A Newsletter from the RRTC on
Aging and Developmental Disabilities

Volume 2, Issue 1 - February 2006

This Month's Topics

Welcome from the Director: 2005 White House Conference on Aging

The 2005 White House Conference on Aging: Implications for Older Adults with I/DD and Their Families

Last December over 1200 delegates descended upon Washington DC to participate in the 2005 White House Conference on Aging (WHCOA). Held every ten year, it is a forum for developing a blueprint of social policies pertaining to an aging population for the next decade. In the past the WHCOA led the way to such major initiative as the landmark Medicare and Medicaid programs and the Older Americans Act.

I had the honor of participating in the 2005 WHCoA as a delegate for Illinois Senator Barack Obama. Delegates included persons chosen by governors and members of Congress along with many delegates at large. Other invited participants were international observers, including two colleagues with expertise in aging and developmental disabilities, Patricia Walsh from Ireland and Meindert Haveman from the Netherlands.

One of my personal goals as a delegate was to bring disability issues into the forefront of discussions. Prior to the WHCOA, I and other members of the RRTCADD, participated by providing testimonies, attending mini-conferences, (The WHCOA Disability and Aging Mini-Conference and The WHCOA Caregiving Mini-Conference), and drafting the Association of University Centers on Disabilities (AUCD) Resolution on Aging Caregivers and Adults with Developmental Disabilities. RRTCADD researcher Joe Caldwell, the 2005 AUCD Disability Policy Fellow, led the effort within the AUCD Aging Workgroup to draft and submit this resolution for the WHCOA.

Our first task at the conference was to choose 50 of the 73 previously drafted resolutions. The next step was to work in small groups on at least three of the chosen resolutions to develop strategies for implementation. The last day's presentations highlighted the resolutions and strategies most highly endorsed. While many of the chosen resolutions did not mention disability specifically, "disability" was considered a "cross-cutting" issue as were minority issues.

I was most pleased that in the final summary presented the last day the following strategies were included in the resolution: Develop a National Strategy for Supporting Informal Caregivers of Seniors to Enable Adequate Quality and Supply of Services:

  • Double the $162 million appropriations level for the National Family Caregiver Support Program and include aging caregivers of adults with lifelong disabilities, and expand the definition of family caregivers to include friends and neighbors.
  • Permanently authorize the Aging and Disability Resource Centers through the Older American Act to be supportive resources centers for family caregivers, as well as for people with disabilities and older Americans.
While the Conference theme "The Booming Dynamics of Aging" focused on the baby boomers, the 78 million people who will soon be turning 60, and on ways to help them continue working and engaging in their communities, the delegates made sure to broaden the scope to include supports for seniors with disabilities. Many of the final resolutions do resonate with the disability community. Delegates strongly endorsed community based long term care, adequate health care, geriatric education training, accessible transportation systems, and universal design. For more information on the final resolutions and the final summary of the strategies go to WHCoA - 2005 White House Conference on Aging.

The conference resolutions resulted in a far reaching framework that could shape future aging policies in the years to come. The President and Congress will receive a final conference report by the summer of 2006. State delegations, including Illinois’ 40 delegates, are joining forces to sustain the momentum and public visibility of the conference resolutions in the interim.


Tamar Heller, PhD


New Research Findings: The Health of Older Adults with I/DD and Their Families

RRTCADD researchers recently completed three studies that shed new light on how race, environmental interventions, and lifestyle relate to the health of adults with I/DD and their families. Please click on the study titles to access the entire research briefs.

Health Outcomes of Midlife and Older Adult Latina and Black American Mothers of Children with Developmental Disabilities (pdf) (MSWord)
RRTCADD researcher Sandy Magana compared the physical and mental health status of midlife and older Latina and Black American mothers of children with and without developmental disabilities based on analyses of the 2000 National Health Interview Survey. Magana’s study is one of the first to examine family caregiver differences within minority communities. Most research to date has compared minority caregivers to their white counterparts.

Facing Dementia and Finding Better Alternatives for Providing Care (pdf) (MSWord)
RRTCADD researcher Matthew Janicki presents guidelines and practical applications that enable adults with I/DD who have dementia to “age in place.” Findings are based on his international survey of community residences caring for adults with dementia.

