The following is a 7th grade essay and its bibliography. While
students may do a less complete or even more complete job, we have included
this as a model of introductory (thesis) statements and bibliographic
"I WANT MY PAY"
Hannah Shapiro and the Garment Workers' Strike
By Sarah Weiss Grade 7
© 1996 Sarah F. Weiss
At the end of the nineteenth century and the first decades of the
twentieth, thousands of immigrants sailed to the United States from Eastern
Europe, driven by poor economic conditions and cultural persecution. When they
arrived, immigrants took the only available, and lowest paying, jobs. The
Industrial Revolution continued and fueled a demand for ready-made clothing.
Out of this, the manufactured clothing industry developed.
In the urban ghettos, where the clothing industry was mostly
located, working conditions were terrible. Sweatshops were unsanitary, pay was
low, and the hours were long. There was continuous conflict between the workers
and owners of the factories. Immigrant workers were learning that they could
only get what they wanted from their employers if they stuck together.
Very few people had as much impact on the life of factory workers
in the United States as Hannah Shapiro. It took nerve to stand against an
entire industry. On September 22, 1910, Hannah Shapiro, age eighteen, walked
out of the Hart Schaffner and Marx clothing shop where she was employed as a
pocket sewer. Sixteen other girls followed her. They were tired of wage
reductions, long hours and poor working conditions. The girls didn't know that
they were about to start the largest and most successful strike of the decade
and possibly the century. This strike affected much of the industrial United
States and all of the city of Chicago.
The Hart Schaffner and Marx Strike of 1910 permanently connected
the immigrants and American society. Jane Addams, social activist and founder
of Hull House wrote:
"It was in connection with the first factory employment
of newly arrived immigrants and the innumerable difficulties attached to their
first adjustment, that some of the most profound industrial disturbances in
Chicago have come about. Under any attempt at classification these strikes
belong more to the general social movement that to the industrial
Immigrants Come to America
By the year 1905, many of the earlier Chicago settlers had moved
to the outer parts of the city. This left empty space for the second great wave
of immigration, and the Near West Side inner city area had become a new home to
many different ethnic groups including Poles, Bohemians, Italians, and Jews.
Most came to America to make a new permanent home. They did not dream of
returning to their European homelands because they knew they were unwelcome
The different ethnic groups lived in ghettos, and the congestion
promoted the growth of poor tenement conditions. In cramped apartments, there
were no bathrooms or bathtubs. The plumbing was deteriorated, the chimneys were
defective and the rickety steps that led from one floor to another provided
little balance. Ventilation was limited; sometimes not one window was found in
an entire apartment. To make matters worse, many of the immigrants worked in
sweatshops located in the homes of the workers. Mr. Leslie Orear, the president
of the Illinois Labor Historical Society recently stated:
"Back in those early days, in 1910, this was the era that
was called the sweatshop. There were hundreds of little shops upstairs in
tenement houses where they had taken a bedroom and made it a workshop with a
sewing machine. And that's where they would do the cuffs, or they would do the
buttonholes, or they would do the collars, and then all those things would be
taken to a place like Hart Schaffner and Marx where they would be
Many of the new immigrants went right into the clothing industry.
They found that this industry was the easiest to become a part of since there
was a shortage of workers. The clothing industry employed over 38,000
"greenhorn" immigrant workers. Sixty five percent of these workers were
foreign-born; another thirty two percent had foreign-born parents. Over half of
these workers were women. The rule was a ten hour day with wages of $5.50 to
$8.00 per week. The workers were yelled at constantly by the foremen. Many of
them had to stay after work or take work home to finish the thirty five coats
that they had to baste each day. Finally, the workers were abused. The women
workers, particularly, were verbally degraded by the foremen.
Clara Lemlich, an immigrant striker, stated:
"The bosses in the shops are hardly what you would call
educated men. They yell at the girls and they 'call them down' even worse than
I imagine slaves were in the South. They don't use very nice language. They
swear at us and sometimes they do worse - call us names that are not pretty to
The workers didn't like it, but where else was there to go? They
didn't know the difference between good and bad wages until they were already
stuck in their job position. Many were single women, or women coming to the
country with their children to meet their already Americanized husbands. They
couldn't go back to their homelands, so they had to find a way to make life
better in America.
