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The following is a 7th grade essay and its bibliography. While students may do a less complete or even more complete job, we have included this as a model of introductory (thesis) statements and bibliographic annotation.

"I WANT MY PAY"
Hannah Shapiro and the Garment Workers' Strike of 1910

By Sarah Weiss Grade 7
© 1996 Sarah F. Weiss

Introduction

At the end of the nineteenth century and the first decades of the twentieth, thousands of immigrants sailed to the United States from Eastern Europe, driven by poor economic conditions and cultural persecution. When they arrived, immigrants took the only available, and lowest paying, jobs. The Industrial Revolution continued and fueled a demand for ready-made clothing. Out of this, the manufactured clothing industry developed.

In the urban ghettos, where the clothing industry was mostly located, working conditions were terrible. Sweatshops were unsanitary, pay was low, and the hours were long. There was continuous conflict between the workers and owners of the factories. Immigrant workers were learning that they could only get what they wanted from their employers if they stuck together.

Very few people had as much impact on the life of factory workers in the United States as Hannah Shapiro. It took nerve to stand against an entire industry. On September 22, 1910, Hannah Shapiro, age eighteen, walked out of the Hart Schaffner and Marx clothing shop where she was employed as a pocket sewer. Sixteen other girls followed her. They were tired of wage reductions, long hours and poor working conditions. The girls didn't know that they were about to start the largest and most successful strike of the decade and possibly the century. This strike affected much of the industrial United States and all of the city of Chicago.

The Hart Schaffner and Marx Strike of 1910 permanently connected the immigrants and American society. Jane Addams, social activist and founder of Hull House wrote:

"It was in connection with the first factory employment of newly arrived immigrants and the innumerable difficulties attached to their first adjustment, that some of the most profound industrial disturbances in Chicago have come about. Under any attempt at classification these strikes belong more to the general social movement that to the industrial conflict."

Immigrants Come to America

By the year 1905, many of the earlier Chicago settlers had moved to the outer parts of the city. This left empty space for the second great wave of immigration, and the Near West Side inner city area had become a new home to many different ethnic groups including Poles, Bohemians, Italians, and Jews. Most came to America to make a new permanent home. They did not dream of returning to their European homelands because they knew they were unwelcome there.

The different ethnic groups lived in ghettos, and the congestion promoted the growth of poor tenement conditions. In cramped apartments, there were no bathrooms or bathtubs. The plumbing was deteriorated, the chimneys were defective and the rickety steps that led from one floor to another provided little balance. Ventilation was limited; sometimes not one window was found in an entire apartment. To make matters worse, many of the immigrants worked in sweatshops located in the homes of the workers. Mr. Leslie Orear, the president of the Illinois Labor Historical Society recently stated:

"Back in those early days, in 1910, this was the era that was called the sweatshop. There were hundreds of little shops upstairs in tenement houses where they had taken a bedroom and made it a workshop with a sewing machine. And that's where they would do the cuffs, or they would do the buttonholes, or they would do the collars, and then all those things would be taken to a place like Hart Schaffner and Marx where they would be assembled."

Many of the new immigrants went right into the clothing industry. They found that this industry was the easiest to become a part of since there was a shortage of workers. The clothing industry employed over 38,000 "greenhorn" immigrant workers. Sixty five percent of these workers were foreign-born; another thirty two percent had foreign-born parents. Over half of these workers were women. The rule was a ten hour day with wages of $5.50 to $8.00 per week. The workers were yelled at constantly by the foremen. Many of them had to stay after work or take work home to finish the thirty five coats that they had to baste each day. Finally, the workers were abused. The women workers, particularly, were verbally degraded by the foremen.

Clara Lemlich, an immigrant striker, stated:

"The bosses in the shops are hardly what you would call educated men. They yell at the girls and they 'call them down' even worse than I imagine slaves were in the South. They don't use very nice language. They swear at us and sometimes they do worse - call us names that are not pretty to hear."

The workers didn't like it, but where else was there to go? They didn't know the difference between good and bad wages until they were already stuck in their job position. Many were single women, or women coming to the country with their children to meet their already Americanized husbands. They couldn't go back to their homelands, so they had to find a way to make life better in America.