Body Weight Status of Adults with I/DD Living in the Community (pdf) (MSWord)
RRTCADD researcher Kiyoshi Yamaki compares body weight and obesity among adults with I/DD who live with their families to their peers in other residential settings.


New RRTCADD Research Grants

RRTCADD Plays Active Role in Restructuring Illinois Aging Services

The RRTCADD and the Illinois Department on Aging (IDoA) are implementing and evaluating two federal initiatives to shift the emphasis of Illinois aging long- term care services from institutional to a community-based care. Both projects will enable IDoA to comply with a state legislative mandate to reform long-term care services for older Illinoisans. The RRTCADD will develop a statewide data base of long-term care services through a federally funded three-year Real Choice Systems Change Grant. The web-based system will be a resource for older people, families, and professionals. It will track service need and use and identify local gaps in services across the state. The study will also compare the costs of community based services to nursing home care for individuals with varying levels of impairment. Project findings will enable Illinois to restructure the state’s housing, health, financial assistance and other supportive service delivery systems for older Illinois residents. Alan Factor, Ph.D. is the principal investigator and Paul H. Bennett, MSW is the Project Manager. If you have questions regarding the project, contact Paul H. Bennett at 312-413-1294 or email

The RRTCADD is also evaluating the outcomes of Illinois’ Aging and Disability Resource Center (ADRC) demonstration. The ADRC functions as a single point of entry to facilitate access to long-term care services for older adults and people of all ages with disabilities. Illinois is one of 43 states participating in this initiative which is jointly funded by the Administration on Aging and the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Anticipated outcomes are to reduce service system fragmentation, conduct a more holistic assessment of an individual’s long-term care needs, and reduce nursing home placements. In addition to serving older adults, the Rockford center will serve individuals with developmental disabilities and the Decatur center will serve people with acquired disabilities. If you would like more information, email Alan Factor, the principal investigator, at


Practical Approaches to Working with Adults Aging with I/DD Conference Highlights

Conference on Practical Approaches to Working with Adults Aging with Developmental Disabilities Held in Chicago

The RRTCADD partnered with Easter Seals to host this February 15 conference. It was designed for mid-level program managers and staff who work with individuals with significant intellectual and physical developmental disabilities in center-based and residential settings. Over 120 persons attended.

It covered the latest approaches including curricula for working with adults with developmental disabilities and their families on later life concerns such as promoting health, community inclusion, future planning, accessing benefits, dementia, and dealing with grief and death. Speakers included nationally known practitioners and researchers who have written books and curricula that have advanced practice in aging and developmental disabilities.


Aging and End of Life Issues Conference Highlights

RRTCADD and AAMR Hold Aging and End of Life Issues Conference

The aging of adults with I/DD is making end of life care a reality that needs to be addressed. The RRTCADD and the American Association of Mental Retardation convened the first national conference to initiate a dialogue on end of life care for adults with developmental disabilities. Key issues were the use of palliative and hospice care; the legal, spiritual, and ethical issues pertaining to end of life care; and supporting individuals to cope with grief and loss. The conference was held on December 1-2 in Washington DC, and drew 151 researchers and service providers in the fields of developmental disabilities and aging, health professionals, clergy, medical ethicists, and attorneys. Keynote speaker Harry Moody, Director of Academic Affairs for AARP and Senior Associate with the International Longevity Center – USA, characterized end of life care as “…curing, coping and caring.” Moody emphasized that care—placing trust in someone to provide their desired quality of life – is the essential concern of the terminally ill. Yet family and friends typically find it easier to cope with the terminally ill because caring is difficult to address in the public domain. He charged the audience to mobilize individuals with developmental disabilities and other groups whose voices haven’t been heard on this subject. Power points of the conference presentations can be viewed on the AAMR website at


Highlights of the RRTCADD Second Sibling Conference

RRTCADD Holds Second Sibling Conference

The RRTCADD held its second Sibling Connections Conference on October 22, 2006 at the Center for Enriched Living in suburban Chicago. As parents grow older, adult siblings typically assume greater responsibility for their brothers and sisters well being yet they continue to fall under the radar of community service providers. The Siblings Connection Conference provided adult siblings with much needed information about services, benefits, and residential, legal, and financial future planning. Visit the Sibling Connections Resource Page for more information.


New RRTCADD Resources

Ebensen, A.J., Seltzer, M.M., Greenberg, J.S., and Benson, B.A. (2005). Psychometric evaluation of self-reported measures of depression for individuals with mental retardation, American Journal of Mental Retardation, 110, 469-481.

