse Currents, AIEE Trans Pwr App. Systs. Part III, Oct:1032-1043, 1953.

2.2 Dmitriev, M., Bakhtin, B., Martynov, V., Thermal Effects of Ball Lightning, Zh Tekh Fiz., 51:2567-2572, 1981.

2.2 Durand Manterola HJ, Mendoza B, Diaz Sandoval R. Electric currents induced inside biological cells by geomagnetic and atmospheric phenomena. Adv Space Res. 2001;28(4):679 84.

2.2 Flisowski, Z., and Mazzetti, C., An Approximate Method of Assessment of the Electric Shock Hazard by Lightning Strike, 18th Int. conf. on Lightn. Protn. Munich, VDE Verlag GMbH, pp. 449 453, 1985. (paper 6.9)

2.2 Goodson, M., A Discussion of 'Deaths Caused by Lightning', J. For Sc., 38(6):1260-1, 1993. [see Lifschutz, et al.]

2.2 Hocking, B. and Andrews, C.J., Fractals and Lightning Injury, (letter), Med J. Aust, 150(7):409 10, 1989.

2.2 Ishikawa, T., Ohashi, M., Kitagawa, N., Nagai, Y., Miyazawa, T., Experimental Study on the Lethal Threshold Value of Multiple Successive Voltage Impulses to Rabbits Simulating Multi strike Lightning Flash, Int, J. Biometeorol., 29(2):157 168, 1985.

2.2 Kitagawa, N., Turumi, S., Ishikawa, T., and Ohashi, M., The Nature of Lightning Discahrges on Human Bodies and the Basis for Safety and Protection, Proc. 18th Int Conf Lightn. Prot., VDE Verlag GmBH, 1985.

2.2 Kitagawa, N., Ohashi, M., and Ishikawa, T., The Substantial Mechanisms of Step Voltage Effects, J Atm Elec., 21(2):87-94, 2001.

2.2 Kitagawa, N., et al., Experimental Studies on Artificial Lightning Stroke with Dummies and Rabbits, Kagaku, 40:486-94, 1971.

2.2 Rakov, V., Lightning Electric and Magnetic Fields, Proc EMC Zurich 1999, Paper 105P1.

2.2 Rakov, V., Lightning ElectroMagnetic Fields: Modeling and Measurements, Proc EMC Zurich 1997, Paper 11C1.

2.2 Schoenback, K., Nuccitelli, R., and Beebe, S.J., Zap, IEEE Spectrum, accessed at www.spectrum.ieee.org/print/4257 Aug 2006.

2.3 Protection of Persons and Property

2.3 Andrews, C J, Ishikawa, T, et al, International Safety and Rescue Guide Against Lightning, Proc LM97, Chamonix, 1997.

2.3 Bennett, B., Lightning Safety, The First Aider, Cramer Sports Med Solns, www.cramersportsmed.com, Spring 2000.

2.3 Bennett,B., Lightning Safety Group Recommendations, Am Meteorol Soc, Proc Conf Phoenix AZ, 1998

2.3 Bouqueneau, C, Normalisation Internationale, Proc LM97, Chamonix, 1997.

2.3 Cooper MA, Holle R, Lopez R. Recommendations for lightning safety. JAMA. 1999 Sep 22 29;282(12):1132 3.

2.3 Cooper MA, Marshburn S. Lightning Strike and Electric Shock Survivors, International. NeuroRehabilitation. 2005;20(1):43 7.

2.3 Cherington, M., Lightning Injuries, Ann Emerg Med, 25:516-9, 1995.

2.3 Clore, E.R., and House, M.A., Prevention and Treatment of Lightning Injuries, Nurs. Pract., 12(12):37 45, 1987.

2.3 Cohen, R, United States Practices to protect People and Equipment Against Lightning, Proc In Conf At Elec, Osaka, Japan, 1996.

2.3 Dias, G., da Silva, L., Blauth, H. et al., Lightning Protection of Outdoor Events, VII Int Symp Lightn Prot, Curitaba Brazil, Proc: 177-8, 2003.

2.3 FAA Standard: Lightning Protection Grounding Bonding and Shielding Requirements for Facilities, FAA-STD-019b 1990.
2.3 Fortin, M, Compte Rendu de la Table Ronde du 03/06/97, Proc LM97, Chamonix, 1997.