Hart Schaffner and Marx

Chicago had become the home of many ready-made clothing manufacturers, the most important being Hart Schaffner and Marx, founded as "Harry Hart and Brother" in 1872, by Harry and Marx Hart, the sons of German immigrants. In 1873, two of the Hart brothers-in-law, Marcus Marx and Levi Abt joined them, making "Hart, Abt and Marx". In 1887, Levi Abt decided to leave the company and Joseph Schaffner, a cousin of the Hart Brothers, decided to join. The company now became Hart Schaffner and Marx.

Joseph Schaffner brought creativity and respect to the company. In 1897, Schaffner came up with the idea of putting advertisements not only in newspapers, but also on the sides of buildings. Hart Schaffner and Marx had become the most recognized clothing manufacturer in the industry, famous for their quality, prices, styles, and service. Hart Schaffner and Marx was doing very well. Their customers were very satisfied. Unfortunately, their workers were not doing as well, and were very dissatisfied with their working conditions.

The workers finally had enough. On September 22, 1910, seventeen young women got fed up with yet another wage reduction and walked out of Shop #5 of Hart Schaffner and Marx, located at 18th and Halsted Streets. The leader of the young girls was Hannah Shapiro. Her usual pay was four cents a pocket and the company had just reduced it to three and three quarter cents. This one uprising would end up involving 40,000 striking workers and thirty other clothing manufacturers.

Hannah Shapiro

Hannah Shapiro, called Annie by her fellow workers, was only eighteen years old when she started one of the largest strikes in the clothing industry. Although biographical information is rare, it is known that she was the eldest child of a Russian immigrant family. When she was thirteen, she went to work making bow ties. Two years later, she moved on to Hart Schaffner and Marx where she earned $3 a week for ten hours a day pulling bastings out of coats. She later became a pocket cutter, earning $12 per week, but the rates on that task were soon reduced. In September 1910, she was earning $7 per week. Hannah and her coworkers were angry at the pay reductions and she led the others out on strike. Shapiro stated, "We all went out. We had to be recognized as people."

The strikers returned to their shops the day after they had walked out and argued for better pay and better conditions. On September 26, Shapiro went to the Hart Schaffner and Marx office downtown and deliberately tried to stir up trouble, by yelling down the halls, "I want my pay!" Her demands fell on deaf ears, and the workers learned that they would have to stand together if they hoped to get what they wanted. The sweatshop immigrants did not belong to any union. The manufacturers forbade them from being members.

The 1910 Hart Schaffner and Marx Strike

After the first spark of the strike was set in Shop #5, it spread like a prairie fire. It provoked immediate responses in the other Hart Schaffner and Marx shops and those of other companies. Within three weeks, almost 40,000 workers were on strike, and all of Chicago was affected. Nothing like this had ever happened in the history of the clothing industry.

Clara Masilotti, one of the strikers, stated: "The first whistle we hear... means for us to strike. You cannot work for twelve cents a coat and I cannot baste 35 coats a day."

On October 10, the Hart Schaffner and Marx pants makers gathered at the West Side Auditorium where hundreds of coat and vest makers were waiting to discuss strike issues. Eventually, on that day, all the Hart Schaffner and Marx strikers were called to this hall. This same day, four hundred Kuppenheimer workers also left their jobs and went on strike. About thirty clothing manufacturers were affected by the strike.

On October 20, the Chicago Women's Trade Union League sent a proposition to the United Garment Workers District Council #6 offering assistance in the strike. This was the beginning of union involvement. The offer was formally accepted on October 28, and now the entire needle trade in Chicago was on strike. A Strike Committee was formed by the League. The striking workers demanded higher wages, fewer hours, and no abuse. Another factor was union recognition; Hannah and her co-workers insisted on being allowed to join unions.

Making the strike much worse was a campaign of violence and brutality by strike breakers and hired guards. Strike breakers were non-striking workers and others hired to replace the strikers. The strike breakers and guards weren't sympathetic and didn't want picketing and riots. Strikers were continuously assaulted, in spite of a set of picketing rules that were sent out.

The climax of the strike was reached in December when two picketers were shot and killed by strike breakers. On December 3, a bullet plunged into Charles Lazinskas, who died a few hours later. At this exact time, an agreement was being negotiated at the office of Mayor William Hale Thompson. Then, on December 15, another shot killed Frank Nagreckis, who was also picketing. This caused a marked effect on the opinion of Chicagoans. After this, there was considerably less violence.