Hughes, S.L., Prohaska, T.R., Rimmer, J.H., and Heller, T. (2005). Promoting physical activities among older people, Generations, 29(2), 54-59.

Janicki, M.P., Dalton, A.J., McCallion, P., Baxley, D.D., and Zendell, A. (2005). Dementia, 4(3), 361-385.

Heller, T. and Caldwell, J. (2005). Brief research report: Impact of a consumer directed family support program on reduced out-of-home institutional placement, Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 2(1), 63-65.

Rizzolo, M.K. (2005). Brief research report: Determinants of state utilization of public institutions for persons with intellectual disabilities in the United States. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 2(1), 60-62.

Yamaki, K. (2006). Disability research brief: Body weight status of adults with Intellectual disabilities. Chicago: RRTC on Aging with Developmental Disabilities, University of Illinois at Chicago. Can download at no cost from Disability research brief: Body weight status.

Marks, B., Heller, T., Sisirak, J., Hsieh, K. & Pastorfield, C. (2005). Health Promotion Pilot Programs Evaluation: Improving Athletes’ Health – Final Report , Special Olympics International, Washington, DC. This report describes the outcomes of a health promotion program for Special Olympics (SO) athletes at 6 sites. The evaluation focused on health status and health behaviors among SO athletes, program satisfaction among coaches and SO athletes, and process and structural variables associated with implementation of health promotion within the SO organization. For more information, contact Special Olympics at 202-824-0269 or visit the Special Olympics Website.


Other New Resources on I/DD

Encyclopedia of Disability
The encyclopedia is the first authoritative reference resource that examines disability from a medical, political, cultural, and historical context. This five-volume set includes contributions from 500 international scholars. Contact Sage Publications for more information about the encyclopedia and how to order it at 800-818-7243 or visit the Sage Publications Website. The List Price is $850.

Easter Seal’s Project ACTION
The mission of Easter Seal’s Project ACTION- Accessible Community Transportation In Our Nation- is to promote cooperation between the transportation industry and people with disabilities under the Americans with Disabilities ACT (ADA). The Project ACTION Clearinghouse contains resources on transportation for people with disabilities and related topics. All products are can be downloaded from its website or can be ordered free or charge. Other contact information: 800-659-6428 (toll-free), 202-347-7385 (TDD); (email).

A Home for Life: Home Modifications for Aging in Place with an Intellectual Disability
Richard Olsen, PhD. & B. Lynn Hutchings, M.Arch. This new resource guide (December 2005) provides practical solutions for real life obstacles to safety and independence that frequently exist in homes for older people with an Intellectual/Developmental Disability. It also recommends home modifications and assistive technologies for correcting these problems. Content is based on environmental assessments of over 125 people who were aging with a disability. It is published by the Center for Architecture and Building Science Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology. Also available in Spanish. Cost: $11.00 plus $4.00 S&H. For more information and to order contact CABSR at 793-596-3097 (phone); 793-596-8443 (fax).

The Active Aging Tool Kit
The tool kit provides specific interventions and programs to improve the health and functional ability, to promote independence, and to prevent chronic disease in older adults. Visit the First Step To ActiveHealth Website for more information.

Spanish Language NIA Age Pages
The National Institute on Aging publishes a series of easy-to-understand brochures that explain age-related health conditions such as arthritis, diabetes, and hypertension and that address safety issues. Two documents, “Talking with Your Doctor” and “Preventing Falls and Fractures” are now available is Spanish. For more information and ordering these publications, Contact the National Institute on Aging at 800-222-2225 or visit the NIA Publications Website for more information.

Lessons in Grief and Death: Supporting People with Developmental Disabilities in the Healing Process
Linda Van Dyke’s book provides excellent practical suggestions on how to support a person with developmental disabilities who is dealing with grief and loss. For more information and to order, visit the High Tide Press Website for more information.

End- of-Life Care: Bridging Disability and Aging with Person Centered Care
William Gaventa, MDiv. AND David Coulter, M.D., Haworth Press, 2005. Cost: $19.95 (soft cover). Visit the Haworthpress Website for more information.