2.3 Gary, C, Protection Contre la Foudre, Proc LM97, Chamonix, 1997

2.3 Gookin, J, NOLS Backcountry Lightning Safety Guidelines, Nat Outd Lead. School, WY, USA, 2000.

2.3 Gratz, J., Church, R., Noble, E., Lightning Safety and Outdoor Stadiums, Conference Paper in Possession, no reference available.

2.3 Holle, R, Bibliography on Safety and Demographics of Lightning Victims, Global Atmosph, Tucson, Az, 2001, personal communication.

2.3 Holle RL; Lopez RE; Howard KW; Vavrek J; Allsopp J, Safety in the presence of lightning., Semin Neurol. 1995 Dec; 15(4): 375 80.

2.3 Holle, R L, Lopez R E, Zimmerman, C, Updated recommendations for lightning safety - 1998, Bull Am Met Assoc, 80(10):2035-41, 1999. translated as Misa a jour 1998 recommendations pour la securitie des personnes en presence de la foudre, Energies Sante, 11(3):351-2, 2000.

2.3 Ishikawa, T., Prevention Against Lighting Accidents in Japan, Nihon Univ. J. Med., 24:1 14, 1982.

2.3 Kitagawa, N., Turumi, S., Ishikawa, T., and Ohashi, M., The Nature of Lightning Discahrges on Human Bodies and the Basis for Safety and Protection, Proc. 18th Int Conf Lightn. Prot., VDE Verlag GmBH, 1985.

2.3 Kitagawa, N., et al., Experimental Studies on Artificial Lightning Stroke with Dummies and Rabbits, Kagaku, 40:486-94, 1971.

Makdissi M, Brukner P. Recommendations for lightning protection in sport. Med J Aust. 2002 Jul 1;177(1):35 7.

2.3 Merlin, A, Control of the Risk of Lightning: A challenge for tomorrow, Proc LM97, Chamonix, 1997.

2.3 Mousa, A., Srivastava, K., Safety against lightning for linemen working on de-energized power lines, IEEE Trans Pwr Del, PWRD-1(1):245-50, 1986.

2.3 Rakov, V, Lightning Protection of Structures and Personal Safety, Proc ICLD, Tucson, Az, 2000.

2.3 Roeder, W P, et al, Lightning Safety for Schools, 10th Symp Educn, Am Met Soc, Albuquerque, New Mex, Jan, 2001.

2.3 Ross, N., Danger to Telecommunication Personnel and Equipment from Power Lines, Proc. Conf. Coo-ord of Power and Telecomm. Systems, Bris Aust July 1976, Coll. Elec Eng, IEAust.

2.3 Standards Assoc Australia, Telecommunications Overvoltage Protection, Part I Protection of Persons, Draft Standard for Comment DR94004, SAA Australia, 1994.

2.3 Telecom Australia, Customer Protection From Lightning, Technical Standard TPQ0068, 1983 and progressively updated.

2.3 Telecom Australia, Lightning Protection at Customer's Premises, Technical Standard TPH0265, 1982, and progressively updated.

2.3 Telecom Aust., Customer Protection Against Lightning Injury, Report on All States Conference, Melbourne, Sept. 1985.
Containing, inter alia:
Customer Lightning Incidents Legal Aspects.
Bassett, P., Analysis of Lightning Incidents.
Schmidtchen, P.J., Analysis of Customer Lightning Incidents.

2.3 Vavrek, R., Holle, R., and Allsop, J., Flash to Bang, personal communication.

2.3 Vavrek, R., Holle, R., and Lopez, R., Updated Lightning Safety Recommendations, 8th Symp Educ., Am. Meteor. Soc., Dallas Texas, 10-15 Jan 1999, Paper P1.28.

2.3 Verd, S., Henshaw, D., Sharma, A., Childhood Cancer in schools with a radioactive lightning rod, Letter in Possession, no formal reference available.

2.3 Vivian D. Recommendations for lightning protection in sport. Med J Aust. 2002 Oct 21;177(8):463 4. (Discussion on Makdissi, et al, 2.3)

2.3 Zafren K, Durrer B, Herry JP, Brugger H; ICAR and UIAA MEDCOM. Lightning injuries: prevention and on site treatment in mountains and remote areas. Official guidelines of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine and the Medical Commission of the International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation (ICAR and UIAA MEDCOM). Resuscitation. 2005 Jun;65(3):369 72.