Finally, on January 14, 1911, Hart Schaffner and Marx signed an agreement with the workers in their shops, involving over 6,000 workers. This was not a union agreement, but out of it the unions grew. The agreement stated that all the employees who were on strike would be taken back to work within ten days, with no discrimination against any of the employees. An Arbitration Committee consisting of three members would be appointed to settle grievances. The strikers would select one committee member, the company would select one, and the Arbitration Committee would select the last. This agreement was signed by the strike leaders and Hart Schaffner and Marx and was approved by the strikers.

On January 17, 1910, Hannah Shapiro and her fellow workers returned to their shops. They picked up their scissors once again, and began to cut, baste, and stitch their abandoned work. Unfortunately, the other clothing workers stayed on strike, and many would remain out of work until ten years later.

Conclusion

Hannah Shapiro made a very bold move. She was poor and young. She had worked in the clothing industry for five years and had lived with poor working conditions, until she got fed up and went on strike. Shapiro needed money to live, and when Hart Schaffner and Marx reduced her wages once again, she was frustrated and angry. Hannah Shapiro started a very significant strike, changing the life of clothing industry workers forever.

But did she really change life forever? Certainly Hart Schaffner and Marx became a leading clothing manufacturer again. The other clothing company workers stayed on strike until 1920. Three more strikers were killed while picketing. When workers returned to their shops in 1920, they received worse wages, the same poor unsanitary working conditions, and the same long working hours. While the Hart Schaffner and Marx workers labored inside, strikers walked up and down the streets picketing. Hart Schaffner and Marx got much more business now that they were one of the only clothing manufacturers still producing. The difference between Hart Schaffner and Marx and the other companies was that Hart Schaffner and Marx managers became sympathetic. They understood why the strikers were on strike. Joseph Schaffner stated:

"Careful study of the situation has led me to the belief that the fundamental cause of the strike was that the workers had no satisfactory channel through which minor grievances and petty tyrannies of under bosses. . . could be amicably adjusted. Shortly before the strike was called I was so badly informed of the conditions that I called the attention of a friend to the satisfactory state of the employees. It was only a few days before the great strike of the Garment Workers broke out. When I found out later of the conditions that had prevailed, I concluded that the strike should have occurred much sooner."

After the strike was settled, Hart Schaffner and Marx abolished the sweatshops. All of their work was moved into their own factories, where working conditions could be monitored and grievances brought before the Arbitration Committee.

The real question today is, are the working conditions in the United States garment shops better? There are still sweatshops that are unsanitary, and there is still forced work for immigrants. For example, in Los Angeles on February 10, 1996, seven people were accused of luring dozens of garment workers from Thailand, keeping them in virtual slavery at a clandestine factory. The seven signed plea agreements that resulted in prison terms ranging from two to seven years. In August of 1995, State and Federal agents raided a garment factory in suburban El Monte, California and found seventy-two Thai immigrants confined in a compound ringed with razor wire and spiked fences. The authorities said many had been held against their will, forced to toil day and night for less than two dollars an hour.

So working conditions, for some, still have not changed. Workers, especially immigrants, still have unsanitary conditions, poor wages, and are abused. But now, due to the work of the Garment Workers' unions and the laws that they helped to pass, the workers are protected from exploitation. Hannah Shapiro didn't have federal agents to raid the garment factory she was working in and to sentence the owners to years of jail. The government wasn't involved with what was going on in the factory shops and sweatshops. The legacy of Hannah Shapiro's stand against an entire industry is the laws that are now in place to protect the garment workers from unsanitary conditions, long hours, and low wages. Hannah Shapiro took a bold stand, and generations of clothing workers have benefited from her courage.


Appendix

Interview

Less Orear interview on February 12, 1996

1. Q: Could you tell me a little about your labor history.

A: My own background is that I was a worker in the Arlen Company Meat Packing Plant here in Chicago in the 1930's and 40's and was a part of the organizing of that industry by the CIO (Congress of Industrial Organizations). That was a new group set up as rivals to the American Federation of Labor.

2. Q:What exactly is the Illinois Labor Historical Society?

A:This is a group of people that are interested in history and our main purpose is to make labor history more accessible to the public at large and particularly to the labor union members who don't even know anything about their own story. That goes for some of the officers, too. I've been at it for 20 odd years.

3.Q: What leads up to strikes, generally?