Hart Schaffner and Marx
Chicago had become the home of many ready-made clothing
manufacturers, the most important being Hart Schaffner and Marx, founded as
"Harry Hart and Brother" in 1872, by Harry and Marx Hart, the sons of German
immigrants. In 1873, two of the Hart brothers-in-law, Marcus Marx and Levi Abt
joined them, making "Hart, Abt and Marx". In 1887, Levi Abt decided to leave
the company and Joseph Schaffner, a cousin of the Hart Brothers, decided to
join. The company now became Hart Schaffner and Marx.
Joseph Schaffner brought creativity and respect to the company. In
1897, Schaffner came up with the idea of putting advertisements not only in
newspapers, but also on the sides of buildings. Hart Schaffner and Marx had
become the most recognized clothing manufacturer in the industry, famous for
their quality, prices, styles, and service. Hart Schaffner and Marx was doing
very well. Their customers were very satisfied. Unfortunately, their workers
were not doing as well, and were very dissatisfied with their working
The workers finally had enough. On September 22, 1910, seventeen
young women got fed up with yet another wage reduction and walked out of Shop
#5 of Hart Schaffner and Marx, located at 18th and Halsted Streets. The leader
of the young girls was Hannah Shapiro. Her usual pay was four cents a pocket
and the company had just reduced it to three and three quarter cents. This one
uprising would end up involving 40,000 striking workers and thirty other
Hannah Shapiro, called Annie by her fellow workers, was only
eighteen years old when she started one of the largest strikes in the clothing
industry. Although biographical information is rare, it is known that she was
the eldest child of a Russian immigrant family. When she was thirteen, she went
to work making bow ties. Two years later, she moved on to Hart Schaffner and
Marx where she earned $3 a week for ten hours a day pulling bastings out of
coats. She later became a pocket cutter, earning $12 per week, but the rates on
that task were soon reduced. In September 1910, she was earning $7 per week.
Hannah and her coworkers were angry at the pay reductions and she led the
others out on strike. Shapiro stated, "We all went out. We had to be recognized
The strikers returned to their shops the day after they had walked
out and argued for better pay and better conditions. On September 26, Shapiro
went to the Hart Schaffner and Marx office downtown and deliberately tried to
stir up trouble, by yelling down the halls, "I want my pay!" Her demands fell
on deaf ears, and the workers learned that they would have to stand together if
they hoped to get what they wanted. The sweatshop immigrants did not belong to
any union. The manufacturers forbade them from being members.
The 1910 Hart Schaffner and Marx Strike
After the first spark of the strike was set in Shop #5, it spread
like a prairie fire. It provoked immediate responses in the other Hart
Schaffner and Marx shops and those of other companies. Within three weeks,
almost 40,000 workers were on strike, and all of Chicago was affected. Nothing
like this had ever happened in the history of the clothing industry.
Clara Masilotti, one of the strikers, stated: "The first whistle
we hear... means for us to strike. You cannot work for twelve cents a coat and
I cannot baste 35 coats a day."
On October 10, the Hart Schaffner and Marx pants makers gathered
at the West Side Auditorium where hundreds of coat and vest makers were waiting
to discuss strike issues. Eventually, on that day, all the Hart Schaffner and
Marx strikers were called to this hall. This same day, four hundred
Kuppenheimer workers also left their jobs and went on strike. About thirty
clothing manufacturers were affected by the strike.
On October 20, the Chicago Women's Trade Union League sent a
proposition to the United Garment Workers District Council #6 offering
assistance in the strike. This was the beginning of union involvement. The
offer was formally accepted on October 28, and now the entire needle trade in
Chicago was on strike. A Strike Committee was formed by the League. The
striking workers demanded higher wages, fewer hours, and no abuse. Another
factor was union recognition; Hannah and her co-workers insisted on being
allowed to join unions.
Making the strike much worse was a campaign of violence and
brutality by strike breakers and hired guards. Strike breakers were
non-striking workers and others hired to replace the strikers. The strike
breakers and guards weren't sympathetic and didn't want picketing and riots.
Strikers were continuously assaulted, in spite of a set of picketing rules that
were sent out.
The climax of the strike was reached in December when two
picketers were shot and killed by strike breakers. On December 3, a bullet
plunged into Charles Lazinskas, who died a few hours later. At this exact time,
an agreement was being negotiated at the office of Mayor William Hale Thompson.
Then, on December 15, another shot killed Frank Nagreckis, who was also
picketing. This caused a marked effect on the opinion of Chicagoans. After
this, there was considerably less violence.