2.3 Zimmermann C, Cooper MA, Holle RL. Lightning safety guidelines. Ann Emerg Med. 2002 Jun;39(6):660 4.

2.3 C, Lightning Safety, NCAA Guideline 1D, NCAA Sp Med Handbook, 1997-8.

2.3 --- Patient information. How to stay safe in a lightning storm. RN. 2005 May;68(5):47.

2.4 Experimental Studies

2.4 Andrews, C.J., and Darveniza, M., Further Study of the Functional and Structural Changes after Lightning Strike with Special Emphasis on Special Sense Orifices as Portals of Entry, in Borisenkov, E., Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Atmosph. Elec., June 15-19, 1992, A.I. Voeikov Main Geoplys Observ., St. Petersburg, pIII-860.

2.4 Andrews,C.J., and Darveniza,M., Effects of Lightning on Mammalian Tissue, Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Lightn. Stat. Elec., Bath Sept 89, Publ ERA Technol., Leatherhead, Surrey, UK.

2.4 Ishikawa, T., Miyazawa, T., Ohashi, M., Et al., Experimental studies on the Effect of Artificial Respiration After Lightning Accidents, Res. Exp. Med. (Berl), 179:59 68, 1981.

2.4 Muto, T., Ohashi, M., Fujishiro, Y., et al., Mark of lightning on the skin - clinical observations and its experimental simulation, Keio Igaku, 49:51-9, 1972.

2.4 Nagai,Y., Ishikawa,T., Ohashi,M., Kitagawa,N., Study of Lethal Effects of Multiple Stroke Flash Lethal Effects oh Rabbits subjected to 3 successive Voltage Impulses Simulating Multiple Stroke Flash (sic), Res. Lett. Atm. Phys., 2:87, 1982.

2.4 Orville, R and Huffines, G., Lightning Ground Flash Measurements over the Contiguous United States: 1995-7, Monthly Weath Rev, Am Met Soc, p2693, Nov 1999.

2.4 Ohashi,M., Kitagawa,N., and Ishikawa,T., Lightning Injury Caused by Discharges Accompanying Flashovers a Clinical and Experimental Study of Death and Survival, Burns,12(7):496 501, 1986.

2.4 Sances, A., Myklebust, J., Szablya, J., et al., Current Pathways in High Voltages Injuries, IEEE Trans BME, 30(2):118 123, 1983.

2.5 Technical Aspects of Atmospheric Electricity of use to Keraunomedicine

2.5 Brunner D, Staehelin J, Jeker D. Large scale nitrogen oxide plumes in the tropopause region and implications for ozone Science. 1998 Nov 13;282(5392):1305 9.

2.5 Dwyer JR. A bolt out of the blue. Sci Am. 2005 May;292(5):64 71.

2.5 Gillespie, P. J., Ionizing Radiation and Lightning Hazards, Man Med Review, 47(4):192-3, 1967.

2.5 Holle, R., and Lopez, R., Overview of Real Time Lightning Detectio Systems and their Meteorological Uses, NOAA Rpt ERRL NSSL-102, Oct 93.

2.5 Levine JS, Augustsson TR, Anderson IC, Hoell JM Jr. Tropospheric sources of NOx: lightning and biology. Atmos Environ. 1984;18(9):1797 804.

2.5 Lopez, R., and Holle, R.L., The Distance Between Subsequent Lightning Flashes, NOAA NSSL Tech Memor. ERL NSSL-105, Norman Oklahoma, 1999.

2.5 Nesbitt, S W, Zhang, R R, Seasonal and Global NOx Production by Lightning estimated from the Optical Transient Detector, Tellus 52B (5):1216-15,2000.

2.5 Orville, R.E., et al., The North American Lightning Detection Network (NALDN) - first results 1998-2000, Mon Weath Review, 130(8),2002.

2.5 Schonland, B., The Flight of Thunderbolts, Oxf Clarendon Pr., 1950.

2.5 Steiger, S.M., Orville, R., Huffines, G., Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Characteristics over Houston, Texas: 1989-2000, J G R, 107(D11), 2002.

2.5 Uman, M., and Krider, P., Natural and Artificially Initiated Lightning, Science, 246, Oct 89, pp457-464.

2.5 Uman, M.A., Understanding Lightning, Bek, Carnegie, Pa, 1971, updated and republished as All about Lightning, Dover, 1985.