A: Always it's an impasse in the collective bargaining relationship. When you want something from your employer and your employer doesn't want to give it. Or nowadays, when your employer wants something from you that you've had for all these years and you don't want to give it up, what else is there to do? And if you don't want to arbitrate? It comes to a situation where you'll have to slug it out and sees who's standing at the end of the war.

4. Q: What are the issues in the clothing trades that would lead people to striking?

A: Back in those early days in 1910, this was the era that was called the sweatshop. There were nearly hundreds of little shops upstairs in a tenament house where they had taken some old bedroom and made it a workshop with a sewing machine. And that's where they would do the cuffs, or they would do the buttonholes, or they would do the collars or whatever and then all those things would be taken to a place like Hart Schaffner and Marx where they would be assembled. And of course Hart Schaffner and Marx also did their own operations. They also made parts there and assembled them. So much of the clothing industry was farmed out to some father who had his wife and his two daughters working all day long. All night long, too. Mostly, the problem was that the wages were low. Hours were uncertain and often very long. Not much different from other industries. Those days had those kinds of problems existing.

5. Q: Was Hart Schaffner and Marx a larger and more developed factory with less sweatshops than the others at that time?

A: Yes, because they could probably get better control of the quality. They were a little bit more advanced in their industrial organization. The idea of maintaining quality and gives some accessibility that you can have some control instead of waiting for someone else to bring you the collars that you need, you had these collars right in your own shop.

6. Q: Rather than striking against these little sweatshops, was this a bold move for the strikers?

A: This was a very bold move. Now, I want to say that this was not the first industrial factory strike that there had been in many years. Maybe the first big one in the clothing industry. You should understand that there were other movements in the clothing industry during this time such as the United Garment Workers. And they were in effect during this time, but these people didn't have much confidence. One of the great problems was that the work force here in Chicago was composed of many different nationalities. And I'm speaking of the clothing work force. All the legal people. There were Greeks, there was the Jewish, there were Italians. Those are the nationalities that come mostly to mind, but there are always the Bohemians and other national groups. Probably Polish. But the leadership of this activity seemed to be under the Italians and the Jews.

7. Q: How did this strike change society?

A: For one thing it was the foundation of a very energetic and progressive new union developed for all the men's clothing workers called the Amalgamated Clothing Workers. And several people came forward in that strike that became national leaders of the clothing workers, and indeed Hillman became an important leader of this whole CIO movement although they were originally in 1910, 1912 part of the AF of L when this great CIO movement was launched the clothing workers under Hillman were a part of that movement to an organized industrial workers the big factory workers. Whereas the Amalgamated and the AF of L was more focused on skilled building trade and machine shop workers and were not so concerned and had very little hope that something could be done to organize for the industrial and the big factory workers. So, that would be one important way that the strike was a launching for a whole movement that would organize industrial workers.

8. Q: How did this strike change the life of laborers in the short-run and long-run?

A: Some strikes were won and some were lost. When you lose it gets pretty painful. You probably lose your jobs and leaders are thrown out of their employment. You have to change your name and your previous identity. All that kind of stuff. It's bad news. Also, this is a risky thing to do. You have to feel very oppressed and reasonably confident that you can stick together and make it happen. It's a painful thing, because when you have no pay check for a month, two months, that can be pretty hairy. The government wasn't sending them an unemployment check like now. The history book is like two paragraphs and not enough. But this is like a battleground. The ultimate victories of organized labor made for enormous changes in working life. The political face on which the Roosevelt administration during the New Deal was able to pass the Wages and Hours Act that finally brought what is an eight hour day to 40 hours a week. That was about 1940, maybe a little earlier. I'm a little foggy. I'm trying to think of when I got my first social security card.

9. Q: So, the Hart Schaffner and Marx strikers really won that strike?

A: Oh, yes. No question about it. And was really important because the Hart Schaffner and Marx employers decided that it was going to be a better thing for them to work with this union rather that be at surge point all the time. This particular employer was much more enlightened than a lot of others. And that made a big difference because they were a big player in the men's clothing manufacturer world. So, when they put their mind to what isn't has been called, or it was sort of an unofficial understanding between capital labor that there was to be a, well... We'll work things out and there might be other fights, but generally speaking you've got a place and we've got a place and we'll play out game but at least we'll recognize that you're a player. You union people. Because, before that, the battle was, we don't recognize unions at all. We are in charge of this place, and we'll take nothing. You're not going to get your foot in my door.