Finally, on January 14, 1911, Hart Schaffner and Marx signed an
agreement with the workers in their shops, involving over 6,000 workers. This
was not a union agreement, but out of it the unions grew. The agreement stated
that all the employees who were on strike would be taken back to work within
ten days, with no discrimination against any of the employees. An Arbitration
Committee consisting of three members would be appointed to settle grievances.
The strikers would select one committee member, the company would select one,
and the Arbitration Committee would select the last. This agreement was signed
by the strike leaders and Hart Schaffner and Marx and was approved by the
On January 17, 1910, Hannah Shapiro and her fellow workers
returned to their shops. They picked up their scissors once again, and began to
cut, baste, and stitch their abandoned work. Unfortunately, the other clothing
workers stayed on strike, and many would remain out of work until ten years
Hannah Shapiro made a very bold move. She was poor and young. She
had worked in the clothing industry for five years and had lived with poor
working conditions, until she got fed up and went on strike. Shapiro needed
money to live, and when Hart Schaffner and Marx reduced her wages once again,
she was frustrated and angry. Hannah Shapiro started a very significant strike,
changing the life of clothing industry workers forever.
But did she really change life forever? Certainly Hart Schaffner
and Marx became a leading clothing manufacturer again. The other clothing
company workers stayed on strike until 1920. Three more strikers were killed
while picketing. When workers returned to their shops in 1920, they received
worse wages, the same poor unsanitary working conditions, and the same long
working hours. While the Hart Schaffner and Marx workers labored inside,
strikers walked up and down the streets picketing. Hart Schaffner and Marx got
much more business now that they were one of the only clothing manufacturers
still producing. The difference between Hart Schaffner and Marx and the other
companies was that Hart Schaffner and Marx managers became sympathetic. They
understood why the strikers were on strike. Joseph Schaffner stated:
"Careful study of the situation has led me to the belief
that the fundamental cause of the strike was that the workers had no
satisfactory channel through which minor grievances and petty tyrannies of
under bosses. . . could be amicably adjusted. Shortly before the strike was
called I was so badly informed of the conditions that I called the attention of
a friend to the satisfactory state of the employees. It was only a few days
before the great strike of the Garment Workers broke out. When I found out
later of the conditions that had prevailed, I concluded that the strike should
have occurred much sooner."
After the strike was settled, Hart Schaffner and Marx abolished
the sweatshops. All of their work was moved into their own factories, where
working conditions could be monitored and grievances brought before the
The real question today is, are the working conditions in the
United States garment shops better? There are still sweatshops that are
unsanitary, and there is still forced work for immigrants. For example, in Los
Angeles on February 10, 1996, seven people were accused of luring dozens of
garment workers from Thailand, keeping them in virtual slavery at a clandestine
factory. The seven signed plea agreements that resulted in prison terms ranging
from two to seven years. In August of 1995, State and Federal agents raided a
garment factory in suburban El Monte, California and found seventy-two Thai
immigrants confined in a compound ringed with razor wire and spiked fences. The
authorities said many had been held against their will, forced to toil day and
night for less than two dollars an hour.
So working conditions, for some, still have not changed. Workers,
especially immigrants, still have unsanitary conditions, poor wages, and are
abused. But now, due to the work of the Garment Workers' unions and the laws
that they helped to pass, the workers are protected from exploitation. Hannah
Shapiro didn't have federal agents to raid the garment factory she was working
in and to sentence the owners to years of jail. The government wasn't involved
with what was going on in the factory shops and sweatshops. The legacy of
Hannah Shapiro's stand against an entire industry is the laws that are now in
place to protect the garment workers from unsanitary conditions, long hours,
and low wages. Hannah Shapiro took a bold stand, and generations of clothing
workers have benefited from her courage.
Less Orear interview on February 12, 1996
1. Q: Could you tell me a little about your labor history.
A: My own background is that I was a worker in the Arlen Company
Meat Packing Plant here in Chicago in the 1930's and 40's and was a part of the
organizing of that industry by the CIO (Congress of Industrial Organizations).
That was a new group set up as rivals to the American Federation of Labor.
2. Q:What exactly is the Illinois Labor Historical Society?
A:This is a group of people that are interested in history and our
main purpose is to make labor history more accessible to the public at large
and particularly to the labor union members who don't even know anything about
their own story. That goes for some of the officers, too. I've been at it for
20 odd years.
3.Q: What leads up to strikes, generally?