2.5 Veimeister, P.E., The Lightning Book, MIT Press, Cambridge, Ma., 1972.

2.5 Williams, E.R., The Electrification of Thunderstorms, Sc Am., Nov, 1988, pp48-65.

3.0 Tools for Lightning Research

3.0 Darveniza,M., Andrews,C.J., Mercer,D., and Parnell,T.M., A Multipulse Impulse Generator,Proc IEEE Conf. PAS, New Orleans, publ IEEE New York, 1991.

3.0 Gourbiere, E., Electropathologie et Keraunopathologie, Biblioscopie, EDF GDF, 1997.

3.0 Salisbury, K., Lloyd, S., Chen, Y., A transportable 50kA dual mode lightning simulator, Maxwell Labs for Boeing Adv Systems, 1990.

3.0 Wahab, A., And Matsubara, I., Scale Model Experimental Study on the Effect of Lightning Stroke Inclination on the Overvoltages across Insulator Strings, Elec Pwr Syst Res., 32(1):55-61, 1995.

3.0 Yamane, H., Sato, M., Ideguchi, T., Tokuda, M., New lightning-surge test method for subscriber telecommunication equipment considering nearby lightning return strokes, IEICE Trans. Commun., E78B(2):193-8, 1995.

4.0 Popular Press Articles.

Dwyer JR. A bolt out of the blue. Sci Am. 2005 May;292(5):64 71.

Oram, T., and Silverman, K., LIGHTNING - it can strike YOU in a flash, Safety Total Health, JSC, 5(7):1,2000.

I have multiple other press reports, too lengthy to list here.

5.0 Articles for which I have references, but are not in my possession

5.1 Articles not able to be obtained - journals not available perhaps - possibly too obscure for Australia! Any offers of help greatly appreciated in providing access to these.

5.1 Alonso Treceno JL, et al. [Ear lesions caused by lightning. Report of a case].Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 1990 Nov Dec;41(6):423 5. Spanish.

5.1 Arweiler DJ; Schrader M, [Lightening strike injuries of the ear], HNO. 1995 Aug; 43(8): 502-5

5.1 Bagger JP [Lightning (and electric) injuries].Ugeskr Laeger. 1997 May 19;159(21):3192. Danish.

5.1 Baranova Mia., Mnozhestvennye povrezhdeniia pri porazhenii molniei, Sudebno Meditsinskaia Ekspertiza. 18(1):45 6, 1975 Jan Mar.

5.1 Begoian AG, Redkii sluchai smerti ot porazheniia molniei. , Sudebno Meditsinskaia Ekspertiza. 26(3):54 5, 1983 Jul Sep.

5.1 Bereznyi VI., Povrezhdeniia organa zreniia vozdeistvii razriada molini., Vestnik Oftalmologii. 1:88 9, 1973.

5.1 Brunner FX., Beidseitige Trommelfellperforation durch Blitzschlagunfall., HNO. 32(10):429 30, 1984 Oct.

5.1 Contreras Martinez D., Despolarizocion miocardica producida por el rayo. Presentacion de un caso clinico., Archivos del Instituto de Cardiologia de Mexico. 41(2):220 6, 1971 Mar Apr.

5.1 Drechsler B., Akustisk trommehinderuptur ved lynnedslag., Ugeskrift for Laeger. 143(24):1535, 1981 Jun 8.

5.1 Gajowa T. Misztal S., Pozne nastepstwa razenia piorunem., Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska. 17(1):97 9, 1967 Jan Feb.

5.1 Grand A. Delarbre A. Jaques F., Coeur et electrocution. A propos d'un cas d'infarctus du myocarde apres electrocution par la foudre., Archives des Maladies du Coeur et des Vaisseaux. 64(10):1516 31, 1971 Oct.

5.1 Grigor'eva TIa. Rogatnykh AA., Sluchai uspeshnoi reanimatsii pri porazhenii molniei., Feldsher i Akusherka. 32(5):43 4, 1968 May.

5.1 Heully F. De Ren G. Taillandier M. Picard L. Meyer D. Simon G., Syndrome clinique et radiologique de "poumon de fermier" consecutif a une fulguration sur une charrette de foin., Annales de Medecine Legale, Criminologie, Police Scientifique et Toxicologie. 45(3):287 95, 1965 May Jun.

5.1 Janisch R., Poskozeni ucha bleskem., Ceskoslovenska Otolaryngologie. 29(6):368 70, 1980 Dec.

5.1 Karnaukhov IuN. Dmitriev OP., Povrezhdenie miokarda pri porazhenii molniei., Voenno Meditsinskii Zhurnal. (6):65 6, 1980 Jun.

