Bridgeport: Notes

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    Notes to the early history chapter

    Sources cited below that are also listed in the bibliograpy are rendered here in short form; see the bibliography for detailed publication information.
    1. {ret} Mrs. John J. [Juliette] Kinzie, Wau-Bun: The early day in the Northwest, (1901 ed.), pp. 162-3. The "Narrative of the Massacre" was originally published in pamphlet form in 1836.

    2. {ret} Source notes for separate sections, such as maps, are contained in those sections. See also the bibliography.

    3. {ret} Letter, dated 13 October 1880, originally published in Rufus Blanchard, History of the Northwest, pp. 757-9: in Andreas, History of Chicago, vol. I (1884), pp. 630-1.

    4. {ret} Bridgeport was never incorporated as a municipality; "town" here refers to a legally platted subdivision. We have also tended to use "town" as a synonym for "community."

    5. {ret} Michael P. Conzen, "The Historical Development of the Illinois and Michigan Canal National Heritage Corridor," The Illinois and Michigan Canal National Heritage Corridor (1988), pp. 8-10.

    Notes to the transportation chapter

    Sources cited below that are also listed in the bibliograpy are rendered here in short form; see the bibliography for detailed publication information.
    1. {ret} The full title of the Northwest Ordinance is as follows: An ORDINANCE for the GOVERNMENT of the TERRITORY of the UNITED STATES, North-West of the RIVER OHIO (passed 13 July 1787).

    2. {ret} The federal Act of 1822 required that a map be returned to the Treasury Department within 3 years, and that the canal be completed in 12 years. The map had been sent but was lost, and the conditions of the 1822 Act were never met.

    3. {ret} A joke of the day said that the phrase 'Internal Improvements' in the title of the act (An Act to Establish and Maintain a General System of Internal Improvements) was merely misspelled and that no one would have fallen into trouble if they had realized the key words were properly spelled "Infernal Improvements."

    4. {ret} Source notes for separate sections, such as maps, are contained in those sections. See also the bibliography.

    5. {ret}Canal Commissioner's Plat of 1836 (see the bibliograpy for detailed information).

    6. {ret} Archer Road was sometimes also known as 'State Road.'

    7. {ret} Unfortunately neither of the depots of northwest Bridgeport remain. Limestone depots similar to what the the Bridgeport depot of the Joliet and Chicago railroad must have been like can, however, be found in Lemont and Lockport.

    8. {ret} Two years earlier, the Dan Ryan expressway opened, which had plowed through Armour Square.

    9. {ret} U.S. Bureau of Census, Census of Population and Housing: Block statistics [for 1960 and for 1970]. The expressways were not without their benefits. They remain a factor in keeping the area well located. Excellent expressway access to the southwest side, where most of Chicago's intermodal facilities are located, has probably been a major reason for industry to stay near Bridgeport.

    10. {ret} The Midway line was built between the rights-of-way of the railroads and the expressway, so construction of the route disturbed little. Figures on ridership from the CTA annual ridership surveys conducted each November.

    Notes to the economic chapter

    Sources cited below that are also listed in the bibliograpy are rendered here in short form; see the bibliography for detailed publication information.
    1. {ret} John C. W. Bailey, Chicago City Directory for the Year 1864-5; A. T. Andreas, History of Cook County (1884), p. 798.

    2. {ret} Bailey, ibid.

    3. {ret} Thomas M. Halpin, comp., Chicago City Directory for the Year 1860-1.

    4. {ret} Reuben H. Donnelley, comp., The Lakeside Annual Directory of the City of Chicago, 1887; and Robinson's Atlas of the City of Chicago, (1886).

    5. {ret} Everett Chamberlin, Chicago and its Suburbs (1874; rpt. 1974), pp. 138-41.

    6. {ret} R. H. Donnelly (op. cit. at note 4).

    7. {ret} It should be noted the what is now often called "the Stockyards" or "the Stockyard District" was originally founded as Chicago Union Stock Yards; it was renamed Union Stock Yards after the turn of the century; commonly it is referred to as simply "the Stockyards." or more generically (the) stockyards.