10. Q: Did this strike have an effect on the nation and\or the rest of the world?

A:Yes. Of course. I have said that it was the building of what became a very important union: The Amalgamated Clothing Workers. And, it began the process of opening up the whole needle trades to the unions and incidentally to the ladies garments. When I speak of needle trade, I'm referring both to men's clothing and ladies' clothing. This particular victory was important in the Chicago scene, but was also important in the national scene because this clothing workers' union which really came out of Chicago, became a national player on the economic industrial relations front. And political front. This chap Hillman and the CIO became a very important factor in the roles of the democratic party apparatus. "Clear it with Hillman" became sort of a slogan that I think Roosevelt may have said at the vice-presidential nomination. "Clear it with Sidney". And that became sort of a catch-phrase expressing the importance of organized labor and particularly the CIO to the Roosevelt administration. Which is not the story today.

11. Q: What is the value of these strikers taking a stand?

A: Value. Well, there was an immediate value to them. And there was this long-term value of changing the economic relationship in the factory so that there was no more of this sort of subservient attitude. This boss can do anything to me at any time to myself and my rights. And I think that was a very important value. We used to think of it as a certain amount of dignity that you could have. That you didn't have to take your hat off in front of the boss. You could cuss at him as a matter of fact. You probably could get away with it in your own shop floor. The unions were very much focused on self-help and cultural life. The unions organized a lecture series. They could bring a thousand or more people to a lecture series on current events. They had a theater group. They had poetry readings. All those interesting things did develop. They had medical insurance. Well...I'm not so sure they had medical insurance in those days. They probably had some kind of self help fund in the union because many unions did that. The employers did not provide medical insurance so the unions did. Sick penalties. Death penalties. Not so much unemployment benefits, but sick benefits. If you got sick on the job and you had to take two to three weeks off your whole family was not destroyed. Your home security was not wiped out. The union would help you through. That was one of the benefits of joining unions in those days. At this idea of the big culture series was very important to the clothing workers.

12. Q: Do you know anything specifically about Hannah Shapiro or her fellow strikers?

A: I do not know very much about her.

13. Q: How long has the Illinois Labor Historical Society been here?

A: Oh, about 25 years. We were organized actually in 1969.