5.1 Karobath H. Balogh A. Heindl H. Hofschneider H. Undt W., Untersuchungen uber Eigenschaften des Blitzschlages und seine Wirkungen, auf die Herztatigkeit der Ratte., Archiv fur Kreislaufforschung. 65(1):1 13, 1971 May Jun.

5.1 Karobath H. Undt W. Hofschneider H., Zur Wirkung des Blitzschlages auf den Organismus mit besonderer Berucksichtigung der Auswirungen auf das herz., Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Innere Medizin. 77:455 7, 1971.

5.1 Koslowski L. Hettich R., Blitzschlagverletzungen., Lebensversicherungs Medizin. 26(1):1 3, 1974 Jan.

5.1 Leibovici D; Henig A; Shemer J; Shapira SC, [Electrocution and lightning strikes pathophysiology and treatment], Harefuah. 1995 Jul; 129(1 2): 62 8

5.1 Marleschki V., Blitzschlag wahrend der Schwangerschaft., Zentralblatt fur Gynakologie. 87(44):1512 4, 1965 Oct 30.

5.1 Muller E. Endler S. Wedekind UG., Neuropsychiatrische und hirnelektrische Verlaufsuntersuchungen nach Unfallen durch Blitzschlag., Psychiatrie, Neurologie und Medizinische Psychologie. 30(9):567 76, 1978 Sep.

5.1 Namyslowski G; Czecior E; Steszewska U; Anczykowska M, [A case of lightning resulting in ear burn], Otolaryngol Pol. 1995; 49(4): 356 8

5.1 Pruszynska I., Przypadek uszkodzenia narzadu sluchu wskutek razenia piorunem., Otolaryngologia Polska. 21(2):209 12, 1967.

5.1 Ritland S., Hjerneskade etter lynnedslag., Tidsskrift for Den Norske Laegeforening. 91(7):492 4, 1971 Mar 10.

5.1 Royer J. Gainet F., Consequences oculaires de la fulguration. A propos d'un cas., Bulletin des Societes d Ophtalmologie de France. 12(4):491 7, 1972 Apr.

5.1 Santonja, J.M., [Electrotrauma by lightning through the telephone [letter]], Revista Neurologia, 27(160):1073, 1998.

5.1 Schaidt G., Spuren an Kleidungsstucken beim Blitzunfall, Archiv fur Kriminologie. 159(3 4):93 6, 1977 Mar Apr.

5.1 Schallock, G., Zol.Allg.Path.Anat., 88:245, 1952, quoted in Arden (1956).

5.1 Schienle, A., Stark, R., Vaitl, D., [EEG Canges Caused by Spherics], Fort. der Med., 117(1-2):41-2, 1999.

5.1 Stolle R., Infarktahnliche Ekg Veranderungen nach Blitzschlag., Zeitschrift fur die Gesamte Innere Medizin und Ihre Grenzgebiete. 23(19):603 6, 1968 Oct 1.

5.1 Suchan J., Preziti zasahu bleskem., Casopis Lekaru Ceskych. 118(17):533, 1979 Apr 27.

5.1 Szewczyk Bochenska N., Przypadek zacmy piorunowej., Klinika Oczna. 36(3):421 5, 1966.

5.1 Tesinsky P. Valova M., Uveitida a odchlipeni sitnice po zasahu bleskem., Ceskoslovenska Oftalmologie. 29(5):375 8, 1973 Sep.

5.1 Wanner Olsen H; Nielsen PF; Petersen CT; Christensen JH, [Lightning accidents in rhus 1991 1993], Ugeskr Laeger. 1996 Dec 9; 158(50): 7246 7

5.1 Wiesinger J., Blitzgefahren und Blitzschutz im Gebirge, Zfa Zeitschrift Fur Allgemeinmedizin. 52(5):265 8, 1976 Feb 20.

5.1 Zubarev SF., Sluchai dvustoronnei katarakty ot molnii., Sovetskoe Zdravookhranenie Kirgizii. 3:62 3, 1971 May Jun.

5.1 [No Authors listed] When Ligtning Strikes, Harv Mens Health Watch, 3(11):6-7, 1999.

5.2 Articles in my possession but for which I have no translation facilities

5.2 Afanas'ev AS., Uspeshnoe lechenie detei pri gruppovom porazhenii molniei., Vestnik Khirurgii Imeni i i Grekova. 123(11):132 3, 1979 Nov.