A: Always it's an impasse in the collective bargaining
relationship. When you want something from your employer and your employer
doesn't want to give it. Or nowadays, when your employer wants something from
you that you've had for all these years and you don't want to give it up, what
else is there to do? And if you don't want to arbitrate? It comes to a
situation where you'll have to slug it out and sees who's standing at the end
of the war.
4. Q: What are the issues in the clothing trades that would lead
people to striking?
A: Back in those early days in 1910, this was the era that was
called the sweatshop. There were nearly hundreds of little shops upstairs in a
tenament house where they had taken some old bedroom and made it a workshop
with a sewing machine. And that's where they would do the cuffs, or they would
do the buttonholes, or they would do the collars or whatever and then all those
things would be taken to a place like Hart Schaffner and Marx where they would
be assembled. And of course Hart Schaffner and Marx also did their own
operations. They also made parts there and assembled them. So much of the
clothing industry was farmed out to some father who had his wife and his two
daughters working all day long. All night long, too. Mostly, the problem was
that the wages were low. Hours were uncertain and often very long. Not much
different from other industries. Those days had those kinds of problems
5. Q: Was Hart Schaffner and Marx a larger and more developed
factory with less sweatshops than the others at that time?
A: Yes, because they could probably get better control of the
quality. They were a little bit more advanced in their industrial organization.
The idea of maintaining quality and gives some accessibility that you can have
some control instead of waiting for someone else to bring you the collars that
you need, you had these collars right in your own shop.
6. Q: Rather than striking against these little sweatshops, was
this a bold move for the strikers?
A: This was a very bold move. Now, I want to say that this was not
the first industrial factory strike that there had been in many years. Maybe
the first big one in the clothing industry. You should understand that there
were other movements in the clothing industry during this time such as the
United Garment Workers. And they were in effect during this time, but these
people didn't have much confidence. One of the great problems was that the work
force here in Chicago was composed of many different nationalities. And I'm
speaking of the clothing work force. All the legal people. There were Greeks,
there was the Jewish, there were Italians. Those are the nationalities that
come mostly to mind, but there are always the Bohemians and other national
groups. Probably Polish. But the leadership of this activity seemed to be under
the Italians and the Jews.
7. Q: How did this strike change society?
A: For one thing it was the foundation of a very energetic and
progressive new union developed for all the men's clothing workers called the
Amalgamated Clothing Workers. And several people came forward in that strike
that became national leaders of the clothing workers, and indeed Hillman became
an important leader of this whole CIO movement although they were originally in
1910, 1912 part of the AF of L when this great CIO movement was launched the
clothing workers under Hillman were a part of that movement to an organized
industrial workers the big factory workers. Whereas the Amalgamated and the AF
of L was more focused on skilled building trade and machine shop workers and
were not so concerned and had very little hope that something could be done to
organize for the industrial and the big factory workers. So, that would be one
important way that the strike was a launching for a whole movement that would
organize industrial workers.
8. Q: How did this strike change the life of laborers in the
short-run and long-run?
A: Some strikes were won and some were lost. When you lose it gets
pretty painful. You probably lose your jobs and leaders are thrown out of their
employment. You have to change your name and your previous identity. All that
kind of stuff. It's bad news. Also, this is a risky thing to do. You have to
feel very oppressed and reasonably confident that you can stick together and
make it happen. It's a painful thing, because when you have no pay check for a
month, two months, that can be pretty hairy. The government wasn't sending them
an unemployment check like now. The history book is like two paragraphs and not
enough. But this is like a battleground. The ultimate victories of organized
labor made for enormous changes in working life. The political face on which
the Roosevelt administration during the New Deal was able to pass the Wages and
Hours Act that finally brought what is an eight hour day to 40 hours a week.
That was about 1940, maybe a little earlier. I'm a little foggy. I'm trying to
think of when I got my first social security card.
9. Q: So, the Hart Schaffner and Marx strikers really won that
A: Oh, yes. No question about it. And was really important because
the Hart Schaffner and Marx employers decided that it was going to be a better
thing for them to work with this union rather that be at surge point all the
time. This particular employer was much more enlightened than a lot of others.
And that made a big difference because they were a big player in the men's
clothing manufacturer world. So, when they put their mind to what isn't has
been called, or it was sort of an unofficial understanding between capital
labor that there was to be a, well... We'll work things out and there might be
other fights, but generally speaking you've got a place and we've got a place
and we'll play out game but at least we'll recognize that you're a player. You
union people. Because, before that, the battle was, we don't recognize unions
at all. We are in charge of this place, and we'll take nothing. You're not
going to get your foot in my door.