    8. {ret} J. Edwin Becht, Commodity Origins: Traffic and Markets Accessible to Chicago via the Illinois Waterway, thesis (1952), pp. 33-37.

    9. {ret} Chicago Plan Commission, Chicago Industrial Study: summary report (1951), pp. 17, 24.   The canal (South Branch-Sanitary canal) district, stretching from about Eighteenth street and the river to the city limits, had 365 establishments and employed 37,098 persons. As much as a quarter of this activity could have been conducted near Bridgeport. A number of establishments were also found scattered about the community; those are not included in these district figures.

    10. {ret} Melvin G. Holli, "The Daley Era: Richard J. to Richard M.," The Mayors, Paul M. Green and Melvin G. Holli, eds. (rev. ed. 1995), p. 229.

    11. {ret} Chicago Plan Commission, Annual Report, 1991-92 (1992), p. 10; and Chicago Department of Planning and Development and Eighteenth Street Development Corporation, Model Industrial Corridor Initiative: Pilsen Industrial Corridor: Final Plan (1995). The current proposal is to redevelop part of the Produce Terminal site for a printing plant of the Chicago Chicago Sun-Times newspaper; another part would be developed for a manufacturer.

    12. {ret} Information sources for the following section are based on census data taken mainly from community fact books and similar sources; the specific sources used are cited at the appropriate tables.

    13. {ret} This is typical for boom areas, since those moving to the new areas are bringing wealth along with them. As a community matures, income levels become more diverse.

    14. {ret} Community Area Data Book for the City of Chicago, 1970, p. 480.

    Notes to the Central Mfg. District section

    1. H. E. Poronto, Industrial Agent, compiler, The Central Manufacturing District (1915), pp. 28-9.

    Notes to the ethnic chapter

    Sources cited below that are also listed in the bibliograpy are rendered here in short form; see the bibliography for detailed publication information.
    1. {ret} Most of the information on Catholic churches from: Harry Koenig, A History of the Parishes of the Archdiocese of Chicago; information on German Lutheran churches from Jacob Mueller, Chicago und Sein Deutschtum; information on Swedish churches is mainly from Ulf Beijbom, Swedes in Chicago; information on the Presbyterian church from Bill Lowell, Presbytery of Chicago; some information on Polish churches from Leon Zglenicki, Poles of Chicago, 1837-1937; supplementary information comes from city directories or from mention in more general sources.

    2. {ret} Irish churches were technically territorial churches (that is, geographically defined parishes) and open to all. The Catholic Archdiocese, acceding to demands of first German and later Polish and other ethnic groups, established national parishes, which had their own boundaries that overlapped with the territorial parishes. The so-called territorial parishes, however, were de facto Irish churches for the most part.

    3. {ret} Bohemians are listed in census figures as Czechs or Czechoslovakians. We have used these terms loosely; other ethnic divisions that are often headed under Czech include Slovak, Moravian, and Slovanian.

    4. {ret} Humbert S. Nelli, Italians in Chicago, 1880-1930, pp. 28-31; and the Italian-American Collection at the University of Illinois.

    5. {ret} Michael F. Funchion, Chicago's Irish Nationalists, 1881- 1890 (1976), pp. 10-11.

    6. {ret} Finley Peter Dunne, in Charles Fanning, Finley Peter Dunne and Mr. Dooley: the Chicago years (1978), p. 39; originally from the Evening Post, 25 Nov 1893. Dunne wrote the Mr. Dooley columns from October 1893 to January 1898.

    7. {ret} Charles Fanning, ibid., p. 76.

    8. {ret} Edward Kantowicz, "The Ethnic Church," Ethnic Chicago: a multicultural portrait, Melvin G. Holli and Peter d'A Jones, eds. (4th ed., 1995), p. 583.

    9. {ret} Works Project Administration (WPA), Housing in Chicago Communities, vol. 60 (1940), pp. 8, 27-8.

    10. {ret} Thirty-eighth Annual report of the Board of Education for the Year Ending June 30, 1892 (1893), pp. 240-250.

    11. {ret} Chicago Department of Public Welfare, [Chicago] Social Service Directory, 1915, p. 165; information on Benton House provided by that institution.

