DJing

A disc jockey (sometimes DJ or deejay) is an individual who selects and plays pre-recorded music for the enjoyment of others. See the table below for various DJ techniques.

Technique Description
audio mixing is used in sound recording, audio editing and sound systems to control the relative signal levels as among a number of signal sources, typically the different instruments in a band.
slip-cueing is a DJ technique originated by Francis Grasso that consists of "holding a record still with his thumb and forefinger while a protective slipmat and the steel platter of the turntable revolved underneath. He then released the vinyl at the exact right moment he wanted to come in with the new song, creating a sudden segue from the previous track, similar in the beats-per-minute range and orchestration." (Jones and Kantonen, 1999)
phrasing refers to the timing of a DJ's mixes with respect to song structure. Song transitions are lined up to prevent any of the main melodic or rhythmic elements of either song from clashing inappropriately. This smooths the transition between songs, allowing the mix to appear as more of a cohesive whole then as two separate songs. Grandmaster Flash was an expert at 'punch phasing'. 'Punch phasing' is when a DJ hits a particular break on one turntable while the record on the other turntable is still playing. 'Punch phasing' is used to accentuate the beat and rhythm for the dancing crowd.
beat juggling is the act of manipulating individual drum beats in order to make a composition. This can involve pauses, scratching, breaks and delays. It could be seen as fingertip sampling, and the turntable and mixer combination could be seen as an instrument from which sounds are made, from the sounds of other instruments (samples).
scratching is a DJ or turntablist technique originated by Grand Wizard Theodore, an early hip hop DJ from New York (AMG). A simple scratch is performed by moving a vinyl record back and forth with your hand while it is playing on a turntable, creating a distinctive sound that has come to be an almost universally recognized aspect of hip hop music. Ideally, the record is not damaged because the needle stays within the groove and does not move horizontally across the record's surface. Theodore developed scratching from DJ Grandmaster Flash, who describes scratching as, "nothing but the back-cueing that you hear in your ear before you push it [the recorded sound] out to the crowd." (Toop, 1991)
body tricks is a mixing technique employed by DJs. While originally it involved counting the tempo with a metronome and finding a record with the same tempo, today it involves changing the speed at which a recording is played back so that its tempo matches that of the song currently playing.
beatmatching is a mixing technique employed by DJs. While originally it involved counting the tempo with a metronome and finding a record with the same tempo, today it involves changing the speed at which a recording is played back so that its tempo matches that of the song currently playing.
needle drops is a technique used in hip-hop deejaying, probably originated by Grand Wizard Theodore. The DJ sets a record spinning, then drops the needle on the turntable at the point where he or she wants playback to begin. According to AMG: "Instead of cueing up the record silently, the DJ simply drops the needle onto the exact start of the passage to be played."

Famous Hip Hop DJs include:

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