10. Q: Did this strike have an effect on the nation and\or the
rest of the world?
A:Yes. Of course. I have said that it was the building of what
became a very important union: The Amalgamated Clothing Workers. And, it began
the process of opening up the whole needle trades to the unions and
incidentally to the ladies garments. When I speak of needle trade, I'm
referring both to men's clothing and ladies' clothing. This particular victory
was important in the Chicago scene, but was also important in the national
scene because this clothing workers' union which really came out of Chicago,
became a national player on the economic industrial relations front. And
political front. This chap Hillman and the CIO became a very important factor
in the roles of the democratic party apparatus. "Clear it with Hillman" became
sort of a slogan that I think Roosevelt may have said at the vice-presidential
nomination. "Clear it with Sidney". And that became sort of a catch-phrase
expressing the importance of organized labor and particularly the CIO to the
Roosevelt administration. Which is not the story today.
11. Q: What is the value of these strikers taking a stand?
A: Value. Well, there was an immediate value to them. And there
was this long-term value of changing the economic relationship in the factory
so that there was no more of this sort of subservient attitude. This boss can
do anything to me at any time to myself and my rights. And I think that was a
very important value. We used to think of it as a certain amount of dignity
that you could have. That you didn't have to take your hat off in front of the
boss. You could cuss at him as a matter of fact. You probably could get away
with it in your own shop floor. The unions were very much focused on self-help
and cultural life. The unions organized a lecture series. They could bring a
thousand or more people to a lecture series on current events. They had a
theater group. They had poetry readings. All those interesting things did
develop. They had medical insurance. Well...I'm not so sure they had medical
insurance in those days. They probably had some kind of self help fund in the
union because many unions did that. The employers did not provide medical
insurance so the unions did. Sick penalties. Death penalties. Not so much
unemployment benefits, but sick benefits. If you got sick on the job and you
had to take two to three weeks off your whole family was not destroyed. Your
home security was not wiped out. The union would help you through. That was one
of the benefits of joining unions in those days. At this idea of the big
culture series was very important to the clothing workers.
12. Q: Do you know anything specifically about Hannah Shapiro or
her fellow strikers?
A: I do not know very much about her.
13. Q: How long has the Illinois Labor Historical Society been
A: Oh, about 25 years. We were organized actually in 1969.
- "A Great Record and a Plain Duty," Chicago Herald,
October 29, 1915. A newspaper article that covers the opinion of Mayor William
Hale Thompson on how the city of Chicago had a peaceful agreement and how it
has been impaired, breaking a record.
- "Another Strike Opportunity for the Mayor," Chicago
Herald, October 21, 1915. A clipping that states the opinion of the Mayor
William Hale Thompson on the strike and how he deals with the large amount of
problems going on in Chicago.
- "An Untenable Position," Chicago Daily News, October 19,
1915. This reference presents information on what the women of Chicago feel
about the strike of 1910. It quotes a few young women and says that they feel
as if the strike was only a private affair and nothing else.
- "Arbitrate the Strike," Chicago Herald, October 15,
1915. A summary of an appeal of a committee of women's organizations for
arbitration in the garment workers' strike and how it should be effectual. It
also touches on community help during the strike.
- "Blood Guiltiness," Chicago Tribune , November 1, 1915.
This reference provides information on the violence that continues to take
place during picketing in the City of Chicago during the strike. The article
explains the opinion of Chief Schettler and how he plans to control and
suppress the violence taking place. The Chicago Tribune states their own
opinion on how they think the strike should be settled.
- Barnum, Gertrude, Coman, Catherine, and Gates Starr, Ellen,
"Garment Workers' Strike," Chicago Historical Society Manuscript Collection,
November 5, 1910. An article that explains the true nature of the strike and
how it changed the lives of women forever.
- Breckinridge, S.D., Meade, Geo., and Nicholes, Anna,
"Concerning the Garment Workers' Strike," Chicago Historical Society Manuscript
Collection, November 5, 1910. A report of the Subcommittee to the Citizen's
Committee explaining how Chicago and it's women were affected by the 1910
Garment Worker's Strike.
- Clothing Workers Strike of 1910 , a movie, Leslie Orear,
narrator, Chicago, Illinois: The Illinois Labor Historical Society, 1979. This
movie gives viewers an insight on the 1910 Garment Workers Strike. Two people
tell the stories of their experiences with the strike, and one person involved
in labor organizations speaks about starting a strike.