Bibliography

Primary Sources

  • "A Great Record and a Plain Duty," Chicago Herald, October 29, 1915. A newspaper article that covers the opinion of Mayor William Hale Thompson on how the city of Chicago had a peaceful agreement and how it has been impaired, breaking a record.
  • "Another Strike Opportunity for the Mayor," Chicago Herald, October 21, 1915. A clipping that states the opinion of the Mayor William Hale Thompson on the strike and how he deals with the large amount of problems going on in Chicago.
  • "An Untenable Position," Chicago Daily News, October 19, 1915. This reference presents information on what the women of Chicago feel about the strike of 1910. It quotes a few young women and says that they feel as if the strike was only a private affair and nothing else.
  • "Arbitrate the Strike," Chicago Herald, October 15, 1915. A summary of an appeal of a committee of women's organizations for arbitration in the garment workers' strike and how it should be effectual. It also touches on community help during the strike.
  • "Blood Guiltiness," Chicago Tribune , November 1, 1915. This reference provides information on the violence that continues to take place during picketing in the City of Chicago during the strike. The article explains the opinion of Chief Schettler and how he plans to control and suppress the violence taking place. The Chicago Tribune states their own opinion on how they think the strike should be settled.
  • Barnum, Gertrude, Coman, Catherine, and Gates Starr, Ellen, "Garment Workers' Strike," Chicago Historical Society Manuscript Collection, November 5, 1910. An article that explains the true nature of the strike and how it changed the lives of women forever.
  • Breckinridge, S.D., Meade, Geo., and Nicholes, Anna, "Concerning the Garment Workers' Strike," Chicago Historical Society Manuscript Collection, November 5, 1910. A report of the Subcommittee to the Citizen's Committee explaining how Chicago and it's women were affected by the 1910 Garment Worker's Strike.
  • Clothing Workers Strike of 1910 , a movie, Leslie Orear, narrator, Chicago, Illinois: The Illinois Labor Historical Society, 1979. This movie gives viewers an insight on the 1910 Garment Workers Strike. Two people tell the stories of their experiences with the strike, and one person involved in labor organizations speaks about starting a strike.
  • "Club Women Ask Mayor to Take Steps to Settle the Garment Strike and Prevent Labor War Relapse," Chicago Herald, October 22, 1915. A reference used to provide primary source information on the stories sixteen girls told Mayor Thompson. The girls went to Mayor Thompson and complained about their grievances in the factories of the clothing manufacturers.
  • Coman, Katherine. "Chicago at the Front: A Condensed History of the Garment Workers' Strike." Life and Labor, January, 1911. This magazine article reveals the entire strike. It discusses such issues as rough handling by the police, great leaders during the strike, commissary relief, church cooperation, civic action, and the conclusion of the strike itself.
  • "The Experience of Hart Schaffner and Marx with Collective Bargaining", testimony before the Federal Industrial Relations Commission, Washington, DC: April, 1914. The text of Hart Schaffner and Marx's testimony was used to add insight into the research paper on Hart Schaffner and Marx from 1910-1914.
  • "Garment Strike to End if Bosses Agree to Parley," Chicago Tribune, November 1, 1915. This reference material explains how the strike was supposedly going to end. The article discusses the arbitration issue the workers fought for.
  • "General Strike in Chicago." The Jewish Daily Courier, October 27, 1910. This article refers to the beginning of the strike. It gives a list of the clothing manufacturers involved in the strike of 1910 and gives us an insight on what the strike was like.
  • HartMarx 1887-1987: A Centennial Celebration, Chicago, Illinois: HartMarx Corporation, 1987. This pamphlet is an extensive history of the HartMarx Corporation. It begins with how the company was formed and continues until 1987, when the company celebrated their 100 years of existence.
  • "Hart Schaffner and Marx Closes the New Three Year Agreement" The Sunday Jewish Courier, April 16, 1910. A newspaper clipping that discusses the ending of the strike for the Hart Schaffner and Marx workers. It states the improvements for the workers and talks about the different meetings that took place to discuss the issue of the agreement.
  • The Hart Schaffner and Marx Style Book, Chicago: Hart Schaffner and Marx. ill. 24&25, 1910 This is only one of the many style books sent out to advertise the company of Hart Schaffner and Marx and their quality clothing.
  • Heckenlivel, John H., Internet E-Mail Correspondence, January 28 - 30, 1996 and February 4 - 17, 1996. John H. Heckenlivel responded to a number of letters written to him via E-Mail on the Internet. He gave important information that helped in understanding the different unions aiding the strikers during the strike.
  • Howard, E.D., Meyer, Carl, Thompson, W.O., Hillman, S., and Winslow, C.H.H., "The Agreement Entered Into Between the Firm of Hart Schaffner and Marx and their Employees," Chicago Historical Society Manuscript Collection, January 14, 1911. This is the actual agreement between Hart Schaffner and Marx and the striking workers. It explains how the company is going to respond to the working grievances and how the workers are also going to compromise in some ways.
  • The Jewish Daily Courier, October 30, 1910. An article that asks for assistance and aid to the strikers of Chicago. It tells how organizations can help the strikers and who had been aiding the strikers at the end of October.
  • "Jewish Workers are Assisting" The Jewish Daily Courier, October 24, 1910. This newspaper article covers all the unions and organizations that are assisting the strikers in the strike of 1910. It states who assisted the strikers and how much they donated.
  • "Looking into the Clothing Strike," Chicago American, October 20, 1915. A newspaper article covering the devotion of the of the strikers to their uprising.
  • Orear, Leslie, President, Illinois Labor Historical Society, Personal Interview, Chicago: February 12, 1996. Leslie Orear, the president of the Illinois Labor Historical Society, is a retired meat packer and labor union organizer. He volunteers his time now as the president of this society that makes historical information accessible to the public.
  • "The Public Stew," The Jewish Courier, Chicago: December 9, 1910. This reference refers to different benefit events where money was collected for the aid of the strikers.
  • "There Must be No Relapse," Chicago Herald, October 28, 1915. This article states that there must be immediate consideration and action of the strike, and why the strikers must be aided quickly.
  • "The Way to Industrial Peace," Chicago Tribune, October 15, 1915. This short newspaper reference summarizes the development of arbitration. It also states the record Chicago made of the peaceful settlement of industrial disputes.