    12. {ret} Reuben H. Donnelley, comp., The Lakeside Annual Directory of the City of Chicago, 1911.

    13. {ret} Frederick Thrasher, The Gang: a study of 1,313 gangs in Chicago (1927), p. 201.

    14. {ret} Ibid., p. 17.

    15. {ret} Ibid., pp. 19-9; and Roger Biles, Big City Boss in Depression and War: Mayor Edward J. Kelly of Chicago (1984), pp. 115-17; it should be noted, though, that (Republican) Mayor William Hale Thompson had relied on the support of a Black constituency.

    16. {ret} Van Reenan (op. cit. at note 17), p. 66; Fanning (op. cit. at note 6), p. 75; Harrison (op. cit. at political chapter, note 1), p. 19.

    17. {ret} Interview of Albert J. Aukers in Antanas Van Reenan, Lithuanina Diaspora (1990), p. 54-55.

    18. {ret} Andrew J. Russel, Auditor of Public Accounts, Twenty-second Annual Report of Building, Loan and Homestead Associations, State of Illinois (1918), pp. 398, 478, 519, 565, 621, 281, 382, 385; and Leon Zglenicki, et. al., Poles of Chicago, 1837-1937 (1937), p. 216.

    19. {ret} David Fainhauz, Lithuanians in Multi-Ethnic Chicago p. 96-99; figures originally in J.C. Kennedy, Wages and Family Budgets in the Chicago Union Stockyard District (Chicago: 1914) pp. 5, 57. See also Upton Sinclair, The Jungle (Girard, Kansas: Haldeman-Julies, 1920); the book was originally published in 1906. Sinclair's inspiration probably came out of an article, entitled: "From Lithuania to the Chicago Stockyards -- an Autobiography," Independent, (57, August, 1904) published on and also in Outlook (1904).

    20. {ret} Leon Zglenicki, et. al., Poles of Chicago, 1837-1937 (1937), p. 190; and H. E. Poronto, Central Manufacturing District (1915), pp. 152-3.

    21. {ret} Vivian M. Palmer, Field Studies in Sociology: a student's manual (University of Chicago, 1928), in Leo J. Alilunas, Lithuanians in the United States, p. 66.

    22. {ret} In this respect, the Polish and Lithuanian experience paralleled the Irish more than the German experience.

    23. {ret} David Fainhauz (op. cit. at note 19), pp. 108-13, 163-4, 169-70.

    24. {ret} Leon Zglenicki et. al., (op. cit. at note 20), pp. 78-80.

    25. {ret} Unless otherwise noted, sources for the statistical information that follows in the sections below can be found by referring to the appropriate tables.

    26. {ret} Edward Kantowicz, Polish-American Politics in Chicago, 1888-1940 (1975), p. 18. The Fourth Ward included only the Bridgeport area east of Loomis and north of 33rd street, while it also included parts of today's Armour Square.

    27. {ret} Works Project Administration (op. cit. at note 9), p. 5.

    28. {ret} Anita Edgar Jones, Conditions Surrounding Mexicans in Chicago, dissertation (1928), pp. 41-8, 61-6, 71, 120-2. and Harry Koenig (op. cit. at note 1).

    29. {ret} Albert E. Dickens, "Southwest Side," Forty-four Cities in the City of Chicago (1942), pp. 56-58; see also table 12.

    30. {ret} Louis Wirth and Margaret Furez, Local Community Fact Book, 1938, section 60.

    31. {ret} Council of Social Service Agencies, Chicago Social Service Directory (1944), p. 191.

    Notes to the political chapter

    Sources cited below that are also listed in the bibliograpy are rendered here in short form; see the bibliography for detailed publication information.
    1. {ret} Carter H. Harrison [II], Growing Up With Chicago: sequel to 'Stormy Years' (1944), pp. 229-30.

    2. {ret} Louis Wirth and Margaret Furez, Local Community Fact Book, 1938, section 60: Bridgeport.

    3. {ret} It should be stated that the location of the orphanage in Bridgeport does not mean all young residents were from Bridgeport; they were likely from all over the area.