American Academy of Developmental Medicine and Dentistry (AADMD)
AADMD’s mission is to improve the overall health of individuals with Neurodevelopmental Disorders and /or Intellectual Disabilities. AADMD disseminates specialized medical and dental information to families in language that is easy to understand. For more information email

National Center on Physical Activity and Disability
Video: Autism and Considerations for Participation in Recreational and Physical Activity Settings. The video can be viewed on the NCPAD Webiste.

Key Components of a Successful Health Promotion Program for All individuals, including People with Intellectual/ Developmental Disabilities
To view this article, visit the NCPAD Webiste.

National Goals for Persons with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
This book describes the current knowledge in 12 areas that touch lives of persons with intellectual disabilities from Early Development to Aging. It also contains policy recommendations and identifies emerging issues. The book evolved from the working papers and discussions at The Arc of the US January 2003 invitational conference: “Keeping the Promises.” View the Introduction and Table of Contents on the: AAMR Webiste.

Research Report: Majority of Doctors Not Trained to Treat Health Problems of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities
View report on the Special Olympics Webiste.

… And Justice for All Training Modules
The Institute of Disability Studies at the Mississippi UCEDD produced this training module for law enforcement officials, attorneys, and advocates to better serve people with developmental disabilities within the courts or criminal justice system. For more information, visit The University of Southern Mississippi Institute for Disability Studies Webiste.

Study of Deinstitutionalization Progress
The University of Minnesota’s Research and Training Center on Community Living published an overview of states’ efforts in 2005 to close institutions housing individuals with developmental disabilities. For more information visit the Institute on Community Integration (UCEDD) Website.

Disability and Aging Report
The National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) Report summarizes the 2005 White House Conference on Aging mini conference, “Disability and Aging: Seeking Solutions to Improve Health, Productivity and Community Living,” and presents high-priority recommendations across five policy arenas: social engagement and productivity; healthy long-term living; economic security; assistive technology and universal design; and positive messaging. For a copy visit the White House Conference on Aging Webiste.

A Report: Health Promotion-State of the Science
The AAMR reviews current research on issues impacting the health and well being of individuals with intellectual disabilities. For more information visit the AAMR Webiste.

Guide to Medicare Drug Benefits for Beneficiaries with Disabilities
Advancing Independence and the Georgetown University Health Policy Institute designed this guide to assist Medicare beneficiaries with disabilities and their advocates navigate the Medicare prescription drug benefit program. To access the guide, visit the Kaiser Network Webiste.

UCP One-Stop Resource Guides
United Cerebral Palsy (UCP) developed a comprehensive, one-stop shop of resources for every U.S. state and territory on disability information and resources. To access the guides, visit the UCP Webiste.

Partners in Time: a New Free E-learning Course
Partners in Policy Making released a new e-learning course ”Partners in Time,” to help people with developmental disabilities, their parents, family members and friends, educators, and service providers understand the history of society’s treatment of people with disabilities from ancient times through the present. For more information visit the Partners in Time Webiste.

Website Resources

A one-stop website for disability-related information and resources.

Improved Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services website employing a user-friendly design.

AAMR launched this environmental health initiative to promote good health and reduce disability by forging ground breaking partnerships among the developmental disabilities networks and the environmental health communities.

Syracuse University College of Law: A comprehensive bibliography on international and comparative disability law.

Resources for research on disability in the United States, Center on Access To Disability Data.


RRTCADD People in the News

Essie Pederson, RRTCADD Researcher has been funded by Partners in Policy Making to develop the Southwest Ohio Partners in Policy Making program. The program will educate people with disabilities to be active partners with those who make policy. This partnership will work together to do good things that will make positive changes in the lives of people with disabilities. The program will be offered in three Ohio Counties: Hamilton, Warren, and Butler. To learn more about the program and to apply to participate visit Partners in Policy Making SW Ohio (pdf) (MSWord)

Cliff Poetz, RRTCADD advocate advisor, received the Minnesota Governor’s Award for Leadership in Disability for 2005 on October 27. In a separate honor, the WCCO radio station named Cliff “Good Neighbor of the Day" on October 3 for his 30 years of work in self-advocacy.