Secondary Sources

  • Addams, Jane, "An Industrial Union with a Social Vision," in Amalgamated Centre, Cincinatti, Ohio: The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, May, 1928. This reference source reveals the development of industrial democracy and how the Amalgamated Clothing Workers Union has had a part in that.
  • Bae, Young-soo Ph.D. Men's Clothing Workers' Strike in Chicago, 1871-1929: Ethnicity, class, and a labor union, Cambridge, Ma., Harvard University: U-M-I, 1988. Young-soo Bae is a graduate of Harvard University where his Ph.D. dissertation covered the 1910 Garment Workers' Strike. He covered the entire strike, including information on what happened to the other clothing manufacturers after Hart Schaffner and Marx signed their agreement with their workers.
  • Berkow, Ira, Maxwell Street: Survival in a Bazaar, Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1977. A resource that gives a detailed history of Maxwell Street. Maxwell Street is an open market on Chicago's West Side. The book tells the stories of many Jews that have experienced the reality of Maxwell Street from 1881 to 1968.
  • Carsel, Wilfred, A History of the Chicago Ladies Garment Workers' Union, Chicago: The Chicago Joint Board, 1940. This source gives an insight on the history of the Chicago Ladies Garment Workers' Union and how it had a marked effect on Chicago.
  • "Clothing Workers of Chicago, 1910-1922," The Amalgamated Clothing Workers, 1922. This book chapter contains an extensive discussion of the strike of 1910 and how it affected people's lives locally and nationally. It goes into extreme detail on the events that took place during the strike and the development of arbitration.
  • Cohen, Elizabeth. Making a New Deal: Industrial Workers in Chicago. 1919-39, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1990. A book that describes the industrial workers of Chicago and how they have changed over time.
  • Cutler, Irving, Jews of Chicago: From the Shtetl to the Suburb,Urbana: University of Illinois Press. 1996. A book that gives the history of the cultural and religious life of the Jews of Chicago. It starts with the first wave of Jewish immigrants and continues to the present and covers Jewish life and how Jews have changed the society of Chicago.
  • Fink, Gary, Biographical Dictionary of American Labor Leaders, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. 1974. A book that provides information on a number of well known American labor leaders. It was used in this research paper for information on Sidney Hillman, who played a very large role in the 1910 Garment Workers Strike.
  • Fishman, Priscilla, The Jews of the United States, New York: Quadrangle / The New York Times Book Company, 1973. This book gives an extensive history of the Jews of the United States and how they have changed the society of Chicago.
  • Fraser, Steven, Labor Will Rule: Sidney Hillman and the Rise of American Labor, The Free Press. 1991. A source that reveals the strike of 1910 from all standpoints. It covers the quotes of all the sides of the story, including the clothing manufacturers, strikers, Chicago police, and strike-breakers.
  • Glanz, Rudolph, The Jewish Women in America: Two Female Immigrant Generations, Ktav Publishing House, Inc. and National Council of Jewish Women, 1976. A book that explains the life of Jewish working women in America and what they have done over the last hundred years.
  • Glenn, Susan, Daughter of the Shtetl: Life and Labor in the Immigrant Generation, London: Cornell University Press, 1990. This article describes female activism during the early 1900's. It highlights the different uprisings that took place and led up to the 1910 Garment Workers Strike.
  • Gribetz, Judah, Greenstein, Edward L. and Stein, Regina S., The Timetables of Jewish History, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993. This book begins with the settling of the land of Israel and ends with the Arab-Israeli peace talks in Washington D.C. It gives a brief description of thousands of events that took place in Jewish history over thousands of years.
  • Hardman, J.B.S., "The Tailor Re-Tailored: A Story of Surging Humanity" in Amalgamated Centre, Cincinnati, Ohio: The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, May, 1928. A reference source that details the ways average tailors have changed throughout history and how they have made a marked effect on the clothing workers and the majority of Chicago.
  • Hillman, Sidney, "The Open Secret of Successful Organization." In Amalgamated Centre, Cincinatti, Ohio: Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, May, 1928. This article discusses the conclusion of the strike and how it has changed society. It brings the reader back in history to how before things weren't as great as they are when Hillman wrote the article in 1928. It states how much life has changed for the clothing workers of Chicago.