- "Club Women Ask Mayor to Take Steps to Settle the Garment
Strike and Prevent Labor War Relapse," Chicago Herald, October 22, 1915.
A reference used to provide primary source information on the stories sixteen
girls told Mayor Thompson. The girls went to Mayor Thompson and complained
about their grievances in the factories of the clothing manufacturers.
- Coman, Katherine. "Chicago at the Front: A Condensed History of
the Garment Workers' Strike." Life and Labor, January, 1911. This
magazine article reveals the entire strike. It discusses such issues as rough
handling by the police, great leaders during the strike, commissary relief,
church cooperation, civic action, and the conclusion of the strike itself.
- "The Experience of Hart Schaffner and Marx with Collective
Bargaining", testimony before the Federal Industrial Relations Commission,
Washington, DC: April, 1914. The text of Hart Schaffner and Marx's testimony
was used to add insight into the research paper on Hart Schaffner and Marx from
- "Garment Strike to End if Bosses Agree to Parley," Chicago
Tribune, November 1, 1915. This reference material explains how the strike
was supposedly going to end. The article discusses the arbitration issue the
workers fought for.
- "General Strike in Chicago." The Jewish Daily Courier,
October 27, 1910. This article refers to the beginning of the strike. It gives
a list of the clothing manufacturers involved in the strike of 1910 and gives
us an insight on what the strike was like.
- HartMarx 1887-1987: A Centennial Celebration, Chicago,
Illinois: HartMarx Corporation, 1987. This pamphlet is an extensive history of
the HartMarx Corporation. It begins with how the company was formed and
continues until 1987, when the company celebrated their 100 years of
- "Hart Schaffner and Marx Closes the New Three Year Agreement"
The Sunday Jewish Courier, April 16, 1910. A newspaper clipping that
discusses the ending of the strike for the Hart Schaffner and Marx workers. It
states the improvements for the workers and talks about the different meetings
that took place to discuss the issue of the agreement.
- The Hart Schaffner and Marx Style Book, Chicago: Hart
Schaffner and Marx. ill. 24&25, 1910 This is only one of the many style
books sent out to advertise the company of Hart Schaffner and Marx and their
- Heckenlivel, John H., Internet E-Mail Correspondence, January
28 - 30, 1996 and February 4 - 17, 1996. John H. Heckenlivel responded to a
number of letters written to him via E-Mail on the Internet. He gave important
information that helped in understanding the different unions aiding the
strikers during the strike.
- Howard, E.D., Meyer, Carl, Thompson, W.O., Hillman, S., and
Winslow, C.H.H., "The Agreement Entered Into Between the Firm of Hart Schaffner
and Marx and their Employees," Chicago Historical Society Manuscript
Collection, January 14, 1911. This is the actual agreement between Hart
Schaffner and Marx and the striking workers. It explains how the company is
going to respond to the working grievances and how the workers are also going
to compromise in some ways.
- The Jewish Daily Courier, October 30, 1910. An article
that asks for assistance and aid to the strikers of Chicago. It tells how
organizations can help the strikers and who had been aiding the strikers at the
end of October.
- "Jewish Workers are Assisting" The Jewish Daily Courier,
October 24, 1910. This newspaper article covers all the unions and
organizations that are assisting the strikers in the strike of 1910. It states
who assisted the strikers and how much they donated.
- "Looking into the Clothing Strike," Chicago American,
October 20, 1915. A newspaper article covering the devotion of the of the
strikers to their uprising.
- Orear, Leslie, President, Illinois Labor Historical Society,
Personal Interview, Chicago: February 12, 1996. Leslie Orear, the president of
the Illinois Labor Historical Society, is a retired meat packer and labor union
organizer. He volunteers his time now as the president of this society that
makes historical information accessible to the public.
- "The Public Stew," The Jewish Courier, Chicago: December
9, 1910. This reference refers to different benefit events where money was
collected for the aid of the strikers.
- "There Must be No Relapse," Chicago Herald, October 28,
1915. This article states that there must be immediate consideration and action
of the strike, and why the strikers must be aided quickly.
- "The Way to Industrial Peace," Chicago Tribune, October
15, 1915. This short newspaper reference summarizes the development of
arbitration. It also states the record Chicago made of the peaceful settlement
of industrial disputes.