5.2 Andreitsev AN, et al. [A case of group atmospheric electric injuries].Klin Med (Mosk). 1990 May;68(5):131 2. Russian.

5.2 Bereznyi VI., Dva nabliudeniia porazheniia zvukovogo analizatora razriadom grozovogo elektrichestva., Zhurnal Ushnykh, Nosovykh i Gorlovykh Boleznei. 31(6):98, 1971 Nov Dec.

5.2 Betkowski A. Cyran Rymarz A. Kuzniar W., Przypadek oparzenia ucha piorunem., Wiadomosci Lekarskie. 34(16):1401 4, 1981 Aug 15.

5.2 Bunnige M. [2 rare cases of resuscitation] Zentralbl Chir. 2001 Mar;126(3):249. German.

5.2 Carrera Izquierdo E, Moran Sanchez JC, Carrera Izquierdo M, Jimenez Corral C, Rodriguez Recio FJ, Ocastegui Candial JL. [Intracranial haemorrhage secondary to a lightning strike: a case report] Revista de Neurol. 2004 Sep 16 30;39(6):530 2.

5.2 Denisova VI., Sluchai dvustoronnei katarakty v rezul'tate porazheniia molniei., Oftalmologicheskii Zhurnal. 33(7):555 6, 1978.

5.2 Dzhuraev KhA., Tiazheloe porazhenie molniei., Klinicheskaia Khirurgiia. (3):50 1, 1984 Mar.

5.2 Kobayashi T., [Aural trauma caused by electric shock by lightning] [Japanese] , Jibiinkoka. 40(7):525 9, 1968 Jul.

5.2 Manak NA. Makovskaia LE. Laziuk DG., Ostryi nekroz miokarda pri porazhenii molniei. , Kardiologiia. 23(1):102 3, 1983 Jan.

5.2 Miszke, A., Otolaryngol Polska, 16:527-34, 1962

5.2 Nedlina EM., Elektrokardiograficheskoe nabliudenie pri porazhenii molniei., Kardiologiia. 8(7):139 41, 1968 Jul.

5.2 Novitskaia VV. Novitskii Iia., Dva sluchaia porazheniia glaz molniei., Vestnik Oftalmologii. (6):71 2, 1983 Nov Dec.

5.2 Tolnay S., A halloszerv villamserulese., Orvosi Hetilap. 108(15):696 8, 1967 Apr 9.

5.3 Articles found in references, awaiting retrieval from library request, and not yet arrived in my presence

PRIOR AUG 2006

5.3 Clark RO, Brigham JK. Death from lightning. 1872 [classical article Wilderness Environ Med. 2002 Summer;13(2):161 2; discussion 158 60. No abstract available.

5.3 Coubrough V, Warnell P. The neurological complications of electrical injury: a nursing case management perspective. Axone. 2002 Jun;23(4):14 22.

5.3 Datta H, Sarkar K, Chatterjee PR, Datta S, Mukherjee U. An unusual case of late ocular changes after lightning injury. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2002 Sep;50(3):224 5.

5.3 Duff K, McCaffrey RJ. Electrical injury and lightning injury: a review of their mechanisms and neuropsychological, psychiatric, and neurological sequelae. Neuropsychol Rev. 2001 Jun;11(2):101 16.

5.3 Gupta A. Lichtenberg figures. J Assoc Physicians India. 2001 Nov;49:1131.

5.3 Marcus MB. Lightning lore to live by safely. US News World Rep. 2002 Jun 17;132(21):57.

5.3 Ohashi M, Hosoda Y, Fujishiro Y, Tuyuki A, Kikuchi K, Obara H, Kitagawa N, Ishikawa T. Lightning injury as a blast injury of skull, brain, and visceral lesions: clinical and experimental evidences. Keio J Med. 2001 Dec;50(4):257 62.

5.3 Pollak S. [Misinterpretation of fetal high voltage and lightning accidents] Arch Kriminol. 2000 Nov Dec;206(5 6):168 79. German.

5.3 Rajan SK. Lightning injury with survival. J Assoc Physicians India. 2001 Jul;49:770.

5.3 Ruiz Ruiz FJ, Ruiz Laiglesia FJ, Lobo Escolar A, Hualde Enguita AM, Torrubia Perez CB, Calvo Begueria E. [Cardiac injury after indirect lightning strike] Rev Esp Cardiol. 2002 Jul;55(7):768 70. Spanish.