Joe Caldwell, RRTCADD Project Director and 2005 AUCD National Policy Fellow, was involved in developing a new bill co-sponsored by Senators DeWine (R-OH) and Kennedy (D-MA), the Community Living Assistance Services and Supports (CLASS) Act. This bill develops a national long term care insurance program, modeled on social insurance programs developed in Europe. Benefits are based on functional need and are consumer directed, cash benefits to purchase long-term care supports including stipends compensating family members for providing care. Joe also was chosen to receive the 2006 Outstanding Student Award from the American Association on Mental Retardation.

Marvin Moss, RRTCADD Advocate Advisor, was one of 20 people in Hamilton County Ohio whose wish to the Cincinnati Wish List was granted. Marvin received $5,000 toward the purchase of a new car. Marvin also shared his experience growing up as an individual with a developmental disability in an in-service for public school teachers sponsored by the Cincinnati Board of Education.

Arthur Campbell, RRTCADD advocate advisor, screened and discussed his Emmy-nominated film, “If I Can’t Do It,” on October 6 in Buffalo, New York. The film depicts his life as an individual with severe cerebral palsy who has come to be a leader in the disability-rights movement. People, Inc., a Buffalo community service agency, invited Arthur to attend its film series to support and promote the new state accredited Museum of disABILITY.

Lorraine Phifer, RRTCADD Advocate Advisor, consulted on how to interview families for the RRTCADD research study on family support.

Tia Nelis, an RRTCADD staff member and national self-advocate, was honored at the 15th anniversary of People First.

Maureen Arcand, RRTCADD Advocate Advisor, has been conducting research on aging with cerebral palsy to document its importance as a priority for the Wisconsin Developmental Disabilities Planning Council.


Someone You Should Know

Joe Caldwell, RRTCADD project director and newly minted Ph.D., recently completed an exciting one-year policy fellowship at the Association of University Centers on Disabilities. Joe discusses his experiences and indicates how RRTCADD research findings were used to develop public policy recommendations:

    I spent the past year as a policy fellow at the Association of University Centers on Disabilities (AUCD) in Washington, DC. It provided an exciting and rewarding opportunity to work with other national disability organizations to advance policy for people with disabilities and their families while I was completing my dissertation on consumer direction. My background in aging and developmental disabilities and interest in long-term care fit well with the timing of several key policy initiatives and developments. This past year, protecting entitlements to Medicaid was a central issue. I worked with the Consortium for Citizens with Disabilities, a coalition of over 100 national disability organizations, and Families USA to oppose cuts and reforms that would be harmful to the health care and long-term support needs of individuals with disabilities. Advocates argued that Medicaid changes that shift additional costs to individuals would undermine families’ ability to support their relatives with disabilities. I was gratified to see advocates use my RRTCADD research findings in letters to members of Congress and in testimony submitted to the Medicaid Commission that families already incur extensive out-of-pocket disability-related expenses for their relative with developmental disabilities.

    My research findings were also used by the AUCD Aging Workgroup to draft a resolution on aging family caregivers that was submitted to the White House Conference on Aging policy committee and to support adding caregivers of adults with developmental disabilities to the National Family Caregiver Support Program in the reauthorization of the Older Americans Act.

    I was also very involved in garnering grassroots and Congressional support for many long-standing legislative priorities for individuals with disabilities and their families in Congress –such as the Money Follows the Person Act, MiCASSA, the Family Opportunity Act, and the Lifespan Respite Care Act. A highlight was working with other aging and disability advocates to develop a new bill co-sponsored by Senators Kennedy (D-MA) and DeWine (R-OH), to establish the Community Living Assistance Services and Supports (CLASS) Act. This bill takes a broad approach to address the future long-term care needs of the United States in light of the aging of the baby boom generation. It develops a national long-term care social insurance program. Consumer directed cash benefits, based on functional need, are used to purchase long-term care supports.

    I finished my dissertation and returned to the University of Illinois at Chicago in January to continue my research interests with the RRTCADD. Overall, the AUCD fellowship was an excellent opportunity to experience first-hand the important role research plays in promoting progressive long-term care policies for people with developmental disabilities. To learn more about AUCD legislative priorities, visit Also, read AUCD’s weekly “In Brief” newsletter on national developments in disability at and visit the legislative information center at http:// where you can learn about the status of key Congressional bills.


Upcoming Events

March 2006

22nd Pac Rim Conference on Disabilities
Honolulu, HI
March 13-16, 2006

The conference will offer educational opportunities and information for those who live and work within the disability community and those who want to learn more about best practices in general.