- Addams, Jane, "An Industrial Union with a Social Vision," in
Amalgamated Centre, Cincinatti, Ohio: The Amalgamated Clothing Workers
of America, May, 1928. This reference source reveals the development of
industrial democracy and how the Amalgamated Clothing Workers Union has had a
part in that.
- Bae, Young-soo Ph.D. Men's Clothing Workers' Strike in
Chicago, 1871-1929: Ethnicity, class, and a labor union, Cambridge, Ma.,
Harvard University: U-M-I, 1988. Young-soo Bae is a graduate of Harvard
University where his Ph.D. dissertation covered the 1910 Garment Workers'
Strike. He covered the entire strike, including information on what happened to
the other clothing manufacturers after Hart Schaffner and Marx signed their
agreement with their workers.
- Berkow, Ira, Maxwell Street: Survival in a Bazaar,
Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1977. A resource that gives a
detailed history of Maxwell Street. Maxwell Street is an open market on
Chicago's West Side. The book tells the stories of many Jews that have
experienced the reality of Maxwell Street from 1881 to 1968.
- Carsel, Wilfred, A History of the Chicago Ladies Garment
Workers' Union, Chicago: The Chicago Joint Board, 1940. This source gives
an insight on the history of the Chicago Ladies Garment Workers' Union and how
it had a marked effect on Chicago.
- "Clothing Workers of Chicago, 1910-1922," The Amalgamated
Clothing Workers, 1922. This book chapter contains an extensive discussion
of the strike of 1910 and how it affected people's lives locally and
nationally. It goes into extreme detail on the events that took place during
the strike and the development of arbitration.
- Cohen, Elizabeth. Making a New Deal: Industrial Workers in
Chicago. 1919-39, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1990. A book that
describes the industrial workers of Chicago and how they have changed over
- Cutler, Irving, Jews of Chicago: From the Shtetl to the
Suburb,Urbana: University of Illinois Press. 1996. A book that gives the
history of the cultural and religious life of the Jews of Chicago. It starts
with the first wave of Jewish immigrants and continues to the present and
covers Jewish life and how Jews have changed the society of Chicago.
- Fink, Gary, Biographical Dictionary of American Labor
Leaders, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. 1974. A book that provides
information on a number of well known American labor leaders. It was used in
this research paper for information on Sidney Hillman, who played a very large
role in the 1910 Garment Workers Strike.
- Fishman, Priscilla, The Jews of the United States, New
York: Quadrangle / The New York Times Book Company, 1973. This book gives an
extensive history of the Jews of the United States and how they have changed
the society of Chicago.
- Fraser, Steven, Labor Will Rule: Sidney Hillman and the Rise
of American Labor, The Free Press. 1991. A source that reveals the strike
of 1910 from all standpoints. It covers the quotes of all the sides of the
story, including the clothing manufacturers, strikers, Chicago police, and
- Glanz, Rudolph, The Jewish Women in America: Two Female
Immigrant Generations, Ktav Publishing House, Inc. and National Council of
Jewish Women, 1976. A book that explains the life of Jewish working women in
America and what they have done over the last hundred years.
- Glenn, Susan, Daughter of the Shtetl: Life and Labor in the
Immigrant Generation, London: Cornell University Press, 1990. This article
describes female activism during the early 1900's. It highlights the different
uprisings that took place and led up to the 1910 Garment Workers Strike.
- Gribetz, Judah, Greenstein, Edward L. and Stein, Regina S.,
The Timetables of Jewish History, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.
This book begins with the settling of the land of Israel and ends with the
Arab-Israeli peace talks in Washington D.C. It gives a brief description of
thousands of events that took place in Jewish history over thousands of
- Hardman, J.B.S., "The Tailor Re-Tailored: A Story of Surging
Humanity" in Amalgamated Centre, Cincinnati, Ohio: The Amalgamated
Clothing Workers of America, May, 1928. A reference source that details the
ways average tailors have changed throughout history and how they have made a
marked effect on the clothing workers and the majority of Chicago.
- Hillman, Sidney, "The Open Secret of Successful Organization."
In Amalgamated Centre, Cincinatti, Ohio: Amalgamated Clothing Workers of
America, May, 1928. This article discusses the conclusion of the strike and how
it has changed society. It brings the reader back in history to how before
things weren't as great as they are when Hillman wrote the article in 1928. It
states how much life has changed for the clothing workers of Chicago.