5.3 Sadiwnyk M. Voltage transients, their effects, and the solution. Health Estate J. 1995 Feb;49(1):3 4.

5.3 Serrano ML; Gari M; Castro P; Garzo C; Maroto C; Maroto E, [Wallenberg syndrome in childhood secondary to the striking by lightening], Rev Neurol. 1995 Mar Apr 23(120), 414-6

5.3 Sheela SR, Kattakkayam MM, Borappa K. An unusual case of lightning injury. Indian Pediatr. 2000 Jul;37(7):802 3.

5.3 Simonet P. Laboratory scale evidence for lightning mediated gene transfer in soil. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001 Aug;67(8):3440 4.

5.3 Singh NK, Kumar R. Lightning injury with survival. J Assoc Physicians India. 2000 Aug;48(8):849.

5.3 Stewart CE. When lightning strikes. Emerg Med Serv. 2000 Mar;29(3):57 67; quiz 103.

5.3 Tassev T., Alteration de l'ouie sous l'action de la foudre, JFORL. Journal Francais d Oto Rhino Laryngologie, Audiophonologie et Chirurgie Maxillo Faciale. 23(9):815 20, 1974 Nov.
5.3 Vianello F. A man in the thunderstorm: coronary injuries and electric shock. Cardiology. 1997 Sep Oct;88(5):486.

5.3 Woods P. Lightning and the threat it poses. Health Estate J. 1995 Sep;49(7):12 3.

5.3 [No authors listed] Leapfrog Group patient safety initiatives draw kudos, criticism. Qual Lett Healthc Lead. 2002 Feb;14(2):11 2, 1.

5.3 [No authors listed] Lightning safety tips. Health News. 2002 Aug;8(8):8 9.

5.3 [No authors listed] Verhutung von Blitzunfallen., Munchener Medizinische Wochenschrift. 112(39):1 2, 1970 Sep 25.

AFTER Aug 2006

5.3 Stutz N, Weiss D, Reichert B. [Lightning injuries : Case report of a 17 year old man and a brief review of the literature.] Unfallchirurg. 2006 May 25;

5.3 Wick R, Gilbert JD, Simpson E, Byard RW. Fatal electrocution in adults a 30 year study. Med Sci Law. 2006 Apr;46(2):166 72.

5.3 Friese G, Wojciehoski RF. Unusual resuscitation situations: environmental emergencies. Emerg Med Serv. 2005 Sep;34(9):57 63.

5.3 Lederer W, Kroesen G. [Emergency treatment of injuries following lightning and electrical accidents] Anaesthesist. 2005 Nov;54(11):1120 9.

5.3 Edlich RF, Farinholt HM, Winters KL, Britt LD, Long WB 3rd. Modern concepts of treatment and prevention of lightning injuries. J Long Term Eff Med Implants. 2005;15(2):185 96.

5.3 Guiraud V, Touze E, Cabane JP, Zuber M. [Bilateral plexopathy following lightning injury] Rev Neurol (Paris). 2004 Nov;160(11):1078 80.

5.3 Torres B. MCI in the clouds: the beauty of the clouds & terrain of the Grand Teton masks the obstacles rescuers faced in the response, care & transport of multiple victims of a lightning strike. JEMS. 2004 Dec;29(12):34 6, 38, 40 passim.

5.3 Huss F, Erlandsson U, Cooray V, Kratz G, Sjoberg F. [Lightning injuries a mixture of electrical, thermal and multiple trauma] Lakartidningen. 2004 Jul 8;101(28 29):2328 31.

5.3 McCoy R. Learning a golden rule ... the hard way. Aust Fam Physician. 2004 May;33(5):368.

5.3 [No authors listed] Health tips. Lightening safety. Mayo Clin Health Lett. 2004 Apr;22(4):3.

5.3 Boeve MH, Huijben R, Grinwis G, Djajadiningrat Laanen SC. Visual impairment after suspected lightning strike in a herd of Holstein Friesian cattle. Vet Rec. 2004 Mar 27;154(13):402 4. No abstract available.

5.3 Van Alstine WG, Widmer WR. Lightning injury in an outdoor swine herd. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2003 May;15(3):289 91.

5.3 Silver BV, Collins L, Zidek KA. Risperidone treatment of motor restlessness following anoxic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2003 Mar;17(3):237 44.