Contact Information

Joint Annual Conference of the National Council on the Aging and the American Society on Aging
Anaheim, CA
March 16-19, 2006

The conference will focus on investing in aging to strengthen families, benefit communities, and transform ourselves.

Contact Information

April 2006

International Congress on Physical Activity and Public Health
Atlanta, GA
April 17-20, 2006

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Physical Activity and Health Branch, in partnership with the Association of State and Territorial Chronic Disease Program Directors, is sponsoring this conference to commemorate the 10-year anniversary of the release of the U.S. Surgeon General’s Report on Physical Activity and Health; create a forum for researchers and practitioners to interact; and provide a venue for focused communication about current work and advances in the science and practice of physical activity and public health.

Contact Information

35th Midwest Symposium on Therapeutic Recreation and Adapted Physical Activity
Lake Geneva, WI
April 24-26, 2006

For 35 years the Midwest Symposium has offered students, practitioners, researchers, and educators an opportunity to gain new knowledge, research information, and programming techniques to assist practitioners and clients with therapeutic recreation and adapted physical activity.

Contact Information
Conference Office at 573-882-2301, F: 573-882-1953

May 2006

27th Annual YAI International Conference on Developmental and Learning Disabilities
New York City, NY
May 1-5, 2006

Contact Information

International Summit for the Alliance for Social Inclusion of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities
Montreal, Canada
May 2-6, 2006

Contact Information

National Self-Advocacy Conference
Atlanta, GA
May 25-28, 2006

The theme of the conference is “We had a dream, now we have the power.”

Contact Information

Conference on Exercise and Recreational Technologies
Denver, CO
May 30-31, 2006

The conference will bring the most current research, developments, equipment, and applications in exercise and recreation technology for people with disabilities.

Contact Information

June 2006

Society for Disability Studies 19th Annual Conference
Washington, DC
June 14-17, 2006

Contact Information

July 2006

Beit Issie Shapiro’s 4th International Conference on Developmental Disabilities
Tel Aviv, Israel
July 4-6, 2006

The conference will focus on issues of partnerships and alliances with a view to bring about constructive change.

Contact Information

September 2006

5th international Respite Conference
Evry, France
September 26-28, 2006

The conference will focus on issues of partnerships and alliances with a view to bring about constructive change.

Contact Information


Master of Science Program in Disability and Human Development

The Department of Disability and Human Development, University of Illinois at Chicago, offers a master of science in disability and human development to prepare students for leadership positions in human service organizations as well as to develop fundamental skills of research and scholarship in the disability field. The curriculum examines disability and human development across the life span with an emphasis on understanding the complex cultural, legal, programmatic, and theoretical context of disability in society. Study and research are available in two areas of specialization: social policy and rehabilitation technology. The program articulates closely with the College of Applied Health Sciences' interdepartmental Ph.D. program in Disability Studies. For additional information and materials, please contact us at: Department of Disability and Human Development (MC 626) University of Illinois at Chicago 1640 W. Roosevelt Road, room #436, Chicago, IL 60608-6904 Phone (312) 413-1647; TDD (312) 413-0453; Fax (312) 413-1630. Visit the website at: or email:

Contact Us

For more information on RRTCADD, please visit our website at For information on Training and Technical Assistance, Products or Personnel, please contact us at: 1-800-996-8845, 1-312-413-0453 (TTY), 1-800-526-0844 (IL Relay), 1-312-996-6942 (Fax), or e-mail us at Alan Factor, PhD, Editor.


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The RRTCADD is funded by the United States Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, grant #H133B031134. The content of this newsletter does not necessarily represent the policy of the U.S. Department of Education and should not be viewed as an endorsement by the Federal government.

Links to articles appearing on other sites or sources are subject to the reproduction rules of those sites or sources. All other articles appearing in this newsletter are copyrighted by Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois (2003) unless otherwise noted. These articles may be freely distributed electronically provided that they are distributed in their entirety and include the following notice: “This article originally appeared in The ADDVantage, Volume 2, Issue 1, and date. It may be freely distributed electronically as long as it includes this notice but cannot be edited, modified, or distributed in other form(s) without the express written permission of RRTCADD. Write to for additional details.” Any other use of the materials in ADDVantage or on the ADDVantage Website at, including modification or re-publication without our prior written permission is strictly prohibited. This includes, but is not limited to, posting to another Website.


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