UIC AIDS International Training & Research Program (AITRP) UIC AIDS International Training & Research Program (AITRP) UIC AIDS International Training & Research Program (AITRP) UIC School of Public Health


Chile

Chile

square Total Population = 16,970,000
square Population growth rate: 0.9% (UN, 2011)
square Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births
square Gross National Income per capita: $13,250 USD
square Adult literacy rate (age 10 and over can read and write): 99% (UN, 2011)
square Life expectancy at birth:
 
  • total population:  79 years
  • male:  76 years
  • female:  82 years
square HIV/AIDS
 
  • Adults living with HIV: 39,000
  • Deaths: < 1000

In Chile, the first case of HIV was diagnosed in 1984. Since then there have been an increasing number of cases detected. Chile is considered to be at an incipient epidemic level. In 2004, the incidence was 103 per 100,000 people. From January 1984 to December 2004, there were 14,611 HIV and AIDS cases, and 5,043 deaths were attributed to complications due AIDS (MINSAL, 2006).

The major route of HIV transmission is due to unprotected  sex (92%) followed by unknown cause (5%), drug use (3%), and mother to child vertical transmission  (1% ) respectively (Martínez, Olea, & Chiu, 2006). The median age of diagnosis was 31(Pérez et al., 1999) and more than 70% of people living with HIV/AIDS(PWHA) live in the city of Santiago (Martínez, Olea, & Chiu, 2006).

Since 2003, the Chilean Ministry of Health has provided free highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (CONASIDA, 2003; Wolff et al., 2005). The increased availability and provision of HAART has radically changed the prognosis of HIV. People who are HIV-positive are now living longer without complications due AIDS. HIV is now seen a chronic disease in Chile. HAART has effectively decreased the mortality, major HIV-related complications, and the frequency of hospitalizations (Wolff et al., 2001).

References

CONASIDA. (2003). Evaluación del impacto de una política pública: Ampliación del acceso a terapia antiretroviral en Chile [Impact evaluation of public policy: Expanding access to antiretroviral therapy]. Revista chilena de infectología, 20(4), 277-284.

García, M., & Olea, A. (2008). Evolución y situación epidemiológica de la infección por virus de inmunodeficiencia humana y síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida en Chile [Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDS in Chile]. Revista Chilena de Infectología, 25(3), 162-170.

Martínez, P., Olea, A., & Chiu, M. (2006). Situación epidemiológica de la infección por VIH y el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida en Chile. [Epidemiology of HIV infection and acquired immunedeficiency disease syndrome in Chile]. Revista Chilena de Infectología, 23(4), 321-329.

MINSAL. (2006). Situación epidemiológica de VIH/SIDA, Chile 1984-2004. [HIV/AIDS epidemiologic situation, Chile 1984-2004]. Retrieved January 12, 2009. from http://epi.minsal.cl/epi/html/bolets/reportes/SitVIHSIDA2004.pdf.

Pérez, C., Vidal, P., Dorman, K. S., Wang, G., Wang, G., Abarca, K., et al. (1999). Epidemiología molecular del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana tipo 1 en Santiago, Chile. [Molecula epidemiology of the human inmunodeficiency virus tipe 1 in Santiago, Chile]. Revista médica de Chile, 127(11), 1497-1500.

United Nations (2011).Table 1c: Population growth and distribution. Accessed on March 28, 2012. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/

United Nation (2011). Table 4a: Literacy. Access on March 28, 2012. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/

Wolff, M. J., Beltran, C. J., Vasquez, P., Ayala, M. X., Valenzuela, M., Berrios, G., et al. (2005). The Chilean AIDS cohort: A model for evaluating the impact of an expanded access program to antiretroviral therapy in a middle-income country--organization and preliminary results. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999), 40(5), 551-557.

Wolff, M. J., Diomedi, A., Morales, O., Bidar, T., Dabanch, J., Bustamente, C., et al. (2001). Seguimiento prospectivo de una población infectada por VIH con y sin posibilidades de terapia anti-retroviral: Impacto en sobrevida y complicaciones [Prospective follow-up of HIV positive patients with and without access to antiretroviral therapy: Survival and complications]. Revista Médica de Chile, 129(8), 886-894.

 
Last Updated: March, 2012