    4. {ret} The Clan-na-Gael was one of the first secular fraternal organizations in the neighborhood. Others known about around the Civil War included a temperance society (which doesn't seem to have lasted) and the Cleveland lodge of the Independent Order of Good Templars. Most benevolent or fraternal organizations were located in or near downtown in that period.

    5. {ret} The German trade unions grew out of the guild tradition in Germany. They were called Vereinen in Chicago. An example would be der Wagenverein (coach maker's union).

    6. {ret} Bessie Louise Pierce, A History of Chicago, vol. II (1940), p. 178; based on reports of the Chicago Tribune, 3 May 1867 and the Chicago Times, 3 May 1867.

    7. {ret} William J. Adelman, Pilsen and the West Side (2nd ed. 1983), pp. 18-22, 49-51.

    8. {ret} Perry R. Duis, The Saloon: public drinking in Chicago and Boston, 1880-1920 (1983), p. 173.

    9. {ret} Carter H. Harrison [II], "Message of Mayor Harrison," 25 May 1903, Twenty-seventh Annual Report of the Department of Public Works and Mayor's Annual Message to the City Council of the City of Chicago: for the fiscal year ending December 31, 1902 (1903), p. 19.

    10. {ret} In the period before Cermak and Kelly, factionalism in both the Democratic and Republican parties was common. Loyalties seemed to attach to whomever could distribute the largest share of benefits. Ideology and party loyalty ran in second place.

    11. {ret} Roger Biles, Big City Boss in Depression and War: Mayor Edward J. Kelly of Chicago (1984), pp. 6-7.

    12. {ret} Roger Biles, "Edward J. Kelly: New Deal Machine builder," in The Mayors, Paul M. Green and Melvin G. Holli, eds. (rev. ed. 1995), p. 112.

    13. {ret} Arnold R. Hirsch, "Martin H. Kennelly: the Mugwump and the Machine, in The Mayors, Paul M. Green and Melvin G. Holli, eds. (rev. ed. 1995), pp. 126-7.

    14. {ret} Len O'Connor, Clout: Mayor Daley and his city (1975), p. 22.

    15. {ret} At that time three representatives were elected from each district, one from the minority party.

    16. {ret} It is beyond the scope of this brief history to review the mayoral tenure of Mayor Daley. Many books have already been written about him and the office he held. We have tried to focus mainly on Bridgeport and Daley. Though even here, much more could be said.

    17. {ret} Paul M. Green, "Michael A. Bilandic: the last of the Machine regulars," in The Mayors, Paul M. Green and Melvin G. Holli, eds. (rev. ed. 1995), p. 161.

    18. {ret} Between the death of Mayor Washington and the election of Eugene Sawyer as acting mayor by the city council, David Duvall Orr served (eight days) as interim mayor.

    Notes to the Conclusion

    Sources cited below that are also listed in the bibliograpy are rendered here in short form; see the bibliography for detailed publication information.
    1. {ret} Marya Morris, Innovative Tools for Historic Preservation, Planning Advisory Service, report 438 (1992), p. 13.

    2. {ret} For example, certain parts of the Central Manufacturing District might qualify for historic district status, as the district falls within an era of significance. It would depend upon the condition of the structures remaining from that era. Certain residential blocks in Bridgeport also may be assigned a period (and without the need for overly burdensome reversion specifications); although those areas where this is most apt to be possible tend to be sections with twentieth century structures.

    3. {ret} An example of a single landmark might be the wood frame building at 858 west Thirty-third street, which was the first church of Saint George (Lithuanian) parish; before that it had been the Immaculate Conception (German) church, and was probably used for some other purpose before then. Identification of such sites need further investigation. An example of an industrial structure would be the White Eagle Brewery building.

    4. {ret} Report of Students, Bridgeport team, Practicum in Historic Preservation, Early Modern Bridgeport Today (Chicago: University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Art History, College of Architecture and the Arts; and the Urban Planning and Policy Program, College of Urban Planning and Public Affairs); first given at the students' presentation before the Commission on Chicago Landmarks, 25 April 1996, at the Graham Foundation, 4 west Burton, Chicago.


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