  • Holli, Melvin and Jones, Peter, Ethnic Chicago: Revised and Expanded, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1984. A reference material that discusses the grievances of ghetto children and adults before the strike. It explains the diseases that were spread easily in the ghetto apartments and what ethnic groups were the majority during this time.
  • Howard, Earl Dean, "The Hart Schaffner and Marx Labor Agreement Industrial Law in the Clothing Industry," Chicago Historical Society Manuscript Collection, 1920. An article that reveals how the Hart Schaffner and Marx agreement changed the society of Chicago and what was the effect of it.
  • Ickes, Harold, Mead, George, and Tucker, Irwin, Brief History of the Clothing Strike in Chicago, 1915. This source provides general information on the strike and what The Amalgamated Clothing Workers thought of it then. It also describes collective bargaining and why clothing manufacturers refused to arbitrate.
  • Josephson, Matthew, Sidney Hillman: Statesman of American Labor, New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1952. A book that discusses the entire life of Sidney Hillman from childhood to his later days. It explains what role Hillman had in the strike and his devotion to the grievances of strikers.
  • Levin, Samuel, "On This Day of Our Triumph" in Amalgamated Centre, Cincinatti, Ohio: The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, May, 1928. This article explains the activities of the Chicago Joint Board and how it's effect on the strike. It tells about how the average tailor has changed throughout history.
  • Meites, Hyman, History of the Jews of Chicago, a facsimile of the 1924 edition, Chicago: Chicago Jewish Historical Society and Wellington Publishing, Inc., 1990. A book that tells the entire story of the Cloakmakers' Union and the garment workers' strike. It discusses the sweatshop issue and the life of workers before, during, and after the strike. In other parts of the book, it touches on the Cigar Makers' Union and the Carpenters' Union.
  • Potofsky, Jacob, "Leaves from the Archives," in Amalgamated Centre, Cincinatti, Ohio: Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, May, 1928. A reference that informs the reader of a summary of the history of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America and how it produced an effect on the 1910 Garment Workers Strike.
  • Rawidowicz, Simon, The Chicago Pinkas, Chicago: Shulsinger Brothers Linotyping and Publishing Company, 1952. This book reveals general information about Jews in Chicago. It is used in this research paper to inform readers about sweatshop conditions and the number of immigrants coming to America during the second wave of immigration.
  • Rissman, Sidney, "Cutters Have Stood by the Union," in Amalgamated Centre, Cincinatti, Ohio: Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, May, 1928. An article that discusses the story of Local 61, which was one of the first local labor unions to exist.
  • Rugoff, Abraham, Formative Years of the Jewish Labor Movement in the United States (1890-1900), Connecticut: Rugoff Greenwood Press Publishers, 1945. A book that discusses what led up to the Strike of 1910 in the years 1890-1910.
  • "Seven Thais Plead Guilty in Sweatshop Slavery Case," Chicago Tribune, February 10, 1996. This newspaper reference provides current information on what is taking place related to sweatshop issues in the late 1990's. It tells the stories of two sweatshop issues taking place today.
  • Shepherd, Naomi and Nicolson, Weidenfeld, A Price Below Rubies: Jewish Women as Rebels, London: Women's Trade Union League, 1993. This book discusses the different women who organized labor unions in Chicago during the time of the strike.
  • Silver, Joan Micklin, Hester Street a film starring Carol Kane and Steven Keats, Midwest Film Productions, 1974. This film is about a young Russian woman coming to America with her small child to meet her already Americanized husband. It shows what it is like to come to America alone, not knowing any English and what American people do, say, and look like.
  • "The Strike that Shook up an Entire Industry," Chicago Tribune Magazine, June 12, 1988. The newspaper article summarizes the entire Men's Garment Workers' Strike that began in 1910. It gives all the facts of the strike and then concludes with how the strike ended for Hart Schaffner and Marx and what happened after that agreement up until 1914.
  • Weiler, Sue, "Walkout:The Chicago Men's Garment Workers' Strike, 1910-1911," Life and Labor Magazine, 1979. An article that describes the entire strike of 1910. It explains the different unions present during the time and those organizations that came to the aid of the strikers. The article includes many original pictures taken during the strike of picketing, rallies, meetings, and parades.
  • Weingartner, Fannia. "Chicago History," Vol VIII #4, Magazine of Chicago History, Spring, 1979. A magazine article discussing the effect this strike had on the city of Chicago.