- Holli, Melvin and Jones, Peter, Ethnic Chicago: Revised and
Expanded, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1984. A
reference material that discusses the grievances of ghetto children and adults
before the strike. It explains the diseases that were spread easily in the
ghetto apartments and what ethnic groups were the majority during this
- Howard, Earl Dean, "The Hart Schaffner and Marx Labor Agreement
Industrial Law in the Clothing Industry," Chicago Historical Society Manuscript
Collection, 1920. An article that reveals how the Hart Schaffner and Marx
agreement changed the society of Chicago and what was the effect of it.
- Ickes, Harold, Mead, George, and Tucker, Irwin, Brief
History of the Clothing Strike in Chicago, 1915. This source provides
general information on the strike and what The Amalgamated Clothing Workers
thought of it then. It also describes collective bargaining and why clothing
manufacturers refused to arbitrate.
- Josephson, Matthew, Sidney Hillman: Statesman of American
Labor, New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1952. A book that discusses
the entire life of Sidney Hillman from childhood to his later days. It explains
what role Hillman had in the strike and his devotion to the grievances of
- Levin, Samuel, "On This Day of Our Triumph" in Amalgamated
Centre, Cincinatti, Ohio: The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, May,
1928. This article explains the activities of the Chicago Joint Board and how
it's effect on the strike. It tells about how the average tailor has changed
- Meites, Hyman, History of the Jews of Chicago, a
facsimile of the 1924 edition, Chicago: Chicago Jewish Historical Society and
Wellington Publishing, Inc., 1990. A book that tells the entire story of the
Cloakmakers' Union and the garment workers' strike. It discusses the sweatshop
issue and the life of workers before, during, and after the strike. In other
parts of the book, it touches on the Cigar Makers' Union and the Carpenters'
- Potofsky, Jacob, "Leaves from the Archives," in Amalgamated
Centre, Cincinatti, Ohio: Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, May,
1928. A reference that informs the reader of a summary of the history of the
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America and how it produced an effect on the
1910 Garment Workers Strike.
- Rawidowicz, Simon, The Chicago Pinkas, Chicago:
Shulsinger Brothers Linotyping and Publishing Company, 1952. This book reveals
general information about Jews in Chicago. It is used in this research paper to
inform readers about sweatshop conditions and the number of immigrants coming
to America during the second wave of immigration.
- Rissman, Sidney, "Cutters Have Stood by the Union," in
Amalgamated Centre, Cincinatti, Ohio: Amalgamated Clothing Workers of
America, May, 1928. An article that discusses the story of Local 61, which was
one of the first local labor unions to exist.
- Rugoff, Abraham, Formative Years of the Jewish Labor
Movement in the United States (1890-1900), Connecticut: Rugoff Greenwood
Press Publishers, 1945. A book that discusses what led up to the Strike of 1910
in the years 1890-1910.
- "Seven Thais Plead Guilty in Sweatshop Slavery Case,"
Chicago Tribune, February 10, 1996. This newspaper reference provides
current information on what is taking place related to sweatshop issues in the
late 1990's. It tells the stories of two sweatshop issues taking place
- Shepherd, Naomi and Nicolson, Weidenfeld, A Price Below
Rubies: Jewish Women as Rebels, London: Women's Trade Union League, 1993.
This book discusses the different women who organized labor unions in Chicago
during the time of the strike.
- Silver, Joan Micklin, Hester Street a film starring
Carol Kane and Steven Keats, Midwest Film Productions, 1974. This film is about
a young Russian woman coming to America with her small child to meet her
already Americanized husband. It shows what it is like to come to America
alone, not knowing any English and what American people do, say, and look
- "The Strike that Shook up an Entire Industry," Chicago
Tribune Magazine, June 12, 1988. The newspaper article summarizes the
entire Men's Garment Workers' Strike that began in 1910. It gives all the facts
of the strike and then concludes with how the strike ended for Hart Schaffner
and Marx and what happened after that agreement up until 1914.
- Weiler, Sue, "Walkout:The Chicago Men's Garment Workers'
Strike, 1910-1911," Life and Labor Magazine, 1979. An article that
describes the entire strike of 1910. It explains the different unions present
during the time and those organizations that came to the aid of the strikers.
The article includes many original pictures taken during the strike of
picketing, rallies, meetings, and parades.
- Weingartner, Fannia. "Chicago History," Vol VIII #4,
Magazine of Chicago History, Spring, 1979. A magazine article discussing
the effect this strike had on the city of Chicago.